• 5G Networks Security: Attack Detection Using the J48 and the Random Forest Tree Classifiers

      Kholidy, Hisham A.; Steele II, Bruce; Kholidy, Hisham A.; Advisor (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 2020)
      5G is the next generation of cellular networks succeeding and improving upon the last generation of 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. With the introduction of 5G comes significant improvements over the previous generation with the ability to support new and emerging technologies in addition to the growth in the number of devices. The purpose of this report is to give a broad overview of what 5G encompasses including the architecture, underlying technology, advanced features, use cases/applications, and security, and to evaluate the security of this new networks using existing machine learning classification techniques such as The J48 Tree Classifier and the Random Forest tree classifier. The evaluation is based on the UNSW-NB15 dataset that was created at the Cyber Range Lab of the Australian Centre for Cyber Security (ACCS) at the University of New South Wales. Since 5G datasets have yet to have been created, there is no publicly available dataset for the 5G systems. However, While the UNSW-NB15 dataset is built using a standard wireless computer network, we will use it to simulate the device-to-device (D2D) connections that 5G will support. In the case with the UNSW dataset, the J48 tree classifier fits more accurately than the Random Forest classifier. The J48 tree classifier achieved an 86.422% of correctly classified instances. On the other hand, the Random Forest tree classifier achieved 85.8451% of correctly classified instances.
    • The Accessibility of New York State Government Web Sites Using Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Version 2.0

      Palmo, Kristen M. (2010-12-01)
      This study evaluated a random selection of NYS government web pages for WCAG 2.0 accessibility. The study also compared the WCAG 2.0 results to WCAG 1.0 results, as an indication of whether the newer guidelines were more comprehensive. The researcher used the AChecker automated tool to determine known accessibility problems and the Failure Rate (FR) metric to establish the degree each web page was inaccessible. Twenty home pages were initially selected and ranked by 2.0 A inaccessibility. Then, four illustrative sites were chosen for both 2.0 A and 1.0 AA home and secondary page analysis. The results indicated that NYS government agencies have a wide range of 2.0 accessibility problems, varying from 123 – 0 problems and 43.93% - 0.00% FR on home pages; and 185 – 4 problems and 18.97 – 0.74% FR on home and secondary pages. Overall, web pages had an average of 19.8 WCAG 2.0 problems with a 13.43% FR for home pages; and an average of 20.94 problems with a 12.28% FR for home and secondary pages. The most commonly occurring WCAG 2.0 problems included not providing text for a link, failing to provide keyboard navigation, not offering alternate text for images, not specifying the natural language of the document and having a title attribute within a table used for layout purposes. The results also determined the newer 2.0 guidelines consistently found more problems than 1.0. For instance, WCAG 2.0 found 185 problems on one set of home and secondary pages, where WCAG 1.0 only found 39 on the same home and secondary pages. The researcher expected this because NYS had been working to achieve a sub-set of WCAG 1.0 compliance in the past. Therefore,perhaps many of the 1.0 issues had already been resolved. Furthermore, WCAG 2.0 is supposedly more thorough than the previous 1.0 version, and therefore caught more accessibility errors.There were no trends found regarding agencies with low accessibility compliance vs. those with high compliance. Compliance levels seemed to vary regardless of agency audience, network traffic and age. The implications of this research may influence NYS agencies to evaluate pages for WCAG 2.0. Also, some agencies seem to handle 2.0 accessibility more effectively than others. It may be helpful for certain agencies to share their WCAG 2.0 accessibility expertise and the processes they follow.
    • Accessible Formal Methods: A Study of the Java Modeling Language

      Rawding, Michael; Andriamanalimanana, Bruno; Advisor; Spetka, Scott; Reviewer; Vishwanathan, Roopa; Reviewer (2017-04-17)
      While formal methods offer the highest level of confidence that software behaves as intended, they are notoriously difficult to use. The Java Modeling Language and the associated OpenJML tool aim to make formal specification and verification more accessible to Java developers. This report gives an overview of JML and assesses its current status and usability. Though many common Java features have been implemented, lack of standard library support is identified as an obstacle to using JML effectively. To help address that problem, this report documents the process of adding support for a new library to OpenJML.
    • Acclimating Students To College Campus Utilizing Games

      Piejko, Josh (2012-06-01)
      The purpose of this project is to see if the usage of a video game given to the students at Mohawk Valley Community college can better acquaint them with the various offices and services found on campus. Students will be given access to the game and asked to complete it in a timely manner. Through qualitative analysis, participating students will be given a survey inquiring about their experience with the game and any gained familiarity with the college. This survey will be completed and handed in to the advisement department. This project is expected to have a positive influence on students by increasing their spatial awareness of the campus for better navigational purposes, as well as giving a better understanding of the key roles and services available at each of the campus offices.
    • Achieving higher level thinking order through human-centered design tutorial development

      Brant, Charlene (2012-05-01)
      This project seeks to determine the most important characteristics in effective tutorial development. The findings from previous research of related studies provided direction regarding the design and production of solid modeling tutorials using screencapture with voiceover. Related studies were retrieved in an electronic database using the following keywords: tutorial design, improving spatial conceptualization, solid modeling tutorials, CAD tutorials, effective tutorials, and creating tutorials. Since the development of tutorials is completed via the use of ever-improving technology, the results of the search were then narrowed by the date published, rejecting anything regarding the development of tutorials dated before the year 2000. Theoretical references were not subject to this date filter. Tutorial prototypes were created using Google Sketch Up Pro, Power Point, and Camtasia II for Mac. Prototypes were designed using information from previous studies as well as guidance from Human Centered Design and Interaction theories. The resulting models were assessed using Bloom’s Taxonomy to attest to their potential value in the classroom. The final series of Google Sketch Up Pro tutorials is intended for use in a technical drawing introduction unit in middle school Technology Education classes. The objectives of the tutorials are to promote higher level thinking order and ultimately help students acquire spatial conceptualization skills in regard to technical drawing of 3D objects in 2D orthographic projection depictions. The hope is that the use of engaging tutorials will aid in bridging the gap between the 3D reality and the 2D drawing worlds.
    • Adapting the Flipped Classroom for At-Risk Science Students through Learner-Centered Design

      Sullivan, Sara (2013-12-01)
      One goal of this project is to create a collection of Learner-Centered videos to meet the needs and provide learning opportunities for alternative education students. Video creation and delivery will be based on the Learner-Centered Design principles and concepts adapted from the Flipped Classroom and tailored to the needs of at-risk students within my school. Another very important goal of this project includes creating production guidelines and a teacher self-evaluation process guided by Learner-Centered Design and the Flipped Classroom. These guidelines will be useful for developing effective videos and helpful for other teachers who want to use similar teaching techniques for alternative education students.
    • Adoption of the Smart Cart: An Instructional Technology

      Gillander, Peter (2004-05-01)
      The intention of this study is to discover and understand how Instructional Technology is adopted into the classroom. The study also determined what is needed to meet the goals intended for it. The Rome City School District, located in central New York, conducted the Smart Cart pilot program. The research consisted mainly of interviews and observations. The planning and implementation of this pilot program were studied to understand how the adoption of the Smart Cart occurred. These findings were applied to the theories of Human Centered Design and Change. Findings included the identification of barriers to the adoption process, and the needs for meeting the pilot’s goals. Barriers found consisted of breakdowns in planning and communication, and the need for more adequate training. It was also found that the technology was capable of meeting the intended pilot’s goals, but will be more successful when the barriers are addressed.
    • Aligning the SUNY Poly NCS Program with Nationally Recognized Accreditation

      Cook, John; Marsh, John; Adviser; Hash, Larry; Reviewer; Bull, Ronny; Reviewer (2015-01-29)
      This document is an exploration into what types of curriculum changes must be made to accommodate accreditation. In the review of program accrediting bodies, none is more authoritative or more appropriate than the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). In ABET’s requirements for accreditation, computing related programs are defined and delineated. On further exploration, it can be seen that the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) has driven the development of those definitions. The ACM further defines goals and objectives for these disciplines, as well as curriculum models. When reviewing other accreditations, not only are these ACM definitions recognized within those accreditations, goal and outcome alignment is also present. This ‘goal and outcome’ methodology is also present in institution level accreditations that SUNY Poly must comply with. After reviewing the ACM program definitions and comparing them to the NCS program, it is concluded that NCS most closely resembles an ACM IT defined program. This leads to the recommendation of adopting and aligning with ACM IT program guidelines, which provides solutions to multiple program and institution requirements as well as creating a solid pathway to accreditation.
    • An Analysis of a Signature-based Approach for an Intrusion Detection System in a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) using Data Mining Techniques

      Kholidy, Hisham A.; Medina, Serene Elisabeth; Kholidy, Hisham A.; Advisor (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 2020)
      Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) use biosensors worn on, or in the human body, which collect and monitor a patient’s medical condition. WBANs have become increasingly more beneficial in the medical field by lowering healthcare cost and providing more useful information that medical professionals can use for a more accurate, and faster diagnosis. Due to the fact that the data collected from a WBAN is transmitted over a wireless network, there are several security concerns involved. This research looks at the various attacks, and concerns involved with WBANs. A real physiological dataset, consisting of ECG signals obtained from a 25-year-old male, was used in this research to test accuracy of various decision tree classifiers. The Weka software was used to analysis the accuracy and detection rate results of this dataset in its original form, versus a reduced dataset consisting of less, more important attributes. The results concluded that the use of decision tree classifiers using data mining, is an efficient way to test the increased accuracy on a real dataset obtained from a WBAN once it has been altered. The original dataset produced results where the ROC curve ranged from 0.313 (31%) to 0.68 (68%), meaning their accuracy is not very high and the detection rate is low. Once an attribute selection feature was used on the dataset, the newly reduced set showed ROC curves ranging from 0.68 (68%) to 0.969 (97%) amongst the three classes. As a result, decision tree models were much more accurate with a higher detection rate when used on a real dataset that was reduced to function better as a detector for a WBAN.
    • AOSOS Master Hyperguide: A Hypertextual Guide to Using America's One Stop Operating System

      Baertschi, Adam (2016-12-01)
      In today's business world, it is common for guidance to be disseminated by a training authority or central, decision-making body to the people that make up the organization's staff. This guidance can be anything from fire drill procedures to instructions on how to use software vital to the organization's operations. Many private and governmental agencies still rely on sending out standardized textual documents that contain the intended instruction. Using a governmental department of New York State as an example, we can quickly identify the problems with this method of guidance and look to Information Design for a solution.
    • Applicability of the Julia Programming Language to Forward Error-Correction Coding in Digital Communications Systems

      Quinn, Ryan; Andriamanalimanana, Bruno R.; Advisor; Sengupta, Saumendra; Reviewer; Spetka, Scott; Reviewer (2018-05)
      Traditionally SDR has been implemented in C and C++ for execution speed and processor efficiency. Interpreted and high-level languages were considered too slow to handle the challenges of digital signal processing (DSP). The Julia programming language is a new language developed for scientific and mathematical purposes that is supposed to write like Python or MATLAB and execute like C or FORTRAN. Given the touted strengths of the Julia language, it bore investigating as to whether it was suitable for DSP. This project specifically addresses the applicability of Julia to forward error correction (FEC), a highly mathematical topic to which Julia should be well suited. It has been found that Julia offers many advantages to faithful implementations of FEC specifications over C/C++, but the optimizations necessary to use FEC in real systems are likely to blunt this advantage during normal use. The Julia implementations generally effected a 33% or higher reduction in source lines of code (SLOC) required to implement. Julia implementations of FEC algorithms were generally not more than 1/3 the speed of mature C/C++ implementations.While Julia has the potential to achieve the required performance for FEC, the optimizations required to do so will generally obscure the closeness of the implementation and specification. At the current time it seems unlikely that Julia will pose a serious challenge to the dominance of C/C++ in the field of DSP.
    • The Application of Social Networks to the Marketing of Industrial Products

      Perlstein, Roger (2010-12-01)
      Social networking changes the way people share ideas and communicate. Advantages in portability, reach, and access contribute to acceptance of social networks and the likelihood that they will continue to grow. While these systems were initially used by individuals, they were not as widely employed by businesses. Some firms however are leveraging these tools and integrating social networking into their marketing. Where social networks are used by businesses, they are primarily focused on consumer goods, home and family, electronics and entertainment. Business-to-business applications are not as widely used and some question whether such tools offer significant benefits in such settings. This thesis studies social network marketing for a vehicle lift manufacturer. It addresses viability, strategy and practices for a vehicle maintenance equipment manufacturer. It analyzes data collected from other similar companies to identify best practices for the use of such tools and details the current state of the industry for this market.
    • Applied Hypertext Theory in a Demonstration of a Non-Sequential Audio Narrative

      Fitzpatrick, Philip J (2016-05)
      A Non-sequential, narrative can present objects, actual or imaginary, which depict connected events, presented in a medium that affords opportunities to determine the sequence of the presentation. Non-sequential, narratives can have multiple beginnings but no end although they do offer levels of saturation. Hypertext techniques can be used as a platform for the creation of a non-sequential narrative through links to text and multimedia as hypermedia. This paper reviews Non-sequential narrative and hypertext techniques and their affordances to a reader/listener for novel exploration and new narrative creation from an existing audio narrative. A demonstration project for applying hypertext techniques to audio based on the Serial, Undisclosed and Serial Dynasty related podcasts to allow reader/listener narrative exploration and creation are also examined. The function of a future application to allow for a listener to segue directly between audio segments.
    • Applying Game Learning Principles to Analyze and Identify Improvements for Scuba Training Simulations

      Schaller, Shaun; Yucel, Ibrahim; Thesis Advisor; Kahn, Russell; Second Reader (2018-04)
      The purpose of this project was to analyze whether existing simulations for scuba diving are effective training tools, and to further develop prototype mockups that demonstrate how a simulation embedded with important scuba concepts and procedures can create an effective learning environment. Academic literature is reviewed relating to virtual reality experiences, simulations in training applications, motivational factors for the use of simulations in education, and strategies to embed learning into game simulations. This study uses James Paul Gee’s learning principles for good games (2013) to analyze the scuba simulation game, “Infinite Scuba.” Gee’s learning principles are then applied to develop a series of simulation mockups in which players learn important scuba procedures including: planning a dive, underwater navigation, and underwater communication. The question under investigation is: “What features are needed in a game simulation to be an effective teaching tool and learning experience for open water scuba divers.”
    • Applying Malone’s Motivational Theory and Flow to a Study of Whether Playing Educational  Video Games Influences Motivation and Impacts Learning Outcomes in 5th Grade Mathematics

      Goodnough, Eric P (2012-12-01)
      The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility that using video games as an educational tool will impact student motivation and learning outcomes for mathematics in a 5th grade classroom. It uses relevant literature and qualitative research to investigate if educational video games provide challenge, fantasy, curiosity, and control as a means of influencing intrinsic motivation, using Malone’s Motivational Theory as a theoretical framework. Additionally, it explores similarities between intrinsic motivation and the characteristics suggested for a game to achieve Flow. Flow is a theory based on the balance of player skill and level of challenge, and can be used as a means for measuring how fun a game is. Specifically, this study examines the gaming features available at the learning website Study Island and how they are implemented in a 5th grade elementary school classroom. By conducting semi-structured interviews with teachers who use the website regularly and using existing standardized test scores to evaluate learning outcomes, I compare the emerging themes from these discussions with the suggested results provided by previous literature on the subject. Based on these comparisons, I attempt to answer the following research question: Does playing educational video games influence motivation and impact learning outcomes in 5 th grade mathematics?
    • Artist Exposure Utilizing Multi-Language Communication Tools

      Rabideau-Bruno, Mary Lou (2011-12-01)
      Abstract not present in the thesis
    • Assessing a Multi-Electron Beam Application Approach for Semiconductor Process Metrology

      Mukhtar, Maseeh; Thiel, Bradley; Dissertation Committee Chair; Bello, Abner; Dissertation Committee; Diebold, Alain; Dissertation Committee; Cady, Nathan; Dissertation Committee; Geer, Robert; Dissertation Committee; Sung, Woongje; Dissertation Committee (2018)
      Radical and disruptive technological approaches regularly require experimental prototypes be built, which is difficult to justify considering their oft-prohibitive requirements in terms of financial and/or time commitments. It is also frequently the situation that use cases for new technologies are not entirely worked out precisely which in turn make it even more difficult to build prototypes but the analysis of simulation data sets from virtual samples can be used to predict sensitivity to the devised signal, detection limits, and impact of design rules and material sets. The results can thus be used to guide prototype design. The aim of this work is to develop and demonstrate a predictive approach to technology assessment and prototype design. This work will focus on two such disruptive technology concepts: electron beam defect inspection and critical dimension measurement. These two concepts are based on the transfer from conventional process metrology technologies i.e., brightfield inspection and optical critical dimension scatterometry to multi-electron beam approaches. Here, a multi-scale modeling approach is used to simulate data streams nominally generated by virtual tools inspecting virtual wafers. To this end, Java Monte Carlo Simulator for Secondary Electrons (JMONSEL) simulations are used to generate expected imaging responses of chosen test cases of patterns and defects with ability to vary parameters for beam energy, spot size, pixel size, and/or defect material and form factor. The patterns are representative of the design rules for aggressively-scaled FinFET-type designs. With these simulated images and resulting shot noise, a signal-to-noise framework is developed, which relates to defect detection probabilities. Additionally, with this infrastructure the effect of detection chain noise and frequency dependent system response can be made, allowing for targeting of best recipe parameters for multi-electron beam inspection validation experiments. Ultimately, leading to insights into how such parameters will impact tool design, including necessary doses for defect detection and estimations of scanning speeds for achieving high throughput for high-volume manufacturing. Simulated images are also executed for measurement of critical dimensions of the abovementioned class of FinFETs. Similarly, validation experiments for multi-electron critical dimension measurements may use the information extracted for development of volume manufacturing metrology systems.
    • Association of Hindu Society Web Presence: Marketing for a Community Project

      DelMedico, Julie E. (2013-08-01)
      This paper illustrates how three graduate students created a unified community voice and spread the ideas of a small group of Bhutanese-Nepali refugees in Utica, New York. Not only did the group meet with the client in his environment to attempt to understand the cultural concerns, they developed a user friendly, professional website dedicated to the mission and history of the Association of Hindu Society of Utica, New York. They interviewed members of the congregation to develop content and developed a comprehensive marketing plan in an effort to connect the 150 Hindu members living in the city of Utica as well as to try and encourage new members to practice the faith of this group. As a result the group reached over 150 members through social networking sites and are continuously trying to generate popularity to this cultural group within the community. A comprehensive overview of the project is outlined within this document with specific attention given to the marketing plan. The marketing efforts were specific to the unique needs of the Hindu practicing Bhutanese-Nepali refugees living in Utica, NY and may not be generalizable to the population at large.
    • Best Practices for Embedding Videos on Oral History Websites

      Tucker, Michelle M. (2012-05-01)
      The study investigates current technical practices for viewing video on the internet. The study also investigates common features of oral history websites that contain video for viewing. 50 websites that contain video for viewing were analyzed for various features such as video upload capability, closed captioning or transcript presence, and video format(s) utilized or accepted. Review of the oral history websites revealed that long interviews are best broken into shorter video segments. Also, the presence of transcripts is helpful to viewers. In addition, research was conducted for recommendations for the creation of best quality videos and most common practices. It was found that the MPEG-4 video format produces a reliable, quality image. An oral history website about the Utica Psychiatric Center was created utilizing these recommendations. The website features videos of interviews with former employees. User testing was employed to critique the website.
    • BGP Routing Protocol

      Parasa, Sai Kiran; Hash, Larry; Advisor (2016-08)
      Border Gateway Protocol is the protocol which makes the Internet work. It is used at the Service provider level which is between different Autonomous Systems (AS). An Autonomous System is a single organization which controls the administrative part of a network. Routing with in an Autonomous System is called as Intra-Autonomous routing and routing between different Autonomous Systems is called as Inter-Autonomous System routing. The routing protocols used within an Autonomous System are called Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) and the protocols used between the Autonomous Systems are called Exterior Gateway Protocols. Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Open Short Path First (OSPF) and Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) are the examples for IGP protocols and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the example for EGP protocols. Every routing protocol use some metric to calculate the best path to transfer the routing information. BGP rather than using a particular metric, it uses BGP attributes to select the best path. Once it selects the best path, then it starts sending the updates in the network. Every router implementing BGP in the network, configures this best path in its Routing Information Base. Only one best route is selected and forwarded to the whole network. [17] Due to the tremendous increase in the size of the internet and its users, the convergence time during link failure in the protocol is very high.