Modulatory Effect of Gut Microbiota on the Gut-Brain, Gut-Bone Axes, and the Impact of Cannabinoids.
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Ayariga, Joseph Atia
Robertson, Boakai K
Ajayi, Olufemi S
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AbstractThe gut microbiome is a collection of microorganisms and parasites in the gastrointestinal tract. Many factors can affect this community's composition, such as age, sex, diet, medications, and environmental triggers. The relationship between the human host and the gut microbiota is crucial for the organism's survival and development, whereas the disruption of this relationship can lead to various inflammatory diseases. Cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are used to treat muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. It is now clear that these compounds also benefit patients with neuroinflammation. CBD and THC are used in the treatment of inflammation. The gut is a significant source of nutrients, including vitamins B and K, which are gut microbiota products. While these vitamins play a crucial role in brain and bone development and function, the influence of gut microbiota on the gut-brain and gut-bone axes extends further and continues to receive increasing scientific scrutiny. The gut microbiota has been demonstrated to be vital for optimal brain functions and stress suppression. Additionally, several studies have revealed the role of gut microbiota in developing and maintaining skeletal integrity and bone mineral density. It can also influence the development and maintenance of bone matrix. The presence of the gut microbiota can influence the actions of specific T regulatory cells, which can lead to the development of bone formation and proliferation. In addition, its metabolites can prevent bone loss. The gut microbiota can help maintain the bone's equilibrium and prevent the development of metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis. In this review, the dual functions gut microbiota plays in regulating the gut-bone axis and gut-brain axis and the impact of CBD on these roles are discussed.
CitationIbrahim I, Syamala S, Ayariga JA, Xu J, Robertson BK, Meenakshisundaram S, Ajayi OS. Modulatory Effect of Gut Microbiota on the Gut-Brain, Gut-Bone Axes, and the Impact of Cannabinoids. Metabolites. 2022 Dec 10;12(12):1247. doi: 10.3390/metabo12121247. PMID: 36557285; PMCID: PMC9781427.
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