Now showing items 21-40 of 11501

    • Association of Race, Substance Abuse, and Health Insurance Coverage With Use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Women, 2005

      Lillie-Blanton, Marsha; Stone, Valerie E.; Snow Jones, Alison; Levi, Jeffrey; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Hessol, Nancy A.; Wilson, Tracey E. (American Public Health Association, 2010-08)
      Objectives: We examined racial/ethnic disparities in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use and whether differences are moderated by substance use or insurance status, using data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods: Logistic regression examined HAART use in a longitudinal cohort of women for whom HAART was clinically indicated in 2005 (N = 1354). Results: Approximately 3 of every 10 eligible women reported not taking HAART. African American and Hispanic women were less likely than were White women to use HAART. After we adjusted for potential confounders, the higher likelihood of not using HAART persisted for African American but not for Hispanic women. Uninsured and privately insured women, regardless of race/ethnicity, were less likely than were Medicaid enrollees to use HAART. Although alcohol use was related to HAART nonuse, illicit drug use was not. Conclusions: These findings suggest that expanding and improving insurance coverage should increase access to antiretroviral therapy across racial/ethnic groups, but it is not likely to eliminate the disparity in use of HAART between African American and White women with HIV/AIDS.
    • Psychosocial Characteristics and Sexual Behaviors of People in Care for HIV Infection: An Examination of Men Who Have Sex with Men, Heterosexual Men and Women

      Golin, Carol; Marks, Gary; Wright, Julie; Gerkovich, Mary; Tien, Hsiao-Chuan; Patel, Shilpa N.; Gardner, Lytt; O’Daniels, Christine; Wilson, Tracey E.; Thrun, Mark; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2009-09-11)
      Few studies have examined the psychosocial factors associated with sexual transmission behaviors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), heterosexual men (MSW) and women. We enrolled 1,050 sexually active HIV-positive patients at seven HIV clinics in six US cities as part of a clinic-based behavioral intervention. We describe the sexual transmission behaviors and examine demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and clinic prevention variables associated with unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse (UAVI). Twenty-three percent of MSM, 12.3% of MSW and 27.8% of women engaged in UAVI with partners perceived to be HIV-negative or of unknown serostatus. Among MSM and MSW, having multiple partners and lower self-efficacy were associated with increased odds of UAVI. Self-rating one's health status as excellent/very good was a risk factor for UAVI among MSM. Among women, binge drinking and stressful life events were associated with UAVI. These findings identify variables that warrant attention in targeted interventions.
    • Knowledge of cervical cancer prevention and human papillomavirus among women with HIV

      Massad, L. Stewart; Evans, Charlesnika T.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Goderre, Johanna L.; Hessol, Nancy A.; Henry, Donna; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Watts, D. Heather; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2010-04)
      Objective: To assess knowledge of and attitudes towards human papillomavirus (HPV), Pap testing, and the HPV vaccine. Methods: In a multicenter U.S. cohort study, women with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and at-risk comparison women completed 44-item standardized self-report questionnaires exploring their knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and HPV vaccination. Results were correlated with demographic variables, measures of education and attention, and medical factors. Data were clustered using principal component analysis. Significant associations were assessed in multivariable models. Results: Among 1588 women, HIV seropositive women better understood facts about cervical cancer prevention and HPV than seronegative women, but both had substantial knowledge deficits. Almost all women considered Pap testing important, although 53% of HIV seropositive and 48% of seronegative women considered cervical cancer not preventable (P=0.21). Only 44% of HIV seropositive women knew Paps assess the cervix, versus 42% of HIV seronegative women (P=0.57). Both groups understood that HPV causes genital warts and cervical cancer (67% of HIV seropositive vs. 55% of seronegative women, P=0.002). About half of both groups considered HPV vaccination extremely important for cervical cancer prevention. HIV seronegative women were more likely to report learning of HPV vaccination through advertising than from clinicians (81% vs. 64%, P<0.0001). Conclusion: High risk women need effective education about cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and HPV vaccination.
    • Multi-dimensional risk factor patterns associated with non-use of highly active antiretroviral therapy among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.

      Jones, Alison Snow; Lillie-Blanton, Marsha; Stone, Valerie E; Ip, Edward H; Zhang, Qiang; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; Hessol, Nancy A (2010-06-25)
      Objectives: Relationships between non-use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), race/ethnicity, violence, drug use, and other risk factors are investigated using qualitative profiles of five risk factors (unprotected sex, multiple male partners, heavy drinking, crack, cocaine or heroin use, and exposure to physical violence) and association of the profiles and race/ethnicity with non-use of HAART over time.
    • HIV Infection and Women's Sexual Functioning

      Wilson, Tracey E; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Schwartz, Rebecca; Golub, Elizabeth T; Cohen, Mardge H; Maki, Pauline; Greenblatt, Ruth; Massad, L Stewart; Robison, Esther; Goparaju, Lakshmi; et al. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2010-08-01)
      Objective: To compare sexual problems among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women and describe clinical and psychosocial factors associated with these problems. Design: Data were collected during a study visit of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The WIHS studies the natural and treated history of HIV among women in the United States. Methods: Between October 01, 2006, and March 30, 2007, 1805 women (1279 HIV positive and 526 HIV negative) completed a study visit that included administration of the Female Sexual Function Index. In addition, the visit included completion of standardized interviewer-administered surveys, physical and gynecological examinations, and blood sample collection. Results: Women with HIV reported greater sexual problems than did those without HIV. Women also reported lower sexual function if they were classified as menopausal, had symptoms indicative of depression, or if they reported not being in a relationship. CD4 cell count was associated with Female Sexual Function Index scores, such that those with CD4 <or=199 cells per microliter reported lower functioning as compared with those whose cell count was 200 or higher. Conclusions: Given research documenting relationships between self-reported sexual problems and both clinical diagnoses of sexual dysfunction and women's quality of life, greater attention to this issue as a potential component of women's overall HIV care is warranted.
    • Changes in Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Prevention and Human Papillomavirus Among Women With Human Immunodeficiency Virus

      Massad, L. Stewart; Evans, Charlesnika T.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Goderre, Johanna L.; Hessol, Nancy A.; Henry, Donna; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.; Watts, D. Heather; Wilson, Tracey E. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2010-10)
      Objective: To estimate changes in high-risk women's knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccination since introduction and marketing of HPV vaccines. Methods: At study visits in 2007 and 2008-2009, women with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and at-risk comparison women in a multicenter U.S. cohort study completed 44-item self-report questionnaires exploring their knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and HPV vaccination. Results from 2007 were compared with those obtained in 2008-2009. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic variables, measures of education and attention, and medical factors. Significant associations were assessed in multivariable models. Results: HIV-seropositive women had higher knowledge scores than seronegative women at baseline (13.2 ± 5.7 compared with 11.8 ± 6.0, P < .001) and follow-up (14.1 ± 5.3 compared with 13.2 ± 5.5, P = .01), but the change in scores was similar (0.9 ± 5.3 compared with 1.5 ± 5.5, P = .13). Knowledge that cervical cancer is caused by a virus rose significantly (P = .005), but only to 24%. Belief that cervical cancer is preventable only rose from 52% to 55% (P = .04), but more than 90% of women in both periods believed regular Pap testing was important. In analysis of covariance models, higher baseline score, younger age, higher education level, higher income, and former- as opposed to never-drug users, but not HIV status, were associated with improved knowledge. Conclusion: High-risk women's understanding of cervical cancer and HPV has improved, but gaps remain. Improvement has been weakest for less educated and lower-income women. Level of evidence: II.
    • The spectrum of engagement in HIV care: do more than 19% of HIV-infected persons in the US have undetectable viral load?

      Marks, Gary; Gardner, Lytt I; Craw, Jason; Giordano, Thomas P; Mugavero, Michael J; Keruly, Jeanne C; Wilson, Tracey E; Metsch, Lisa R; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Malitz, Faye (2011-10-05)
    • Sexual Serosorting among Women with or at Risk of HIV Infection

      Liu, Chenglong; Hu, Haihong; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Plankey, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Weber, Kathleen; Correa, Nereida; Nowicki, Marek; Wilson, Tracey E. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2010-05-19)
      Serosorting, the practice of selectively engaging in unprotected sex with partners of the same HIV serostatus, has been proposed as a strategy for reducing HIV transmission risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, there is a paucity of scientific evidence regarding whether women engage in serosorting. We analyzed longitudinal data on women's sexual behavior with male partners collected in the Women's Interagency HIV Study from 2001 to 2005. Serosorting was defined as an increasing trend of unprotected anal or vaginal sex (UAVI) within seroconcordant partnerships over time, more frequent UAVI within seroconcordant partnerships compared to non-concordant partnerships, or having UAVI only with seroconcordant partners. Repeated measures Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations between serostatus partnerships and UAVI among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. The study sample consisted of 1,602 HIV-infected and 664 HIV-uninfected women. Over the follow-up period, the frequency of seroconcordant partnerships increased for HIV-uninfected women but the prevalence of UAVI within seroconcordant partnerships remained stable. UAVI was reported more frequently within HIV seroconcordant partnerships than among serodiscordant or unknown serostatus partnerships, regardless of the participant's HIV status or types of partners. Among women with both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected partners, 41% (63 HIV-infected and 9 HIV-uninfected) were having UAVI only with seroconcordant partners. Our analyses suggest that serosorting is occurring among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in this cohort.
    • Contexts of risk and networks of protection: NYC West Indian immigrants' perceptions of migration and vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases.

      Hoffman, Susie; Higgins, Jenny A; Beckford-Jarrett, Sharlene T; Augenbraun, Michael; Bylander, Kimberly E; Mantell, Joanne E; Wilson, Tracey E (2011-05)
      To generate insights into how migration shapes sexual risk and protection, we interviewed 36 female and 20 male West Indian immigrants attending a public sexually transmitted disease clinic in Brooklyn, New York, between 2004 and 2005. Migration theory suggests that shifts in sexual partnership patterns, bi-directional travel and changes in sexual norms may alter risk. We found evidence of sexual mixing across ethnic groups: a large proportion of participants' partners were not born in the West Indies, despite what is expected among first generation immigrants. Recent travel 'home', another potential source of risk, was uncommon. In open-ended interviews, two themes around sexual and social networks emerged. First, immigrants believed that access to wider, more anonymous sexual networks in New York City (NYC) and the weakening of social controls that limit multiple partnerships (especially for women) promoted greater risk. Second, immigrants experienced greater opportunities for protection in NYC, both through exposure to safer sex messages and availability of condoms. Reported changes in their own condom use, however, were not attributed to migration. West Indian immigrants' risk in NYC may be driven by access to wider sexual networks but failure to alter reliance on 'networks of knowledge' for protection.
    • Chronic depressive symptoms and Framingham coronary risk in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women

      Schwartz, Rebecca M.; Mansoor, Ather; Wilson, Tracey E.; Anastos, Kathryn; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Hessol, Nancy A.; Mack, Wendy J.; Lazar, Jason (Informa UK Limited, 2011-09-09)
      Depression is common in people with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and those with HIV, and is a risk factor for CVD-related mortality. However, little is known about whether HIV influences the relationship between depression and cardiovascular risk. A total of 526 HIV-infected and 132 uninfected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study were included in an analysis of women who completed twice-yearly study visits over 9.5 years. CVD risk was calculated at baseline and approximately 9.5 years later using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Chronic depressive symptoms were defined as Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores of 16 or greater at ≥75% of study visits. Over the follow-up period, 22.8% of HIV-infected women and 15.9% of HIV-uninfected women had chronic depressive symptoms (p=0.08). Baseline FRS was similar between HIV-infected and uninfected women (M=-5.70 ± SE=0.30 vs. M=-6.90 ± SE=0.60, p=0.07) as was follow-up FRS (M=0.82 ± SE=0.30 vs. M=-0.44 ± SE=0.73, p=0.11). Among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, together, follow-up FRS was higher among women with chronic depressive symptoms as compared to those without (M=1.3 ± SE=0.6 vs. M=-0.3 ± SE=0.40, p<0.01), after adjusting for baseline FRS and other covariates. HIV status did not modify the relationship between chronic depressive symptoms and FRS. Chronic depressive symptoms accelerated CVD risk scores to a similar extent in both HIV-infected and-uninfected women. This implies that the diagnosis and treatment of depression may be an important consideration in CV risk reduction in the setting of HIV-infection. The determination of factors that mediate the depression/CVD relationship merits further study.
    • Insomnia Symptoms and HIV Infection among Participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study

      Jean-Louis, Girardin; Weber, Kathleen M.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Maki, Pauline M.; Liu, Chenglong; Anastos, Kathryn M.; Milam, Joel; Althoff, Keri N.; Wilson, Tracey E. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2012-01-01)
      Objectives: This study assessed the prevalence of insomnia symptoms among women with and without HIV-infection and examined factors associated with insomnia. Design: Participants (n = 1682) were enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS); 69% were infected with HIV. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from standardized interviewer-administered instruments and physical/gynecological exams. Analysis focused on sociodemographics, sleep measures, depressive symptoms, drug use, alcohol consumption, medications, and HIV-related clinical variables. Women were classified as having symptoms of insomnia if they reported either difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, or early morning awakening ≥ 3 times a week in the past 2 weeks. Results: Overall, HIV-infected women were 17% more likely to endorse insomnia symptoms than uninfected women (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04-1.34, P < 0.05). The adjusted prevalence of insomnia symptoms varied by HIV status and age groups. Among women ages 31-40 years, those with HIV infection were 26% more likely to endorse insomnia symptoms than their counterparts (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59, P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the likelihood of reporting insomnia symptoms based on HIV treatment type. Multivariate-adjusted regression analyses showed that depression was the most consistent and significant independent predictor of the likelihood of reporting insomnia symptoms across all age strata. Conclusions: Insomnia symptoms are common among both HIV-infected and uninfected women. Prevalence of insomnia did not vary significantly by HIV status, except among younger women. Younger women with HIV infection are at greater risk for experiencing insomnia symptoms.
    • Correlating Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Prevention and Human Papillomavirus With Compliance After Colposcopy Referral

      Massad, L. Stewart; Weber, Kathleen M.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Goderre, Johanna L.; Hessol, Nancy A.; Henry, Donna; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Watts, D. Heather; et al. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2012-04)
      Objective: This study aimed to assess the impact of knowledge of cervical cancer biology and prevention as well as noncognitive measures on compliance with colposcopy referral in a high-risk population. Methods: Participants in a US cohort of women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and at-risk comparison women completed behavior questionnaires and instruments measuring knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, depressive symptoms, trust in physicians, and perceived stress. Examinations including Pap tests also were conducted. Associations with compliance with resulting indicated colposcopy were assessed in multivariable models. Results: Of 326 women with indicated colposcopy, 222 (68%) were compliant with colposcopy referral and 104 (32%) were noncompliant. In multivariable analysis, better colposcopy compliance was associated with less education (odds ratio [OR] for compliance = 2.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-4.51 vs more than high school), previous abnormal Pap result (OR per previous abnormal Pap result = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.01-1.15), study site (OR for site with best vs worst compliance = 16.1, 95% CI = 2.91-88.6), and higher stress (OR for perceived stress scale 10 score >16 vs lower 3.25, 95% CI = 1.45-7.26). Conclusions: Noncognitive factors and how sites manage abnormal Pap testing affect colposcopy compliance. Educational interventions alone are unlikely to improve colposcopy compliance in similar high-risk populations.
    • A Low-Effort, Clinic-Wide Intervention Improves Attendance for HIV Primary Care

      Gardner, L. I.; Marks, G.; Craw, J. A.; Wilson, T. E.; Drainoni, M.-L.; Moore, R. D.; Mugavero, M. J.; Rodriguez, A. E.; Bradley-Springer, L. A.; Holman, S.; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2012-07-24)
      Background: Retention in care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is a National HIV/AIDS Strategy priority. We hypothesized that retention could be improved with coordinated messages to encourage patients' clinic attendance. We report here the results of the first phase of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration Retention in Care project. Methods: Six HIV-specialty clinics participated in a cross-sectionally sampled pretest-posttest evaluation of brochures, posters, and messages that conveyed the importance of regular clinic attendance. 10,018 patients in 2008-2009 (preintervention period) and 11,039 patients in 2009-2010 (intervention period) were followed up for clinic attendance. Outcome variables were the percentage of patients who kept 2 consecutive primary care visits and the mean proportion of all primary care visits kept. Stratification variables were: new, reengaging, and active patients, HIV RNA viral load, CD4 cell count, age, sex, race or ethnicity, risk group, number of scheduled visits, and clinic site. Data were analyzed by multivariable log-binomial and linear models using generalized estimation equation methods. Results: Clinic attendance for primary care was significantly higher in the intervention versus preintervention year. Overall relative improvement was 7.0% for keeping 2 consecutive visits and 3.0% for the mean proportion of all visits kept (P < .0001). Larger relative improvement for both outcomes was observed for new or reengaging patients, young patients and patients with elevated viral loads. Improved attendance among the new or reengaging patients was consistent across the 6 clinics, and less consistent across clinics for active patients. Conclusion: Targeted messages on staying in care, which were delivered at minimal effort and cost, improved clinic attendance, especially for new or reengaging patients, young patients, and those with elevated viral loads.
    • Trends in contraceptive use among women with human immunodeficiency virus.

      Sun, Mengyang; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Zhao, Qiuhong; Wilson, Tracey E; Weber, Kathleen M; Sanchez-Keeland, Lorraine; Dʼsouza, Gypsyamber; Young, Mary; Watts, D Heather; Keller, Marla J; et al. (2012-10)
      Objective: To estimate trends in contraceptive use, especially long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and condoms, among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women.
    • Medicinal and recreational marijuana use among HIV-infected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) cohort, 1994-2010.

      Dʼsouza, Gypsyamber; Matson, Pamela A; Grady, Cynthia D; Nahvi, Shadi; Merenstein, Dan; Weber, Kathleen M; Greenblatt, Ruth; Burian, Pam; Wilson, Tracey E (2012-12-15)
      Background: Despite the major benefits of effective antiretroviral therapy on HIV-related survival, there is an ongoing need to help alleviate medication side effects related to antiretroviral therapy use. Initial studies suggest that marijuana use may reduce HIV-related symptoms, but medical marijuana use among HIV-infected individuals has not been well described.
    • Measuring retention in HIV care: the elusive gold standard.

      Mugavero, Michael J; Westfall, Andrew O; Zinski, Anne; Davila, Jessica; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Gardner, Lytt I; Keruly, Jeanne C; Malitz, Faye; Marks, Gary; Metsch, Lisa; et al. (2012-12-15)
      Background: Measuring retention in HIV primary care is complex, as care includes multiple visits scheduled at varying intervals over time. We evaluated 6 commonly used retention measures in predicting viral load (VL) suppression and the correlation among measures.
    • The Intersection of Monty Python and Kantian Theory: A Digression

      Livan, Mela (SUNY Brockport, 2022-08)
      s the part of the paper in which we should provide a brief synopsis of the entirety, that is the whole and complete, reason for and information contained within the paper so that a person could quickly decide whether it was worth wasting any of their valuable time (that is, time during which they would be scrolling social media, swiping left or right, or engaging in highly ritualistic slaughter fests of the online hyper-realistic variety).
    • Computer Programming: A Brief History

      Mckay, Samuel (2018)
      The idea of the modern computer can be traced back to the work of Alan Turing, a mathematician from England. Turing wrote a paper published in 1937 which utilized theoretical “universal computing machines” to solve computational problems. These machines are now known as Turing Machines. Subsequently, programmable models of computation were created by inventor Konrad Zuse in the 1940s. In the 1950s, the IBM Corporation had created a model called the IBM 704. These early models of computers had to be programmed using machine instructions and assembly language. Breakthroughs in programming began with the language of FORTRAN in 1953, and shortly thereafter with iterations of ALGOL, COBOL and LISP. Over time, computers got smaller and faster, and programming languages got more efficient and effective at being useful tools for the creation of programs, by analyzing and synthesizing properties of prior languages. This essay examines a history of programming languages beginning with FORTRAN and advancing all the way to Rust.
    • Subliminal Advertising & Semiotic Marketing; Selling The Sole  

      Rivera, Ryan (2018)
      In this study, I will explore how Sneaker culture came to be and how the marketing of sneakers to the youth became both a fun lifestyle which in the beginning embraced community and promoted individualism to a problematic hobby that has claimed a number of lives and boasts wealth to the have-nots. By learning the history and current advertising of sneakers we can get a glimpse into what the average sneaker consumer and enthusiast may be thinking and feeling regarding what some may deem as a way of life.
    • #FoodPorn

      Everette, Amirah (2018)
      My original analysis consisted of examining social media’s implications of food and its subcultures. Although the intention was to discuss food subcultures and how food porn became a viral trend, after analyzing the research, my results were unexpectedly different. Food porn is not only a trend but a result of the implication of advertisement and how these images stimulate other commodities than just persuasion. Advertisement and marketing companies have helped build recipes for how food should be portrayed. Users on social media platforms like Instagram have used sugar, spice, and everything nice to create an updated recipe for essential food promotion with a pornographic twist. While this seems absurd, viewers have been caught in the gaze unknowingly due to the discreet obscene promotion. This analysis has helped me view the trend of food porn in a unique way that I did not reckon before. Rather than originally focusing on the act of food porn I have honed in on a perspective of how the images have impacted the media and users of the media.