Recent Submissions

  • Lymphogranuloma venereum in a pregnant woman.

    Heaton, S; Hammerschlag, M R; Roblin, P M; Di Pasquale, R C (1988-07)
    Lymphogranuloma venereum was diagnosed postpartum in a young black woman, who was a drug abuser. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from aspirate of a left inguinal mass, and the patient was also seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus. During hospitalization she was treated with ampicillin, gentamicin, and doxycycline. Her twin infant girls had no evidence of C. trachomatis infection. The mother was discharged from the hospital after partial resolution of the left inguinal mass and was lost to follow-up.
  • Comparison of enzyme immunoassay and culture for diagnosis of chlamydial conjunctivitis and respiratory infections in infants.

    Hammerschlag, M R; Roblin, P M; Cummings, C; Williams, T H; Worku, M; Howard, L V (1987-12)
    The efficacy of Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) in detecting neonatal conjunctival and respiratory infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis was determined by comparison of this enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the method of isolation of chlamydiae in tissue culture. The sensitivity and specificity of Chlamydiazyme for detecting C. trachomatis in conjunctival specimens from infants with conjunctivitis were 98 and 94%, respectively. For nasopharyngeal infection in infants with conjunctivitis, the sensitivity and specificity were 87 and 92%, respectively. There were nine nasopharyngeal specimens that were Chlamydiazyme positive and culture negative. All of these specimens demonstrated the presence of typical fluorescing chlamydial elementary bodies when pellets of the original specimens were examined with a fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody. When the EIA was performed on nasopharyngeal specimens from infants with suspected chlamydial pneumonia, 6 culture-positive and 10 culture-negative specimens were correctly identified.
  • Colonization of sexually abused children with genital mycoplasmas.

    Hammerschlag, M R; Doraiswamy, B; Cox, P; Cummings, M; McCormack, W M (1987-01)
    Although sexually abused children are usually evaluated only for the presence of infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Treponema pallidum, they are also at risk for acquiring other sexually transmitted organisms prevalent in the adult population. Accordingly, we examined pharyngeal, anorectal and genital specimens from 50 children who had been sexually abused and from 40 healthy children who served as controls; these specimens were cultured for Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. M. hominis was isolated from the anorectal and vaginal cultures of 11 (23%) and 16 (34%), respectively, of 47 abused girls as compared with three (8%) and six (17%), respectively, of 36 controls. U. urealyticum was isolated from the anorectal and vaginal cultures of nine (19%) and 14 (30%), respectively, of the abused girls as compared with one (3%) and three (8%), respectively, of 36 controls. Colonization with genital mycoplasmas was not associated with any symptoms.
  • Clinical efficacy and safety of cefmenoxime in children.

    Tansino, G F; Hammerschlag, M R; Congeni, B L; Cox, P A; Doraiswamy, B; duBouchet, L (1985-10)
    Cefmenoxime, an investigational semisynthetic cephalosporin, was evaluated in 18 pediatric patients with a variety of infections. There were seven patients with urinary tract infections, two with wound infections, two with osteomyelitis, two with abscess infections, one with cervical adenitis, one with hidradenitis, one with pneumonia and sepsis, one with periorbital cellulitis, and one with ventriculitis. A total of 16 (88%) patients had a satisfactory clinical response demonstrated by improvement in clinical signs and symptoms. A total of 12 (67%) patients demonstrated eradication of their infecting organisms. Of the pathogens isolated in these patients, 16 isolates were susceptible to cefmenoxime. One patient developed a generalized urticarial rash that resolved within 24 h after cessation of cefmenoxime therapy. Mean peak level in serum after intravenous infusion was 55 micrograms/ml.
  • In vitro activity of a group of broad-spectrum cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics against Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Hammerschlag, M R; Gleyzer, A (1983-03)
    The activities of seven broad spectrum cephalosporins, four other beta-lactam antibiotics, and one monobactam against Chlamydia trachomatis were measured in a cell culture system. The minimal inhibitory concentration of four of the seven cephalosporins was greater than or equal to 128 micrograms/ml; those of the other three were from 16 to 32 micrograms/ml. Of the other agents, only mecillinam had activity against C. trachomatis comparable to that reported for ampicillin (minimal inhibitory concentration, less than or equal to 0.5 micrograms/ml).
  • Bacteriology of sputum in cystic fibrosis: evaluation of dithiothreitol as a mucolytic agent.

    Hammerschlag, M R; Harding, L; Macone, A; Smith, A L; Goldmann, D A (1980-06)
    Liquefaction and homogenization have been recommended to ensure accurate, representative sputum cultures. We evaluated dithiothreitol (DTT) as mucolytic agent for culturing sputum samples obtained from 79 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Liquefaction with DTT was not superior to direct plating of specimens for routine qualitative cultures. Unliquefied sputum cultures failed to direct 3 of 47 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates; DTT-treated specimens missed 5 of 13 Candida albicans isolates. Neither treated nor untreated sputum cultures were completely successful in detecting Staphylococcus aureus or Enterobacteriaceae. Since Haemophilus influenzae was recovered from only two qualitative cultures, we could not evaluate the effect of DTT on the receovery of this organism. However, 27 of 29 strains of H. influenzae were inhibited by concentrations of DTT near the recommended final working concentration of 50 micrograms/ml, suggesting that liquefaction might impair isolation of this organism. Liquefaction with DTT permitted quantitative cultures of CF sputum. The predominant pathogen in our CF population was P. aeruginosa; 37 of 43 (86%) patients were colonized with this organism. Median densities of rough and mucoid strains were 3.2 x 10(7) and 4.3 x 10(7) colony-forming units per ml, respectively. Previous oral antistaphylococcal therapy may have accounted for the observed low density of S. aureus (mean density, 3.5 x 10(3) colony-forming units per ml). We conclude that DTT treatment does not improve recovery of organisms from qualitative cultures but does facilitate quantitative studies of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa in CF sputum.
  • Growth in chick chorioallantoic membranes of strains of Newcastle disease virus of differing virulence.

    Reeve, P; Rosenblum, M; Alexander, D J (1970-03)
    The growth of eight strains of Newcastle disease virus in chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes was studied by comparing, at different times after infection, the amounts of haemagglutinin released into the allantoic fluid (extracellular haemagglutinin) with that associated with the membrane (cell-associated haemagglutinin). The virulence of the strains examined differed in that some killed chick embryos more rapidly than others. All strains released similar amounts of extracellular haemagglutinin and maximum titres were achieved about 12 hr. after infection. With virulent strains cell-associated haemagglutinin titres increased exponentially until the death of the host and maximum titres were much higher than those of extracellular haemagglutinin. With avirulent strains cell-associated haemagglutinin titres increased exponentially for only a limited time and titres were always lower than the titres of extracellular haemagglutinin.Similar results were obtained when the titres of neuraminidase and viral ribo-nucleoprotein were measured during the growth of two virulent and two avirulent strains. Virulence appears to be associated with the continued intracellular accumulation of viral antigens.
  • Primary choroidal melanoma followed by two metachronous ipsilateral ocular metastases

    Finger, P. T.; Yin, C. T.; Pavlick, A. C.; Farhat, N. (Real Time, Ltd., 2022-03-26)
    Purpose. To describe two ipsilateral, metachronous, ocular choroidal melanoma metastases. Material and methods. A 64-year-old choroidal melanoma patient was initially treated with palladium-103 ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy which induced local control of the primary cancer. Seven years later, ophthalmic findings of a second, ipsilateral, discrete choroidal melanoma prompted restaging which revealed new hepatic and nodal metastases. Systemic immunotherapy (ipilimumab 3 mg/kg with nivolumab 1 mg/kg IV every 3 weeks 4 doses) resulted in intraocular tumor regression and was followed by maintenance nivolumab 480 mg IV every 4 weeks with follow-up ophthalmic examinations. Results. Three years after initiation of systemic immunotherapy, the patient was found to have a second ipsilateral local recurrence of choroidal melanoma. It presented with retinal detachment, uveitis, and optic neuritis. Then, due to its anterior uveal location, extrascleral tumor extension was amenable to a diagnostic biopsy. Overall, 3 years after onset of metastatic uveal melanoma and 2 months after her second ocular metastasis, the patient died. This was 10 years after the initial diagnosis of choroidal melanoma. Conclusions. Metastatic choroidal melanoma can present twice in the same eye as the primary tumor. Ophthalmic and systemic examinations allowed for immunotherapy to affect initial systemic regression, vision sparing, and globe salvage.
  • Association of Perceived Social Support with Viral Suppression Among Young Adults with Perinatally-Acquired HIV in the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS).

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Huo, Yanling; Kacanek, Deborah; Malee, Kathleen; Nichols, Sharon; Mellins, Claude A; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Van Dyke, Russell B (2023-05-09)
    To determine the relationship between perceived social support and viral suppression among young adults with perinatally-acquired HIV (YAPHIV).
  • Histologically Remarkable Eosinophilic Esophagitis Responsive to Dupilumab in a Gastrostomy Tube-Dependent Pediatric Patient on Amino Acid Formula.

    Castro, Kenny; Arostegui, Dalia; Schwarz, Steven; Gandhi, Sonia; Peshimam, Juveria; Rabinowitz, Simon; Pittman, Meredith; Wallach, Thomas (2022-09-01)
    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an eosinophil predominant, TH2-mediated condition increasing in prevalence in pediatric and adult populations, is typically treated with dietary manipulations to avoid triggering antigens. However, identifying specific dietary causes remains a persistent challenge, and restrictive diets are burdensome. Total dietary modification using amino acid-based formula does not always produce symptomatic or histologic resolution, suggesting that exposure to ingested aeroallergens drives their disease. EoE patients demonstrate symptomatic exacerbation from July to September correlating with higher grass and ragweed pollen counts. We present a 7-year-old tracheostomy- and gastrostomy-dependent girl who was found on surveillance endoscopy to have profound eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus with inflammatory changes including basal cell hyperplasia on histology. She responded partially to topical corticosteroid therapy with fluticasone and had complete resolution of esophageal eosinophilic infiltrate with subcutaneous dupilumab.
  • Do personality characteristics predict future alcohol problems after considering current demography, substance use, and alcohol response?

    Schuckit, Marc A; Smith, Tom L; Danko, George; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hesselbrock, Victor; Hesselbrock, Michie; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Nurnberger, John I; Lai, Dongbing; et al. (2023-04-18)
    Several personality traits predict future alcohol problems but also relate to demographic and substance-related variables that themselves correlate with later adverse alcohol outcomes. Few prospective studies have evaluated whether personality measures predict alcohol problems after considering current demographic and substance-related variables.
  • Preoperative Depression Screening in Primary Lumbar Fusion: An Evaluation of Its Modifiability on Outcomes in Patients with Diagnosed Depressive Disorder.

    Gordon, Adam M; Elali, Faisal R; Ton, Andy; Schwartz, Jake M; Miller, Chaim; Alluri, Ram K (2023-05-11)
    Studies have reported the detrimental effects of depression following spine surgery, however none have evaluated whether preoperative depression screening, in patients with a history of depression, is protective from adverse outcomes and lowers healthcare costs. We studied whether depression screenings/psychotherapy visits within 3 months prior to 1-2 level lumbar fusion (1-2LF) were associated with lower: 1) medical complications; 2) emergency department (ED) utilizations; 3) readmissions; and 4) healthcare costs.
  • All-trans retinoic acid induces p62DOK1 and p56DOK2 expression which enhances induced differentiation and G0 arrest of HL-60 leukemia cells.

    Lamkin, Thomas J; Chin, Vivian; Yen, Andrew
    p62(DOK1) (DOK1) and p56(DOK2) (DOK2) are sequence homologs that act as docking proteins downstream of receptor or nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Originally identified in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells as a highly phosphorylated substrate for the chimeric p210(bcr-abl) protein, DOK1 was suspected to play a role in leukemogenesis. However, p62(DOK1-/-) fibroblast knockout cells were found to have enhanced MAPK signaling and proliferation due to growth factors, suggesting negative regulatory capabilities for DOK1. The role of DOK1 and DOK2 in leukemogeneis thus is enigmatic. The data in this report show that both the DOK1 and the DOK2 adaptor proteins are constitutively expressed in the myelomonoblastic leukemia cell line, HL-60, and that expression of both proteins is induced by the chemotherapeutic differentiation causing agents, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3). Ectopic expression of either protein enhances atRA- or VD3-induced growth arrest, differentiation, and G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest and results in increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. DOK1 and DOK2 are similarly effective in these capabilities. The data provide evidence that DOK1 and DOK2 proteins have a similar role in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation and are positive regulators of the MAPK signaling pathway in this context.
  • Gonadal dysfunction in morbidly obese adolescent girls.

    Chin, Vivian; Censani, Marisa; Lerner, Shulamit; Conroy, Rushika; Oberfield, Sharon; McMahon, Donald; Zitsman, Jeffrey; Fennoy, Ilene (2014-02-26)
    To describe gonadal dysfunction and evaluate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MeS) among girls in a morbidly obese adolescent population.
  • Exenatide Effects on Cardiometabolic Risk and Weight in Adolescents with Morbid Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Two Case Reports.

    Censani, Marisa; Chin, Vivian L; Fennoy, Ilene (2015-05-06)
    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists improve glycemic control and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but pediatric data is sparse.
  • Comparison of A1C to Oral Glucose Tolerance Test for the Diagnosis of Prediabetes in Overweight and Obese Youth.

    Khokhar, Aditi; Naraparaju, Gayathri; Friedman, Miriam; Perez-Colon, Sheila; Umpaichitra, Vatcharapan; Chin, Vivian L
    This study reports performance of A1C against the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in predicting prediabetes among overweight and obese African-American and Caribbean children. A retrospective chart review was completed for 230 children. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to find the predictive performances of different tests against the OGTT. A1C alone is a poor discriminator of prediabetes in our study population, with low sensitivity (70%) and specificity (48.8%). BMI score, A1C, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance are significant predictors of prediabetes and, when taken together, provide better discrimination for prediabetes.
  • Alterations in Glucose Effectiveness and Insulin Dynamics: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome or Body Mass Index.

    Vuguin, Patricia; Sopher, Aviva B; Roumimper, Hailey; Chin, Vivian; Silfen, Miriam; McMahon, Donald J; Fennoy, Ilene; Oberfield, Sharon E (2017-05-05)
    To delineate the relationship of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, and hyperandrogenism (HA) with glucose and insulin dynamics in adolescents across a broad body mass index (BMI).
  • Bariatric Surgery in Adolescents: Is Routine Nutrient Supplementation Sufficient to Avoid Anemia Following Bariatric Surgery?

    Goldberg, Hanna R; Chin, Vivian L; Zitsman, Jeffrey L; Zhang, Chengchen; Williams, Kristen M; Oberfield, Sharon; Fennoy, Ilene (2017-03-01)
    Anemia following bariatric surgery is a known complication. To prevent nutrient deficiencies, adolescents require multivitamin/mineral supplementation following bariatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate if routine multivitamin/mineral supplementation is sufficient to prevent anemia in adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery, particularly sleeve gastrectomy (SG), a procedure that may induce nutrient malabsorption.

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