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  • Development of High-Performance Hafnium Oxide based Non-Volatile Memory Devices on 300mm Wafer Platform for Data Storage and Neuromorphic Applications

    Diebold, Alaine (Committee member); Ventrice, Carl A. Jr. (Committee member); Lloyd, James (Committee member); Kurinec, Santosh (External committee member); Cady, Nathaniel (Dissertation Committee Chair); Hazra, Jubin (2021-08)
    Fundamental limitations associated with scaling and modern von Neumann computing architectures illustrates the need for emerging memory solutions in the semiconductor industry. One such promising non-volatile memory (NVM) solution is resistive random access memory (RRAM), which is seen as a potential candidate that can meet the performance needs of DRAM and the density of NAND Flash in terms of scalability, reliability and switching performance. However, reliable operation of RRAM devices requires further development to remedy device- to-device and cycle-to-cycle uniformity variation, increase the conductance window, and to improve retention, yield and endurance properties. This research work primarily focuses on improving RRAM performance metrics through optimization of processing conditions and programming algorithms for CMOS-integrated nanoscale HfO2 RRAM devices on a full scale 300mm wafer platform. It was observed that tuning of ALD parameters during RRAM switching layer HfO2 deposition had a significant impact on device switching performance. An excellent memory window of >30 with switching yield ~90%, along with low cycle-to-cycle (σ <0.5) and cell-to-cell variability (σ <0.4) were achieved for tested 1 Transistor 1 RRAM (1T1R) cells across full 300mm wafers. The devices demonstrated excellent endurance (>1010 switching cycles) and data retention performance at elevated temperature (105 s at 373K). The fabricated RRAM cells were also optimized for multi-level-cell switching behavior and ~10 distinct resistance levels were obtained through a combined current- and voltage-control based programming approach. An incremental pulse write technique combined with read verification algorithm enabled accurate resistance states programming within a large resistance window along with linear and symmetric potentiation-depression characteristics yielding superior analog synaptic functionality of fabricated RRAM devices. In addition to RRAM devices, hafnium zirconium oxide (HZO) based nanoscale ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ) devices were successfully implemented on a 300 mm wafer platform. Current measurement, as a function of voltage for both up and down polarization states, yielded a tunneling electroresistance (TER) ratio of ~5 and switching endurance up to 106 cycles in TiN/ Al2O3/ Hf0.5Zr0.5O2/ TiN FTJ devices distributed across full 300 mm wafer. Investigation of current transport mechanisms showed that the conduction in these FTJ devices is dominated by direct tunneling (DT) at low electric field and by Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling at high electric field. The realization of CMOS-compatible nanoscale RRAM and FTJ devices on 300mm wafers demonstrates the promising potential of these devices in large scale high-yield NVM manufacturing for high performance embedded memory and mass data storage applications.
  • Text Detection from an Image

    Andriamanalimanana, Bruno R.; Thesis Advisor; Novillo, Jorge; Thesis Committee; Spetka, Scott; Thesis Committee; Goda, Piyush Jain (2020-12)
    Recently, a variety of real-world applications have triggered a huge demand for techniques that can extract textual information from images and videos. Therefore, image text detection and recognition have become active research topics in computer vision. The current trend in object detection and localization is to learn predictions with high capacity deep neural networks trained on a very large amount of annotated data and using a high amount of processing power. In this project, I have built an approach for text detection using the object detection technique. Our approach is to deal with the text as objects. We use an object detection method, YOLO (You Only Look Once), to detect the text in the images. We frame object detection as a regression problem to spatially separated bounding boxes and associated class probabilities. YOLO, a single neural network, that predicts bounding boxes and class probabilities directly from full images in one evaluation. Since the whole detection pipeline is a single network, it can be optimized end-to-end directly on detection performance. The MobileNet pre-trained deep learning model architecture was used and modified in different ways to find the best performing model. The goal is to achieve high accuracy in text spotting. Experiments on standard datasets ICDAR 2015 demonstrate that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms methods in terms of both accuracy and efficiency.
  • ULTRATHIN HIGH-K OXIDES FOR AREA-SELECTIVE DEPOSITION AND CHARACTERIZATION BY BALLISTIC ELECTRON EMISSION MICROSCOPY AND X-RAY PHOTOEMISSION SPECTROSCOPY

    Rogers, Jack (2021-05)
    Insulators play an important role in the architecture and resulting performance of semiconductor devices manufactured today. Materials such as HfO2 and Al2O3 are utilized as gate oxides and spacers to control leakage current and enable bottom-up self-aligned patterning of device features. Understanding the electrostatic barrier that forms at the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) interface is crucial in the development of field effect transistors and other devices, especially as the scaling of device features continues to shrink into the nanoscale. Characterization of the barrier height using current-voltage (IV) and capacitance-voltage (CV) techniques provides only a spatially averaged view of the interface, and is incapable of accounting for local nonuniformity which arises at nanoscale dimensions. Additionally, common lithographic strategies for patterning small feature oxides are limited by printing misalignments such as edge placement error (EPE), and in order to achieve smaller pitch sizes lithography steps must be repeated multiple times which adds time and cost to the process. The feasibility of uniform, cost-effective insulator films at the 5 nm technology node and beyond relies on the development of new deposition strategies. In this thesis, hafnium oxide grown using atomic layer deposition (ALD) is examined with ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM). Localized nonuniformities in the barrier height are found to exist for two identically prepared samples which reveal three distinct electrostatic barriers at the buried Au/HfO2/SiO2/Si-p interface, including a novel barrier found at 0.45 eV due to ultrathin HfO2. The results uncover changes in electrostatic behavior of the film which are otherwise impossible to detect using spatially averaged techniques. These variations in barrier height are visualized in a novel way that produces spatial maps showing transitions between high energy and lower energy barriers across a few nanometers. The resolution of this mapping technique is determined by comparing the measured barrier heights of Au/Si(001) and Au/Si(111) interfaces. Momentum conservation and electron scattering result in slightly different barrier heights for both interfaces that depends on metal thickness. The Rayleigh criterion is applied to the barrier height distributions as a function of metal thickness, resulting in a 10 meV resolution. Both aluminum oxide and hafnium oxide are also selectively grown on patterned metal / low-k silicon wafers using ALD. Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) materials such as octodecanethiol (ODT) and dodecanethiol (DDT) -which are functionalized to metal -are first deposited on the copper lines in order to block high-k film deposi¬tion on metal. Both HfO2 and Al2O3 are shown to selectively cover the low-k lines for linespace pitches greater than 100 nm and 5 mM concentration of SAM, and better selectivity is achieved for smaller pitches using lower SAM concentrations. Selectivity is measured qualitatively and quantitatively using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and confirmed with transmission electron microscopy.
  • Podcast Creation for In-Home Use: An Overview of Podcast Creation Methodology Using Bloom’s Taxonomy

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Holmes, William (2021-05)
    Making an effective podcast is more complex than just using your laptop mic to record your thoughts to post on your favorite social media, there are methods or approaches with which to achieve the best results. My project was to overview the methods for making effective audio podcasts and making them available professionally and accessibly to an audience using a subject matter revolving around 3D printing. The resulting example podcasts and the framework used to create them was examined using Bloom’s Taxonomy to assess the formation and delivery of the content for maximum information retention and engagement of the listener. The final goal of this research was to examine and identify the most important characteristics in meaningful audio development for creating podcasts that will properly deliver subject matter and engage the listener. I did an audio-only podcast using a standard Windows computer to create a short series of 15–20-minute podcasts to exemplify the points I discuss in this research. The hope for this research was to outline and display this discipline in a meaningful overview, I particularly planned to use Bloom’s Taxonomy to review this subject matter in how it can be used as a framework for making effective podcasts.
  • Building a University Information Technology Knowledge Base Using TiddlyWiki

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Fischer, Sam (2021-05)
    Keeping a knowledge base up to date can be a difficult and endless task for an Information Technology Services (ITS) department at a university. As technology emerges and is embraced by students and faculty, ITS can become responsible for supporting end users with all sorts of questions and problems. A knowledge base is a website or application used to store helpful information in the form of articles that can be easily shared with end users, giving them a way to support their technology problems without contacting a live person. When managing a large-scale knowledge base, information can be inadvertently replicated in many different areas and contradict other articles, especially when more than one manager can add or edit information. Information modules, or chunks of verified information that can be referenced and inserted into an article, can help eliminate contradictory information and ensure consistency with information that has to be in multiple places through the use of hypertextuality and transclusion. Hypertextuality is a way of organizing information and documents by creating individual bits of information that are assembled together to create a larger document, and transclusion is a way of assembling hypertext documents by simply referencing one into the other. TiddlyWiki is an application that is built around the idea of hypertextuality and transclusion. This project aims to explore the potential for a knowledge base to be built with the TiddlyWiki application.
  • Infographics - Migrating from paper methods to electronic using an enterprise system - Jenzabar EX

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Psarudakis, Robert J. (2021-05)
    SUNY Sullivan has been facing challenges of declining enrollment since the start of the recession in 2008. For the most part the college seems to go through a roller-coaster ride of increasing but steadily declining enrollment spirals ever since. One of our key survival strategies is adaptation to change. Adaptations with programs, delivery methods in the way we offer programs and courses. We tend to be on the cutting edge of technology as it evolves and we adapt to new challenges as long as our funds from SUNY are available. In this paper I will identify some of the gaps in processes that are simply not working. I will look at the theories behind the changes and challenges that are associated with modern adaptations in addition to the reasons why we must change. In this respect I will be looking at our old processes such as paper forms and face to face contact. We are encountering a new world in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 causes all of our in-person activities to be remote. Currently, we are going through our Middle States self-study evaluation. "The Middle States Commission on Higher Education is a voluntary, non-governmental, institutional membership association currently serving higher education institutions in Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and any other geographic areas in which the Commission elects to conduct accrediting activities within the United States." (MSCHE, website). Looking at what we do as an institution, we found that we have many "gaps" that need to be filled in. Nothing has proven this more than COVID-19.
  • To Upgrade or Not To Upgrade Application

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Francisco, Neil (2021-05)
    New Technology consists of new hardware devices, computational workflows, digital advances, and information systems. As technology continues to evolve over the years, this never-ending cycle of new devices and experiences will always be present amongst consumers. Traditionally, new hardware devices are intriguing because they are designed to improve our access to information, media, and a connection to the digital world, but does this mean our previous-gen devices are no longer valuable? This project involves creating a prototype application designed for both computer and mobile interfaces to help improve the accessibility to information and the overall user experience with an older device. The “To Upgrade or Not To Upgrade” app will inform end-users of their older technological device specifications and suggest hardware/software methods to unlock their full potential. The goal of this paper is to shed some light on consumers that upgrading to the following gen devices is not always necessary to receive the best human-to-computer interactions. It is likely the computer or mobile device that one owns now, with some slight modifications, is all that is needed to provide a pleasant experience.
  • Research Paper And Video Project About Music Technology Evolution And Its Effects On Artist Revenue and Consumer Listening

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Lazar, Neer (2021-06)
    In this paper I will try to show how the technology that changed over time affected both artists and music consumers. The theory from some of the literature I found is that disruptions in music technology also had many economic impacts to both artists and their audience. In the literature it is suggested that streaming rectified the revenue hit that was derived from the ill effects of digital piracy. In this paper and in the accompanying video that can be found here - https://drive.google.com/file/d/15IIBwwFLZqpnfqPl_pqmR YsAHgfjMuiN/view?usp=sharing I will describe the evolution of the technological changes and show that these advances also had the same exponential curve in change very similar to the changes that occurred in print although the ability to record sound arrived thousands of years after the ability to record letters and words. However, at some point the technological changes created the same kind of disruptions - meaning the ability to record sound and transport it and listen to it in various ways. This created markets and economic advancements that were not there before - again similar in many ways to technological changes in other fields. Later in this paper I will focus on the last few years of these changes with an emphasis on streaming technologies. This in my opinion a change that is still ongoing and was transformational in the way revenue distribution came back after a very tough time that included a breakdown in the established industry and the piracy that affected it during this crisis. Another theory is that the instant gratification of on demand technology that gives consumers exactly what they want when they want it was also solved with streaming music services. The literature that I chose to cite and that I based my research on was primarily from trade magazines and industry news. These articles paint a picture of a changing landscape in the music industry and also talk about some of my ideas that led me to research and write this paper.
  • Assisting Seniors with Technology Challenges: Video Tutorials for Password Development and Management

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Hanna, Margie (2021-05)
    Seniors often have difficulties using evolving technology while keeping their valuable personal data safe. This research effort began with assessing how and why seniors use technology and determining the best educational techniques to help them connect with instructional information. Additional research determined how design principles including layering and progressive disclosure could be applied to enhance these techniques. In an effort to maintain a manageable scope, password development and management was selected as an example technology challenge. The current state of training resources related to these topics on Facebook and YouTube was surveyed and analysis performed to determine if the design principles and instructional techniques discovered through the aforementioned research were evident. Good tips and tricks for strong password development were incorporated into the instructional design/development plan. A Facebook group and training videos were developed to facilitate assisting seniors with password creation and management.
  • HAIR LOVE: SHOWCASING THE DIVERSITY OF NATURAL HAIR THROUGH PHOTOGRAPHY AND PERSONAL NARRATIVES

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Niles, JoAnna (2021-05)
    Throughout the years, Natural Hair has been used as a form of expression, self-acceptance, and controversy in the United States of America. The invention of Web 2.0, the rise of social media, blogs, and other web-based platforms has given members of the Natural Hair community a platform to share their personal stories and tips related to natural hair care with others. This project looked at the effects of Web 2.0 during the second wave of the Natural Hair Movement since the year 2008, showcasing various hairstyles through digital photography and personal narratives of five individuals. Previous studies have shown that men and women with naturally curly hair have faced some form of discrimination based on their hairstyle, causing them to assimilate to societal norms of wearing their hair straight. The goal for this project was to showcase the versatility of natural hair through digital photography and personal narratives as a form of storytelling, and sharing how social media and other outlets across the web have impacted the individual’s decision to wear their hair in its natural state or how it has helped them in their natural hair journey. Photos of five different people of various cultural backgrounds, hair textures, and lifestyles were taken and questions based on their Natural Hair journey were asked. With the collection of photographs and narratives, a Capstone portfolio section of my media website was created for public viewing. This platform can be updated as photos of more individuals with natural hair at local events and expos in the future are taken.
  • Design and Implement a Small Business with Digital Marketing Be Happy, Se Feliz: Find Your Happiness and Learn to Put It First

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Flores, Jacqueline (2021-05)
    The purpose of this study was to identify and organize a plan to market an Airbnb vacation rental property in the Caribbean by a single female parent in her 30’s. The study includes research on Universal Design Uses for Marketing in Tourism or Travel, Digital Marketing/Social Media Marketing (including for travel sites) and Small business and branding development. The design of the study includes a proposal, methodology for the design and the production of digital artifacts including branding development with personal website and social media sites. This capstone project was developed and implemented using graphic design concepts, digital photography’s composition techniques, user experience considerations, evaluation of select technologies and select Universal Principles of Design. Throughout the research and design process, similar social media accounts and websites were reviewed to identify likeability, professionalism and conclusions were drawn for why some sites were liked or followed more than others. While viewing sites, session duration, or length of time spent, was also taken into consideration. The successful concepts on these sites were also taken into consideration or applied in the production of web-based marketing materials and platforms to support marketing the rental property in the Caribbean for this capstone. Branding was a major component of successful marketing for all sites. In summary, leveraging many SUNY Polytechnic Information Design and Technology course concepts from Digital Photography, User Experience, Graphic Design and Evaluating Information Technology a new brand was formed: Be Happy, Se Feliz. Branding was designed utilizing elements from graphic design and digital photography, from development of vision and mission statements, audience focus, logo design, typography selection, color palette selection and site development. Several concepts from “Universal Principles of Design” (Lidwell et al., 2010) were reviewed and utilized in the design for projecting the users into an idealistic vacation environment. This was the primary focus of the marketing techniques utilized. Final selection of the tools and platforms used were conducted by utilizing techniques from Evaluating Information Technology.
  • The Ties That Bind: A blog project about the meaning of fandom

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Isgar, Eric (2021-05)
    Fandoms, or fan communities; groups of enthusiasts or ‘fans’ that have come together through their shared love of some kind of media, have been around for a long time in a number of different forms around the world, though in small numbers. When comic books became popular, those groups increased, and once again as movies became more commonplace. These communities and cultures are reliant on information technology, and the technology reliant on them, in a symbiotic relationship. It is my objective to research, analyze and observe fandoms and the culture related to the associated communities of fans within, and how they have formed, communicated and interacted, both prior to the development of modern information technology and after, as well as their continued growth on established and upcoming platforms. My actual project consists of a set of blog posts, or ‘mini-essays’, on Tumblr, around one hundred words per post, perhaps more, with ten posts in total.
  • Lost Memories: Exploring Childhood Amnesia and Nostalgia Through Autoethnographic Research

    Lizardi, Ryan; Thesis Advisor; Stam, Kathryn; Second Reader; Danielle, Pastore (2021-04)
    Memory, especially at a young age, is unstable. Memories can easily be remapped and misremembered. Generally, memory retention follows a predictable pattern, known as the reminiscence bump, and memory retention reaches its peak around twenty years old. While memory retention does increase exponentially as a child ages, there is a tendency for early childhood memories to vanish - a phenomenon known formally as childhood amnesia. Photographs and videos can act as memory aids to assist recall, but can lead to misremembering. People also view photographs and videos (especially physical versions such as photo albums) as memory storage devices, and often experience a great deal of nostalgia when flipping through and reminiscing. However, just as society experienced a shift from analogue to digital film and video, users shifted their intentions of photography from memory to communication. To further explore these topics I performed extensive autoethnographic research. In the hopes of shedding light on lost or forgotten memories and to better understand personal nostalgia, I had twenty-eight rolls of undeveloped childhood film developed, which I then personally scanned. Additionally, I digitally transferred and watched eighty-six never-before-seen childhood home video cassettes. Using both written, photo, and video footage-based context clues, I assembled a video timeline to represent my lost memories. Video Link: https://youtu.be/7OCfjgm1YkU
  • Evaluating Cloud-Based Gaming Solutions

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Yucel, Ibrahim; Second reader; Truong, Daniel (2021-05)
    Recently, tech companies such as Google and Microsoft have invested resources into offering cloud-based delivery of video games. Delivery of games over such a medium negates the need of requiring dedicated video game consoles or computers with robust 3D graphics hardware. Tangible hardware requirements for traditional video game playing are currently undergoing a supply shortage due to a multitude of factors, particularly related to the COVID-19 pandemic. This project evaluates the cost of using cloud services vs. using a physical video game console. Also, this article evaluates whether players can come up with a custom solution utilizing VPS (virtual private server) providers such as Amazon Web Services. By utilizing the diffusion of innovations theory, we evaluate how the common actors of the video game industry try to replicate the traditional video game playing experience, but in a cloud setting. Results confirm that those wishing to use cloud-based services should only need a consumer-level personal computing device (such as a laptop or smartphone) to access them. Consumers must also take heed of their networking infrastructure, as well as the supported library of games that each service carries if they intend to maximize their value for each cloud service.
  • Creating Letterforms in a Digital World: The Design and Delivery of a Font

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Sammon, Michelle; Second Reader; Bell, Charles (2021-05)
    I have always regarded font creation as an area of design that is highly specialized, requiring great attention to detail, and using highly skilled, hand drawn techniques to achieve the ultimate end result. While these prospects may still hold true in many respects, technological advancements have brought about great change to the overall process of design. As technology has evolved, so too have the methods of production for font and typeface design. New applications offer a multitude of interesting ways to create and design fonts. Over time, these methods of production have become increasingly more obtainable for the public and in some cases, simplified for the basic, non-designer. As a result, an increasing amount of users, both trained and untrained now have access to font design programs and applications. This project will examine the practice of font design, in both a historical context and through current trends, and will then apply this knowledge to a current software solution, in order to describe the current techniques of the creation process. In addition to this, each step of the process will be documented in order to provide a greater understanding of what is involved when learning the current process of font design. As a result of this study, the ultimate objective of this project will be the final creation of a fully realized and functional font. A downloadable version of the font design for this project can be accessed through the link below: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ZODa_kNn2yyYpP6PbtwnG4mYp6MgMTuq/view?usp=sharing
  • Using Uses and Gratifications Theory to Create a Successful Twitch Channel

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Jones, Anthony (2021-05)
    Twitch.tv has steadily gained popularity since its debut on the social media scene in 2011. Bringing a new live element to typical content creation, Twitch fosters a dynamic relationship between content creators, known as streamers, and their audience of viewers. This unique relationship allows direct, real-time communication between content creators and viewers, allowing viewers to directly influence the content that is broadcast. Uses and gratifications theory states that users will seek the most efficient tool to gratify their needs. Once a content creator defines the primary motives of Twitch users, they can adjust their content to gratify the audience’s needs. By viewing Twitch through the lens of uses and gratifications theory, one can construct a Twitch channel that will quickly achieve success. In this case, I have created Zero Lives Gaming, a twitch channel that can be found at twitch.tv/zero_lives_gaming
  • Prototyping a Mobile App for Pregnancy During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Using Information Design to Strengthen Information Landscapes

    Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Banner, Phylise; Second reader; Woodworth, Anna (2021-05)
    When the COVID-19 pandemic struck the United States in early 2020, pregnant people faced challenges unlike what would be expected while pregnant during “normal times.” Studies found this population to be overwhelmed by rampant misinformation or a lack of information, decreased access to health care, and uncertain social support. This project investigates and addresses the preferences of pregnant people by designing a prototype of a mobile application that seeks to increase both accessibility and availability of credible information about pregnancy and postpartum during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods include a literature review, questionnaires, interviews, personas, current app research, wireframing, and prototyping. They identify a gap in the mobile app toolbox for navigable, credible information on COVID-19 for pregnant and recently pregnant people. They also find that, contra to the goals of the project, it isn’t feasible to incorporate into the app a social support feature, due to the potential for misinformation. The project also concludes that a successful mobile application employs information design to lessen the cognitive load of users and to integrate their geographic confines; elements that support a user’s agency also strengthen the user’s information landscape. Further research ascertaining the specifics of what might be needed to make an app usable for particular marginalized or underserved populations is still needed. Finally, one of the more intriguing questions raised by this project might be how to integrate the social support identified as an important need by pregnant people into an app that values the integrity of information.
  • Unmasked: A Visual Documentation of How Covid-19 Affects the Lives of Central New Yorkers

    Stam, Kathryn; First Reader; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Pennisi, Alicia (2021-05)
    Photography, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic, has become a widely used and popular artform for people documenting this unprecedented time in history. With the emergence of Covid-19 in March of 2020, photographers of all skill levels set out to document history in the making. Photography is an artform that helps bridge parallels between people, places, and things, and being able to make sense of it all through visuals brings us closer to each other's core of understanding. Photography is not a one-size-fits-all medium. There are many photography styles, including portraiture, landscape, action, architecture, documentary, and street photography. This literature review will explore how street and documentary photography, photography styles, and philosophies accentuate life during a global pandemic.
  • Technology Case Study in Storage Area Networks

    Marsh, John ; Thesis Advisor; Hash, Larry J.; Climek, David; Bull, Ronny; Pethe, Ameya (2014-05)
    In today's world we need immediate access to data. The demand for networked data access has increased exponentially in the last 20 years. With that demand the importance and volume of networked data has also grown exponentially. The speed at which the data can be accessed has increased and with that the data has moved from individual workstations to a networked location. Over the last decade there has been a trend to move mission critical data away from individual workstations to a centralized data center. A centralized data center removes the location constraint for accessing the data. If critical data is stored on individual servers, a failure will cause the data to be inaccessible. Today, mission critical applications are spanned over multiple servers for redundancy. With this topology, having the data in a central location allows the individual servers to better work with data. With the addition of virtualization, servers can be moved online from one physical server to another. If the data is centralized, it can be presented to all hosts in the cluster. This allows servers to move efficiently between hosts without losing access to the critical data. Many businesses in various industries like finance, airline, hospital, research, etc. depend on the speed and secure availability of their centralized data to function efficiently.
  • Bioengineered Platforms for Human Stem Cell-Based Diagnostic and Therapeutic Interventions

    Paluh, Janet L.; Thesis Advisor; Sharfstein, Susan T.; Committee Member; Xie, Yubing; Committee Member; Wang, Jun; Outside Committee Member; Amini, Nooshin (2020-08)
    Human stem cells offer an unprecedented ability to restore function lost through disease or injury by providing options for cell therapies and regenerative medicine. Two hurdles that delay greater clinical use of stem cells are production of differentiated therapeutic cells in large-scale platforms and the challenge of choosing the optimum cell type and delivery method for cell therapy that is optimized for cell-cell signaling in the therapeutic microenvironment. In my thesis work I investigated different bioengineered platforms in combination with human stem cell technology to mass produce functional hiPSC-derived beta islets in a miniature bioreactor and study cytokine release from multipotent and differentiated hiPSC-derived neural stem cells as neural rosettes and their dissociated cells or differentiating inhibitory and excitatory neurons alone and in mixed cultures applying a neural cell-cell interaction microchip (NCCIM) with features developed specifically for these studies. My work has further expanded the application of hiPSC-derived neurons in an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury. In this study a hybrid culture of hiPSC-derived excitatory pyramidal neurons, inhibitory GABAergic interneurons and immortalized human microglia are being evaluated for secreted cytokines under healthy and stretch injured induced conditions. One of the challenges of TBI is the inability to yet effectively and with minimal invasiveness track changes following injury that may indicate healing or deterioration and an in vitro model is one important contribution to identifying biomarkers.

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