Recent Submissions

  • Sexual minority women and depressive symptoms throughout adulthood.

    Pyra, Maria; Weber, Kathleen M; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Jennifer; Murchison, Lynn; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Golub, Elizabeth T; Cohen, Mardge H (2014-10-16)
    We examined the associations between depressive symptoms and sexual identity and behavior among women with or at risk for HIV.
  • Clinic-wide intervention lowers financial risk and improves revenue to HIV clinics through fewer missed primary care visits.

    Gardner, Lytt I; Marks, Gary; Wilson, Tracey E; Giordano, Thomas P; Sullivan, Meg; Raper, James L; Rodriguez, Allan E; Keruly, Jeanne; Malitz, Faye (2015-04-01)
    : We calculated the financial impact in 6 HIV clinics of a low-effort retention in care intervention involving brief motivational messages from providers, patient brochures, and posters. We used a linear regression model to calculate absolute changes in kept primary care visits from the preintervention year (2008-2009) to the intervention year (2009-2010). Revenue from patients' insurance was also assessed by clinic. Kept visits improved significantly in the intervention year versus the preintervention year (P < 0.0001). We found a net-positive effect on clinic revenue of +$24,000/year for an average-size clinic (7400 scheduled visits/year). We encourage HIV clinic administrators to consider implementing this low-effort intervention.
  • Estimating the cost of increasing retention in care for HIV-infected patients: results of the CDC/HRSA retention in care trial.

    Shrestha, Ram K; Gardner, Lytt; Marks, Gary; Craw, Jason; Malitz, Faye; Giordano, Thomas P; Sullivan, Meg; Keruly, Jeanne; Rodriguez, Allan; Wilson, Tracey E; et al. (2015-03-01)
    Background: Retaining HIV patients in medical care promotes access to antiretroviral therapy, viral load suppression, and reduced HIV transmission to partners. We estimate the programmatic costs of a US multisite randomized controlled trial of an intervention to retain HIV patients in care.
  • Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer.

    Massad, L Stewart; Evans, Charlesnika T; Weber, Kathleen M; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Hessol, Nancy A; Wright, Rodney L; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D; Wilson, Tracey E (2015-04-01)
    Purpose: To describe changes in knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccination among women at high risk for cervical cancer in the first five years after introduction of HPV vaccination.
  • Longitudinal Trends in Sexual Behaviors with Advancing Age and Menopause Among Women With and Without HIV-1 Infection.

    Taylor, Tonya N; Weedon, Jeremy; Golub, Elizabeth T; Karpiak, Stephen E; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H; Levine, Alexandra M; Minkoff, Howard L; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Goparaju, Lakshmi; et al. (2015-05)
    We assessed changes in self-reported sexual activity (SA) over 13 years among HIV-infected and uninfected women. The impact of aging and menopause on SA and unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse (UAVI) was examined among women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), stratifying by HIV status and detectable viral load among HIV-infected women. Generalized mixed linear models were fitted for each outcome, adjusted for relevant covariates. HIV-uninfected women evidenced higher levels of SA and UAVI than HIV-infected. The odds of SA declined by 62-64 % per decade of age. The odds of SA in a 6-month interval for women aged 40-57 declined by 18-22 % post-menopause (controlling for age). Among HIV+/detectable women only, the odds of any UAVI decreased by 17 % per decade of age; the odds of UAVI were unchanged pre-menopause, and then decreased by 28 % post-menopause. Elucidating the factors accounting for ongoing unprotected sex among older women should inform interventions.
  • The Contribution of Missed Clinic Visits to Disparities in HIV Viral Load Outcomes.

    Zinski, Anne; Westfall, Andrew O; Gardner, Lytt I; Giordano, Thomas P; Wilson, Tracey E; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Keruly, Jeanne C; Rodriguez, Allan E; Malitz, Faye; Batey, D Scott; et al. (2015-08-13)
    Objectives: We explored the contribution of missed primary HIV care visits ("no-show") to observed disparities in virological failure (VF) among Black persons and persons with injection drug use (IDU) history.
  • Physician morality and perinatal decisions.

    Minkoff, Howard; Zafra, Katherine; Amrita, Sabharwal; Wilson, Tracey E; Homel, Peter (2016-08-31)
    Objective: Given the same set of "facts" (e.g. fetal prognosis) different physicians may not give the same advice to patients. Studies have shown that people differ in how they prioritize moral domains, but how those domains influence counseling and management has not been assessed among obstetricians. Our objective was to see if, given the same set of facts, obstetricians' counseling would vary depending on their prioritization of moral domains.
  • "The Pleasure Is Better as I've Gotten Older": Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Older Women Living With HIV.

    Taylor, Tonya N; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L; Karpiak, Stephen E; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; et al. (2016-05-24)
    There is limited research examining the sexual health and well-being of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n = 50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n = 2052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 50-69 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women's sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression, and habitual condomless sex with long-term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women.
  • Mechanisms for the Negative Effects of Internalized HIV-Related Stigma on Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Women: The Mediating Roles of Social Isolation and Depression.

    Turan, Bulent; Smith, Whitney; Cohen, Mardge H; Wilson, Tracey E; Adimora, Adaora A; Merenstein, Daniel; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wentz, Eryka L; Foster, Antonina G; Metsch, Lisa; et al. (2016-06-01)
    Background: Internalization of HIV-related stigma may inhibit a person's ability to manage HIV disease through adherence to treatment regimens. Studies, mainly with white men, have suggested an association between internalized stigma and suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there is a scarcity of research with women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds and on mediating mechanisms in the association between internalized stigma and ART adherence.
  • Physical and Sexual Violence Predictors: 20 Years of the Women's Interagency HIV Study Cohort.

    Decker, Michele R; Benning, Lorie; Weber, Kathleen M; Sherman, Susan G; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Jennifer; Plankey, Michael W; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T (2016-08-29)
    Introduction: Gender-based violence (GBV) threatens women's health and safety. Few prospective studies examine physical and sexual violence predictors. Baseline/index GBV history and polyvictimization (intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual assault, and childhood sexual abuse) were characterized. Predictors of physical and sexual violence were evaluated over follow-up.
  • Trends in Nonlipid Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Management in the Women's Interagency HIV Study and Association with Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Hanna, David B; Jung, Molly; Xue, Xiaonan; Anastos, Kathryn; Cocohoba, Jennifer M; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; Hessol, Nancy A; Levine, Alexandra M; Wilson, Tracey E; et al.
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasingly common among women with HIV, but literature on nonlipid CVD risk factor management is lacking. We examined semiannual trends from 2006 to 2014 in hypertension treatment and control (blood pressure <140/90 mmHg), diabetes treatment and control (fasting glucose <130 mg/dL), and smoking quit rates in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models tested time trends and differences between HIV+ and HIV- women. Among antiretroviral therapy (ART) users, we examined the association of ART adherence and virologic suppression with each outcome. We evaluated 1636 HIV+ and 683 HIV- women, with a hypertension prevalence of 40% and 38%, respectively; diabetes prevalence of 21% and 22%; and smoking prevalence of 37% and 48%. Hypertension treatment was higher among HIV+ than HIV- women (77% vs. 67%, p < 0.001) and increased over time with no difference in trend by HIV status. Hypertension control was greater among HIV+ women (56% vs. 43%, p < 0.001) and increased over time among HIV+ but not HIV- women. Diabetes treatment was similar among HIV+ and HIV- women (48% vs. 49%) and increased over time in both groups. Diabetes control was greater among HIV+ women (73% vs. 64%, p = 0.03) and did not change over time. The percent of recent smokers who reported no longer smoking was similar between HIV+ and HIV- women (10% vs. 9%), with no differences over time. Virologic suppression was significantly associated with increased hypertension treatment and greater control. HIV+ women have better control of hypertension and diabetes than HIV- women, but many are still not at target levels.
  • Impact of Health Insurance, ADAP, and Income on HIV Viral Suppression Among US Women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, 2006-2009.

    Ludema, Christina; Cole, Stephen R; Eron, Joseph J; Edmonds, Andrew; Holmes, G Mark; Anastos, Kathryn; Cocohoba, Jennifer; Cohen, Mardge; Cooper, Hannah L F; Golub, Elizabeth T; et al. (2016-11)
    Background: Implementation of the Affordable Care Act motivates assessment of health insurance and supplementary programs, such as the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) on health outcomes of HIV-infected people in the United States. We assessed the effects of health insurance, ADAP, and income on HIV viral load suppression.
  • Positive affect and its association with viral control among women with HIV infection.

    Wilson, Tracey E; Weedon, Jeremy; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Cohen, Jennifer; Fredrickson, Barbara L (2016-09-29)
    Objective: We assessed the relationship between positive affect and viral suppression among women with HIV infection.
  • Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale to assess depression in women with HIV and women at risk for HIV: Are somatic items invariant?

    Adams, Leah M; Wilson, Tracey E; Merenstein, Daniel; Milam, Joel; Cohen, Jennifer; Golub, Elizabeth T; Adedimeji, Adebola; Cook, Judith A (2017-02-23)
    The prevalence of depression among women living with HIV/AIDS is elevated, compared with women in the general population and men diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Although symptoms of HIV may overlap with somatic symptoms of depression, little research has explored how well screening tools accurately assess depression rather than symptoms of HIV/AIDS among women. The present study examined the utility of a widely used tool for assessing depression symptoms among women living with HIV/AIDS. Data are from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a multisite, longitudinal cohort study of women living with HIV/AIDS (n = 1,329) and seronegative women (n = 541) matched on key risk factors for HIV/AIDS. Confirmatory factor analysis-based measurement invariance tests of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were conducted to determine whether women with HIV and those without HIV responded to the scale similarly. Results supported measurement invariance of CES-D scores. Findings suggest that the CES-D can be used to assess for burden of depression symptoms among women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. (PsycINFO Database Record
  • Health Insurance Type and Control of Hypertension Among US Women Living With and Without HIV Infection in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Ludema, Christina; Cole, Stephen R; Eron, Joseph J; Holmes, G Mark; Anastos, Kathryn; Cocohoba, Jennifer; Cohen, Marge H; Cooper, Hannah L F; Golub, Elizabeth T; Kassaye, Seble; et al. (2017-06)
    Background: Health care access is an important determinant of health. We assessed the effect of health insurance status and type on blood pressure control among US women living with (WLWH) and without HIV.
  • Effects of Health Insurance Interruption on Loss of Hypertension Control in Women With and Women Without HIV.

    Edmonds, Andrew; Ludema, Christina; Eron, Joseph J; Cole, Stephen R; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Cohen, Mardge H; Cooper, Hannah L; Fischl, Margaret; Johnson, Mallory O; Krause, Denise D; et al. (2017-07-06)
    Background: Among low-income women with and without HIV, it is a priority to reduce age-related comorbidities, including hypertension and its sequelae. Because consistent health insurance access has been identified as an important factor in controlling many chronic diseases, we estimated the effects of coverage interruption on loss of hypertension control in a cohort of women in the United States.
  • Food Insecurity is Associated with Poor HIV Outcomes Among Women in the United States.

    Spinelli, Matthew A; Frongillo, Edward A; Sheira, Lila A; Palar, Kartika; Tien, Phyllis C; Wilson, Tracey; Merenstein, Daniel; Cohen, Mardge; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wentz, Eryka; et al. (2017-12)
    Women in the general population experience more food insecurity than men. Few studies have examined food insecurity's impact on HIV treatment outcomes among women. We examined the association between food insecurity and HIV outcomes in a multi-site sample of HIV-infected women in the United States (n = 1154). Two-fifths (40%) of participants reported food insecurity. In an adjusted multivariable Tobit regression model, food insecurity was associated with 2.08 times higher viral load (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.15) and lower CD4+ counts (- 42.10, CI: - 81.16, - 3.03). Integration of food insecurity alleviation into HIV programs may improve HIV outcomes in women.
  • Association between Perceived Discrimination in Healthcare Settings and HIV Medication Adherence: Mediating Psychosocial Mechanisms.

    Turan, Bulent; Rogers, Anna Joy; Rice, Whitney S; Atkins, Ghislaine C; Cohen, Mardge H; Wilson, Tracey E; Adimora, Adaora A; Merenstein, Daniel; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wentz, Eryka L; et al. (2017-12)
    There is insufficient research on the impact of perceived discrimination in healthcare settings on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly among women living with HIV, and even less is known about psychosocial mechanisms that may mediate this association. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in a sample of 1356 diverse women living with HIV enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a multi-center cohort study. Indirect effects analysis with bootstrapping was used to examine the potential mediating roles of internalized stigma and depressive symptoms in the association between perceived discrimination in healthcare settings and ART adherence. Perceived discrimination in healthcare settings was negatively associated with optimal (95% or better) ART adherence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.81, p = 0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.68, 0.97]). Furthermore, internalization of stigma and depressive symptoms mediated the perceived discrimination-adherence association: Serial mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of perceived discrimination in healthcare settings on ART adherence, first through internalized HIV stigma, and then through depressive symptoms (B = - 0.08, SE = 0.02, 95% CI [- 0.12, - 0.04]). Perceiving discrimination in healthcare settings may contribute to internalization of HIV-related stigma, which in turn may lead to depressive symptoms, with downstream adverse effects on ART adherence among women. These findings can guide the design of interventions to reduce discrimination in healthcare settings, as well as interventions targeting psychosocial mechanisms that may impact the ability of women living with HIV to adhere to ART regimens.
  • Lessons Learned from the Implementation of a Shared Community-Academic HIV Prevention Intervention.

    Gousse, Yolene; McFarlane, Davin; Fraser, Marilyn; Joseph, Michael; Alli, Bibi; Council-George, Marion; Fraser, Hermione; Romeo, Desmond; Urraca, Nelson; Wellington, Patrick; et al. (2018)
    Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is used to guide the design and evaluation of programs aimed at addressing complex health issues. Effective administrative management of CBPR projects is essential to ensuring the success and fidelity of these programs.
  • Associations Between Medicare Part D and Out-of-Pocket Spending, HIV Viral Load, Adherence, and ADAP Use in Dual Eligibles With HIV.

    Belenky, Nadya; Pence, Brian W; Cole, Stephen R; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Edmonds, Andrew; Oberlander, Jonathan; Plankey, Michael W; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Jennifer; et al. (2018-01)
    Background: The implementation of Medicare part D on January 1, 2006 required all adults who were dually enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles) to transition prescription drug coverage from Medicaid to Medicare part D. Changes in payment systems and utilization management along with the loss of Medicaid protections had the potential to disrupt medication access, with uncertain consequences for dual eligibles with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who rely on consistent prescription coverage to suppress their HIV viral load (VL).

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