• Magnesium Oxide Tunneling Current and Ferromagnetic Film Characterization

      Bull, Horace (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 2016-05-01)
      Magnetic Tunnel Junctions are a very promising technology with the potential to replace numerous forms of computer memory a well as a wide range of other applications. Three novel studies are done demonstrating various aspects of MTJ design and manufacturing showing their importance in understanding device performance. First, a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) study comparing Co40Fe40B20 and Co20Fe60B20 films of varying thicknesses between 0.6 nm and 3.2 nm is reported. Greater iron content is shown to increase the overall magnetic moment of the samples. Second, a Current in Plane Tunneling (CIPT) study is done showing the dependence Magnetoresistance (MR) has on the thickness of the MTJ free layer and the crystallinity of the active region of devices. A full MTJ device stack is developed, with free layer thicknesses from 0.6-1.75 nm and 1.5-3.3 nm creating a wedge profile on each sample wafer. CIPT shows a significant increase to MR with anneal, verifying the presence of the [001] crystal structure in post anneal samples using TEM. Third, Ta/Co40Fe40B20/MgO/Co40Fe40B20/Ta thin film metal-insulator-metal capacitors were developed to measure the tunneling effect and how it changes as a result of MgO thickness and CoFeB crystallinity. Devices were designed with: varied MgO thickness from 0.5 nm to 2 nm thick, with pre and post anneal CoFeB. Current-Voltage data was collected and device resistance was found to have a linear dependence on MgO thickness in the post anneal CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB samples. The uniformity of the IV data indicates potential for use monitoring devices during MTJ manufacturing.
    • Managing Social Media in Half the Time: Creating an Infographic for Small Businesses

      Hazen, Kimberly; Lizardi, Ryan; First Reader; Yucel, Ibrahim; Second Reader (2017-12)
      Research suggests that social media is arguably more important for small businesses because they often lack the traditional resources to market their products or services. However, it is often difficult for small businesses managers to implement social media due to the many demands on their time and limited staff. The infographic visually displays the tools small businesses can use to save time when implementing social media, through an interactive longform infographic designed specifically for the web. This paper explores how small businesses use social media; the hurdles small businesses face when implementing social media; and how different social media platforms speak to different demographics. It also provides an overview of the design process, the project’s production, and the design rules that were used in the creation and design of the infographic. In addition, it will include a project analysis with the challenges involved in the project and the project’s limitations. It also suggests future project directions related to this topic.
    • Mapping, Implementing, and Programming Spiking Neural Networks

      Cady, Nathaniel; Chair; Cafaro, Carlo; LaBella, Vincent; Oktyabrsky, Serge; Plank, James; External Committee Member; Olin-Ammentorp, Wilkie (2019-03)
      Computer architectures inspired by biological neural networks are currently an area of growing interest, due to immense utility of these systems which is shown by their near-ubiquity within animals. An essential aspect of these systems is their ability to compute through the exchange of temporal events called ‘spikes.’ However, many aspects of biological computation remain unknown. To improve our ability to measure neural systems, we create an efficient implementation and statistical testing method to calculate an information-theory based metric, transfer entropy, on signals recorded from cultures of neurons. Taking inspiration from established knowledge regarding biological neurons, we investigate the impact which stochastic behavior has on the robustness of spiking networks when their synaptic weights are inaccurate. We find that a level of stochasticity can help improve this robustness. Lastly, we investigate methods of creating programs for spike-based computation through evolutionary optimization methods, and identify opportunities and challenges in this area.
    • MAXIMIZING THE CHEMICAL REMOVAL OF CERIA ABRASIVES IN CMP FOR SILICON OXIDE AND METAL POLISHING

      Thiel, Brad; Defense Committee; Carpenter, Michael; Defense Committee; Borst, Christopher; Defense Committee; Hatzistergos, Michael; Defense Committee; Dunn, Kathleen; Committee Chair; Netzband, Christopher M. (2020-08)
      Cerium oxide or ceria has garnered a wide range of applications due to its redox active nature. This redox activity is due to oxygen vacancies on the surface of the ceria creating a layer of mixed oxide with the unstable oxide Ce2O3 (Ce[superscript 3+]) present at the same time as the bulk oxide CeO2 (Ce[superscript 4+]). Possible applications for ceria include water splitting, oxidation of carbon monoxide, oxidation of reactive oxygen species and polishing of glass films. In recent years, ceria nanoparticles have been used for polishing thermal silicon oxide during the early steps of semiconductor fabrication in a process referred to as chemical mechanical planarization (CMP). The advantage of these particles is their ability to abrade an oxide surface chemically using the aforementioned redox properties, as well as mechanically. To meet the needs of manufacturing, mainly removal rate and surface roughness, the particles used must have well controlled physical properties such as size and shape for mechanical removal and ratio of cerium oxidation state for chemical removal. This study encompasses three parts following the design of ceria slurries, their implementation in the existing silicon oxide polish and applying these findings to create novel slurries for polishing metals. To design ceria slurry, the ratio of Ce[superscript 3+]/Ce[superscript 4+] on the surface of abrasive was maximized by altering the slurries’ chemical environment. Maximizing this ratio increases the proportion of active Ce[superscript 3+] sites which participate in removal reactions. The effect of chemical environment on the Ce[superscript 3+]/Ce[superscript 4+] ratio was determined through XPS analysis of the Ce 3d spectrum. The knowledge gained in this first section informed the design of ceria slurries for the following two parts to maximize their effectiveness. The second part of this thesis applies this knowledge to create ceria iv slurries that polished thermal oxide with higher material removal rate (MRR) and lower postpolish roughness than slurries that are currently being used in industry. The basis of ceria polishing is known as the tooth-comb model. In this model oxygen at Ce[superscript 3+] sites will undergo a condensation reaction with oxygen on the surface to be polished. As the particle leaves this will rip material off of the wafer surface. While the tooth-comb model was proposed for polishing silica, the final part of this thesis seeks to generalize it to encompass polishing any oxide given the correct conditions. To demonstrate this, I created ceria slurries to polish metals relevant to the semiconductor industry (copper, tungsten and ruthenium) with polishing metrics that equal or exceed those of industry standard slurries.
    • Measuring the incessant need of Social Media as a marketing and communication tool in a small camp business.

      Brown, Darilyn (2014-12-01)
      This project was created to examine Facebook, Twitter, and Constant Contact as a communication and marketing tool in a small camp business. Upon revealing how the three tools contribute to the businesses marketing and communication efforts, a social media strategy plan will be created based on the results. As social media and email marketing are said to have many effects on a company, primarily positive and beneficial, this research takes an unbiased approach to how it contributes to the business’ marketing and communication efforts. The Human Centered Design and Social Presence Theory will be used to help illustrate how my proposed social media strategy can be implemented to create an optimal user experience. Qualitative methods will also be utilized in the research and review of the business’ online marketing and communication activity. The overall goal of the project is to review how Facebook, Twitter, and Constant Contact on tribute to a business, how the business utilizes the platforms it is provided, and finally how these platforms can/should be used by creating a proposed social media strategy.
    • Microsoft Office 365 and SharePoint as an Educational Platform

      Crosby, Kenneth M.; Kahn, Russell; Thesis Adviser; Schneider, Steven; Second Thesis Adviser (2018-05)
      This study looks at social constructivist learning theory and andragogy as a means of evaluating Microsoft Office 365® and SharePoint® as a platform for delivering online classes in the basic use of SharePoint to an audience of adult learners (New York State employees). The already wide access within New York State agencies to Office 365 and SharePoint makes it a good candidate for examination. If successful, online learning utilizing Office 365 would help to eliminate the geographical and existing software barriers to delivering occupational training to the more than 130,000 employees. Social constructivist and andragogical learning theories were examined, and key elements identified to establish criteria to aid in evaluating Office 365, and potentially other platforms not specifically geared toward online education. Means of facilitating reflection, metacognition, sociocultural learning, prior and authentic experiences, and generative learning strategies were looked for in addition to support of Malcolm Knowles’ andragogical assumptions. Through prototyping and pilot testing of Office 365’s functionality and features, several affordances were able to be made in support of criteria gathered from the literature review. Areas of strength and weakness as a platform for the delivery of online learning were identified in this process. Its success would vary based on the type of learning. Technical courses and corporate training would be more successful than a soft-skill or creative subject. Out of the box SharePoint provides most of the needed functionality to deliver content but, lacks elements such as a grading system.
    • A Mobile Application for a Growing Utica Comets Community

      MacIntosh, Jessica; Kahn, Russel; Adviser; Schneider, Steven; Reviewer (2016-05-01)
      This research project is a prototype of a mobile application that would be dedicated to the Utica Comet hockey community and its team through the use of special fan features to give the area a sense of belonging. The development of this application uses the human-centered design theory as well a hierarchy of needs, which were incorporated into the design of the app. The mobile app was created using a web design program within the Adobe Creative Suite. This research paper looks into the need to clarify the concepts of community, belonging and social identification within the sport of hockey. As the target users, their needs and wants are determined. It then details the concepts of creating an app, which are assessed and applied to the prototype.
    • Mobile Strategy Plan for Higher Education

      DeFranco, Tony (2011-08-01)
      The study investigates what is involved in the development of a mobile strategy for a college. In addressing this question, the thesis contains three parts. First, was a request for proposal (RFP); next, was a consultant’s proposal in response to the RFP; and the third part was an evaluative document explaining and reflecting on the writing process. There are four key issues in developing a mobile strategy. The first issue is to create a device-agnostic mobile framework capable of supporting multiple mobile platforms. Next is focusing on building mobile applications that take advantage of device-specific features on the vast majority of devices. The third issue is facilitating a consistent mobile identity with one outward presence comprised of links to essential college information systems. Finally, developers must conform to mobile Web standards such as W3C Mobile Web Best Practices
    • Mobile technologies aide cancer patients in rural areas with digital medicine to seek a second opinion

      Wurz, Stacy L (2015-12)
      This mobile application provides cancer patients in rural areas the ability to seek a second opinion from more experienced physicians based on the criteria they input. According to the N.Y. Times there are over 100,000 medical mobile applications, (Krisch, pg. 1) however none that are listed provide a second opinion. Through research and by observing the needs of cancer patients in rural areas, the need for mobile Internet technology is great as rural areas lack connectivity of high-speed PC-based Internet access to access proper medical needs. This application breaks the digital divide by introducing a mobile platform to seek more experienced physicians who can offer a second opinion. It has been designed on a platform of a hierarchy of needs which guides the user through menus situated in two areas of the application. The design features an aesthetic light blue warm hue, which is inviting to the user. Once the user registers for the application, they are free to engage with others through a forum and ultimately design and implement their own health-care plan.
    • Modern Virtual Environments and Museums

      Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Ewsuk, Christopher (2020-10)
      Today, many places and environments are replicated digitally for several different reasons. Some of these popular use-cases include video-games, virtual travel, remote learning, and virtual museums. In some cases, they are purely for entertainment, and in others they are purely for convenience or reaching a wider audience. Digital museums, virtual tours, and even modern video games replicate actual and historical places into “Virtual Worlds” in order to overcome barriers like distance, travel, cost, availability, and even existence. Through studying various literature, case studies, and deployed applications, this project will attempt to understand the history and development of virtual worlds and how we use them today. Using the popular example of Virtual Museums, this paper and the associated project attempt to explore and analyze the value and quality of learning and process involved in the deployment of a virtual world.
    • The Motivational Effects of Using a Computer-Based Tutorial vs. a Traditional Instruction Method for Learning How to Use an Elementary Level Mathematics Game

      Roth, Christopher (2012-05-01)
      The purpose of this project was to develop and evaluate a computer-based tutorial to educate students on how to use an elementary level mathematics game. The emphasis of the tool was based on the cognitive learning principle of motivation, as described in Malone's motivation theory. The research explored the motivational effects of using the tutorial versus a traditional learning method, advantages and disadvantages to teachers and students, and improvements that could enhance the learning process. This qualitative case study employed post-testing, interviews, and referenced literary resources to collect and analyze data. Tutorial users scored ten percent higher on the post-test than the instruction sheet users. Advantages of the tutorial included user control, visual references, and assistance for learning disabilities. Disadvantages included loss of human interaction and the preparation and development process. Character development (fantasy), increased audio/video combinations, and more challenging elements were cited as areas for increasing motivation.
    • Nanoscale Schottky Barrier Visualization Utilizing Computational Modeling and Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy

      Nolting, Westly; LaBella, Vincent; Advisor (2018-05)
      Understanding the properties and performance of semiconductor interfaces on the nanoscale advances semiconductor device technology which has had tremendous impact on nearly all aspects of our daily lives. Investigating the nanoscale fluctuations in the electrostatics of metal-semiconductor, or Schottky, interfaces is crucial. However, techniques for directly measuring the electrostatics at an interface are limited. Current state-of-the-art finFETs use metal-semiconductor silicides, such as Ti-Si/Si, for Schottky source-drain contacts. Studying the underlying physics of the Schottky barrier interface of silicides and other metal-semiconductor systems is critical for measuring the Schottky barrier accurately, which can be accomplished with ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM), a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) based technique. In this work, the visualization of the interface to nanoscale dimensions is enhanced by computational modelling of threshold histograms acquired by the BEEM measurement technique. Modelling using a kinetic Monte-Carlo approach is utilized to simulate the distributions of barrier heights that includes effects from the interface and transport of the hot electrons as well as indication of a multi-barrier heights present at the interface. The aid of this modelling enables the discovery of several underlying properties of the interface. Analyzing the parameters of the modelling and comparing to measured data provides detailed insight into the effects that both electron scattering and incomplete silicide formation in W/Si(001) and WSi2/Si(001) have upon the transport of electrons through these structures, which is difficult to detect with conventional current-voltage measurements. The modelling also includes simulation of multiple barriers present at the interface due to the intermixing of similar metals such as Au and Ag at the interface of Si(001) In this regard, Schottky barrier visualization as the combination of histograms, mapping, and modelling provides a new insight into the local nanoscale phenomenon of the Schottky barrier. This thesis investigates the modelling of these metal-semiconductor systems and uses modelling to look at metal thickness dependent effects on the Schottky barrier from Fermi-level pinning in Au/Cr-Si/Si(001) and Au/Cr-Si/Si(111) silicide.
    • NautiCode: Coding for Kids

      Zeo, Brittany; Mullick, Rosemary; Adviser; Sarner, Ronald; Reviewer; Urban, Christopher; Reviewer (2016-05-08)
      Throughout my college career, I have asked students what made them decide to major in Computer Science. The answers I received very seldom revealed previous coding experience. Unfortunately, this is the system: you don’t know what you want to major in and so you choose something that looks interesting. You just hope it works out for the best. Fortunately for me, I had four years of programming experience in classes before reaching college as well as being a programmer on my high school’s FIRST Robotics team. This previous exposure to coding allowed me to make an educated decision about what I wanted to major in. It is not always the case that an individual gets this experience, and I want to change that. For my Masters Project, I have decided to come up with a website to get kids to learn and practice some basic concepts of coding: NautiCode. My target audience is mid to upper elementary school children. And best of all, there is no previous coding experience needed when using NautiCode. Even if Computer Science is not their career choice, they can have the exposure at an early age. Coding does not only benefit computer scientists; just having the background knowledge of concepts such as: logic, data storage, and how things relate, can be beneficial to an individual for any major. These ideas can help individuals think about problems differently and come up with solutions that would not have been possible had they not been exposed to computer science concepts. What better time in an individual’s life to introduce these concepts than childhood. Children’s brains are magnificent. They can absorb so much information and they think differently about the world. This leads to creative solutions and a new perspective. What I aim to do with NautiCode is to get children thinking in new ways and exploit their creativity and spark new ideas. I aim to give an explanation of the simple concepts in an introduction and gradually work up towards more difficult problems. Children are more capable than they know and with a little guidance, they can start creating their own technologies in no time. NautiCode is a fully functional website that I created on my own. The front end is using Scss, and HTML5 while the backend is using PHP, SQL, JS, and AJAX. My databases are being hosted locally through phpMyAdmin and MAMP.
    • New Techniques for Public Key Encryption with Sender Recovery

      Godi, Murali; Viswanathan, Roopa; Adviser; Novillo, Jorge; Reviewer; Chiang, Chen-Fu; Reviewer (2016-12-15)
      In this paper, we consider a situation where a sender transmits a ciphertext to a receiver using a public-key encryption scheme, and at a later point of time, wants to retrieve the plaintext, without having to request the receiver’s help in decrypting the ciphertext, and without having to store a set of plaintext/ciphertext pairs for every receiver the sender interacts with. This problem, known as public key encryption with sender recovery has intuitive solutions based on KEM/DEM schemes. We propose a KEM/DEM-based solution that is CCA-secure, and only requires the receiver to be equipped with a public/secret key pair (the sender needs only a symmetric recovery key), and has much simplified proofs compared to prior work in this area. We prove our protocols secure in the single receiver and multi-receiver setting. To achieve our goals, we use an analysis technique called plaintext randomization that results in greatly simplified and intuitive proofs for protocols that use a PKE internally as a component and compose the PKE with other primitives. We instantiate our protocol for public key encryption with sender recovery with the well-known KEM/DEM scheme due to Cramer and Shoup.
    • Non-Convex Optimization: RMSProp Based Optimization for Long Short-Term Memory Network

      Andriamanalimanana, Bruno; Committee Chair; Chiang, Chen-Fu; Thesis Committee; Novillo, Jorge; Thesis Committee; Yan, Jianzhi (2020-05)
      This project would give a comprehensive picture of non-convex optimization for deep learning, explain in details about Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and RMSProp. We start by illustrating the internal mechanisms of LSTM, like the network structure and backpropagation through time (BPTT). Then introducing RMSProp optimization, some relevant mathematical theorems and proofs in those sections, which give a clear picture of how RMSProp algorithm is helpful to escape the saddle point. After all the above, we apply it with LSTM with RMSProp for the experiment; the result would present the efficiency and accuracy, especially how our method beat traditional strategy in non-convex optimization.
    • Non-Convex Optimization: RMSProp Based Optimization for Long Short-Term Memory Network

      Andriamanalimanana, Bruno; Yan, Jianzhi; Andriamanalimanana, Bruno; First Reader; Chiang, Chen-Fu; Second Reader; Novillo, Jorge; Third Reader (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 2020-05-09)
      This project would give a comprehensive picture of non-convex optimization for deep learning, explain in details about Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and RMSProp. We start by illustrating the internal mechanisms of LSTM, like the network structure and backpropagation through time (BPTT). Then introducing RMSProp optimization, some relevant mathematical theorems and proofs in those sections, which give a clear picture of how RMSProp algorithm is helpful to escape the saddle point. After all the above, we apply it with LSTM with RMSProp for the experiment; the result would present the efficiency and accuracy, especially how our method beat traditional strategy in non-convex optimization.
    • A Normative Architecture for an Online Agent-Based Healthcare System

      Bhaiya, Neha; Novillo, Jorge; Advisor; Rezk, Mohamed; Reviewer (2017-05)
      In this thesis, we envisage an opportunistic Multi-Agent System (MAS) system in Health Care Domain by using wearable and ingestible body sensors. This thesis develops an integrated and an emergent normative logical collection, computation and communication architecture providing a foundation plane for a total healthcare system based on Body Area Network sensors under the supervision of a physician or a team of physicians. Such an online healthcare system as yet does not exist; this thesis anticipates the necessary framework an online healthcare system need to proceed in the near future. The thesis is centered upon the notion of an anomalous system state that may arise owing to temporal anomalous behavior of one or more locally monitored state variables. The system that is envisaged in this thesis is an anomaly-driven event-oriented system triggering doctor’s office for further action if and when such a system enters into a state of anomaly. The data is constantly monitored for anomalous pattern by an ‘Intelligent Server’ which intimates the user’s physician upon receiving an anomalous data like sudden drop in blood pressure, pulse and other vital statistics. The physician then alerts the patient of a declining reading, or calls for emergency services and decides if the patient needs to be admitted in the hospital. We discuss our proposed system architecture for the same.
    • Nursing Home Website Review: Are they accessible, usable, and do they meet consumer needs?

      Warchol, Gail (2005-05-01)
      This study addresses a two-part research question: Are nursing home websites easily accessible and used and do they offer enough information for consumers to make informed choices? Research indicated that generally, hospital discharge planners are the ones who initially explain nursing homes to their patients with brochures and other hard copy information. Some consumers, (generally family members of the patients) have visited nursing home websites. A review of nursing home websites found that nursing home guide sites are often used for giving an array of information, including state survey results, quality assurance, staff ratio, and occupancy rates. The internet users who were interviewed stated that nursing home websites are often difficult to locate. Once having found the sites, interviewees ranked resident rights information as being most interesting, especially information on choice-making and how they are treated once in the nursing home.
    • NYS Fair Events Mobile Application With Client-Side Caching

      Kanala, Sumant; Cheng, Chen-Fu; Advisor; Gherasoiu, Iulian; Reviewer; Tekeoglu, Ali; Reviewer (2017-12)
      NYS Fair Events collects data about fair events which happen in New York state throughout the year, bundles them, displays the upcoming events and useful information about the event itself, the weather and forecast prediction, and a Google Maps to show the route to the event from the user’s location. The motivation for creating this project arose with understanding the growing market for mobile applications and by working for a startup for several months now in the field of web development. A trend has been established in which more users are switching towards mobile apps as their preferred information exchange tool than their traditional PCs and hence the development of better apps should be geared towards mobile phones and tablet PCs. The development of the app is mainly divided into two steps, the client and server side. For the client side I developed a Cordova-based mobile app which is cross-platform and can be compiled to work on Android and IOS based mobile devices. For the server side, I used Node.js runtime environment and deployed it onto Heroku’s free dyno tier which is a cloudbased Platform as a service (paaS). Based on user’s actions, data is requested from the server’s endpoints and appropriate information is served and shown to the user in an intuitive manner.
    • OBJECT ORIENTED ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK SIMULATOR IN TEXT AND SYMBOL RECOGNITION

      Piszcz, Alan; Ishaq, Naseem; Advisor; Novillo, Jorge E; Reviewer; Sengupta, Saumendra; Reviewer (1993)
      Objected oriented languages and artificial neural networks are new areas of research and development. This thesis investigates the application of artificial neural networks using an object oriented C++ backpropagation simulator. The application domain investigated is hand printed text and engineering symbol recognition. An object oriented approach to the simulator allows other simulator paradigms to reuse a large body of the object classes developed for this particular application. The review and implementation of image feature extraction methodologies is another area researched in this paper. Four feature techniques are researched, developed, applied and tested, using digits, upper case alphabet characters and engineering symbol images. Final implementation and testing of the feature extraction methods with a baseline technique is analyzed for applicability in the domain of hand printed text and engineering symbols