Life of the Mind is an annual showcase of the teaching, research and scholarship, creative activity, service, and varied contributions made by our faculty and staff to the intellectual life of the campus community and beyond.

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  • Non-Cognitive Skills in US and Kenyan Mathematics Curriculum

    Kamina, Penina (2021)
    Is mathematics taught in one country different from another one? How do concepts such as division, multiplication or facts like pi or mathematical conventions such PEMDAS/BODMAS compare from one country to another? True that mathematical content is the same regardless of the global location. The context and method used to present the concepts may vary from one place to another but the idea and notion stays the same. Aside from content, there are other learning found in mathematics classrooms that are not cognitive-oriented but very crucial and fundamental in preparing students to thrive as citizens of their nation and beyond. This presentation highlights the non-cognitive skill sets or soft skills, found in the US and in Kenyan math curricula—talk describes the attributes of the soft skills found in both countries as well as compares and contrasts these curricula. Presently, Kenya is on its fifth year of implementing competency-based curriculum where one of its main foci is on building capacity in communication and collaboration, self-efficacy, critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and imagination, citizenship, digital literacy, and learning to learn. The discussion explores how these seven non-content based core competencies look like in mathematics classrooms plus their implications in education. On the other hand, currently several US States have adapted the Common Core mathematics, which has two types of standards; that is, the mathematical content standards and standards for mathematical practice (SMP). The SMP are soft skills and core practices that Pre-K up to grade 12 students must be well versed in by the time they move to tertiary education. There are eight SMPs, which the presentation will focus on. The SMPs include: make sense of problems and persevere in solving them; reason abstractly and quantitatively; construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others; model with mathematics; use appropriate tools strategically; attend to precision; look for and make use of structure and look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. The presentation shades light on these important soft skills, by making them more explicit. Note that the non-cognitive skillsets embedded in math classrooms carries more significant weight of learning; way much more than mere memorizing of procedural routine of finding an answer to a math problem. For instance, the aftermath of solving a math problem to its end to a solution set, is crucial since the ensuing attributes of endurance, determination and resiliency are examples of non-cognitive skill sets that will carry one outside the mathematics classroom, or in problem solving real life opportunities and challenges or in service to a country.
  • Surviving Through Your SCARs: Humanistic Strategies for a World Gone Wild

    Green, Michael (2021)
    The aim of this work is to answer two questions: According to the humanities, what kind of world do we inhabit, and what strategies can the humanities provide for surviving and thriving in this world? We inhabit a world of volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity, which in our current situation manifests itself in international instability due to the decline of Western empires, social instability due to racial conflicts, financial instability due to an unstable currency, and economic instability due to the transition into the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Such volatility creates emotional scars, and the humanistic strategies for managing these scars are Self-Reliance, Creative Problem Solving, Adaptability, and Resilience (SCARs).
  • What Is the SUNY Oneonta Faculty Fellows Program?

    Aucoin, Brendan; Bishop, Jacqueline S. (Bruscella); Fall, Leigh; Montoya, Maria (2021)
    The Faculty Fellows (previously called Administrative Fellows) Program is a pilot program in Academic Affairs that addresses faculty leadership, institutional needs, and collaboration. It provides professional development opportunities for those who are considering administrative roles, by developing focused projects. The projects are addressing SUNY Oneonta’s mission critical goals in experiential learning, student engagement and retention, and inclusivity/diversity. The faculty fellows are an interdisciplinary team that strengthen the roles and offices of the academic deans and library director by integrating the academic schools/units. The 2021-2022 cohort includes Brendan Aucoin (Milne Library), Jacqueline (Bruscella) Bishop (Communication and Media), Leigh M. Fall (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences), and Maria Cristina Montoya (Foreign Languages and Literatures). Brendan is working on a series of projects related to highlighting SUNY Oneonta research and scholarship in the Milne Library. Among these are the development of the Library Special Researcher program for students and creating more opportunities to showcase faculty scholarship in the library. Jackie is working on a series of interrelated initiatives centered on experiential learning. Through cross-campus collaborations. Jackie's project seeks to a) increase access to on-campus and local internship opportunities, b) improve student, faculty, and site-supervisor understanding and use of Handshake, and c) strengthen career readiness programming for students, particularly those studying in the liberal arts. Leigh is working on two projects for the School of Sciences. One project is researching mechanisms of how interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary courses and research happens within the school, highlighting potential barriers and opportunities. The other project is researching past and current STEM experiential learning opportunities to help faculty provide productive experiences for students. MC is working on three projects: first the internationalization of the School of EHESS, including a focus on Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL) as a platform; second, developing the curricula and partnerships for the Bilingual Education graduate program; third, diverse faculty retention.
  • Music in a Sacred Space Presents Pianist Adam Kent in a Virtual Recital

    Kent, Adam (2021)
    The Pandemic may have imposed a temporary halt on live performances, but musicians and concert presenters continued to find innovative ways of bringing live music to audiences hungry for solace and beauty. “Music in a Sacred Space” at The Church on the Hill in Flushing, New York sponsored a virtual piano recital I was pleased to offer there last January. The program included works by Mozart, Chopin, Gershwin and Turina, and remains accessible on YouTube.
  • Promoting Recruitment, Opportunity, Diversity, Inclusion and Growth (PRODiG) at SUNY Oneonta

    Allen, Tracy; Tiapo, Bernadette (2021)
    This presentation will describe SUNY Oneonta’s PRODiG program, demonstrate program success, and spotlight PRODiG faculty. The purpose of PRODiG is to increase the representation of historically underrepresented faculty at SUNY, including underrepresented minority (URM) faculty and women faculty of all races in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields (WSTEM). PRODiG is envisioned as part of our broader campus diversity and inclusion initiatives. In our second year of participation, SUNY Oneonta formalized a strong working committee, the PRODiG Steering Committee, with the charge to move forward action items toward our goals to: increase representation of URM/WSTEM faculty through hiring and retention; enhance the pipeline of URM/WSTEM students pursuing and entering graduate school and URM/WSTEM graduates to academic careers; and improve the campus climate for diversity, equity, and inclusion. To date, SUNY has approved four PRODIG Faculty at SUNY Oneonta: Cohort I (2019-2020) - Dr. Angela Migues, Chemistry & Biochemistry, and Dr. Elio Santos, Psychology; Cohort II (2020-2021) - Dr. Kimberly Cossey, Chemistry & Biochemistry, and Dr. Valerie Rapson, Physics & Astronomy; and one PRODiG Pre/Post-Doctoral Fellow - Dr. Casey Coomes, Biology. In addition to Co-Chairs Tracy Allen and Bernadette Tiapo, members of the PRODiG Steering Committee include Kelly Gallagher (Chemistry & Biochemistry), Tracy Hartwell (Human Resources), Shahin Kachwala (Women’s & Gender Studies), Kathy Meeker (Grants Development Office), Diana Moller (College Assistance Migrant Program), Joshua Nelson (Institutional Assessment), Rhea Nowak (Faculty Center), Andrew Stammel (Student Development), and Napoleon Tipao (Academic Affairs).
  • Why We Should Theorize about Families

    Rombo, Dorothy (2021)
    The purpose of the presentation is to showcase the role of theories in understanding families to challenge lay interpretations of family life experience and add the voice of expert knowledge in a field of study that can easily be detached from such realities. Conversations about families are privatized and individualized. There are examples of contradictory statements that are sometimes applied to express behaviors associated with family and intimate relations. For example, a friend might confide in another regarding her experience in a romantic relationship saying that they are worried about being in a long-distance relationship and quip that hearts grow fonder when people are apart or add that out of sight out of mind may explain why they are worried. Another example is accounted for in mate selection where at times we make statements to the effect that opposites attract or birds of a feather flock together. These are contradictory statements that theorize about family and intimate relationships. Likewise, it is likely that when friends consult one another about family or relational issue the response is often based on individual experience or assumptions made from a very narrow world view. After all we might have just one family life experience for reference. Sometimes including even contradictory statements. This is an attempt to make an argument for differentiating personal experience from expert knowledge to justify theorizing about families to debunk layman and individualized interpretations of family life. Drawing on examples ranging from metaphors and analogies and selected relatable theories of family, the presentation will justify the role of theory in explaining family life.
  • Is it Happening to You? Workplace Bullying, Mobbing, and other Forms of Workplace Psychological Abuse are More Prevalent than you Think!

    Stalter, Heather (2021)
    Self-censorship, mistrust, loss of morale, resentment, isolation, burnout, headaches, hair loss, sleep problems, eating disorders, stomach ulcers, coronary heart disease, chronic health conditions, panic attacks, anxiety, clinical depression, PDSD, suicidal ideation. These are not things one hopes for when earning a living; however, they can be just a few of the very real consequences of workplace psychological abuse. Despite the plethora of documented evidence of the long-lasting damage done to targets, witnesses, and organizations, workplace psychological abuse, in any of its manifestations, is prevalent and pervasive in many workplaces, including on college campuses. Since its launch on September 27, 2021, the library guide Resources on Bullying, Mobbing, and Other Forms of Workplace Psychological Violence has received 196 views, indicating that the topic is of considerable interest on this campus. The guide and my presentation are inspired by an extensive literature review, my own personal experiences with mobbing, a desire to help others, and a strong determination to encourage awareness in everyone.
  • Milne Library as Scholarly Partner

    Aucoin, Brendan; Stewart, Karen (2021)
    During fall semester 2021, Brendan Aucoin (Milne Library) and Karen Stewart (Communication and Media) collaborated to present Leap of Faith, an applied-learning video game project, to the campus community. The game's opening reception and month-long installation at Milne Library served as a means for displaying creative faculty scholarship publicly, and as an opportunity for the library to partner with faculty scholars in new and exciting ways. In this presentation, Brendan and Karen discuss the ways the library acted as a scholarly collaborator, including the repurposing of a storage room as a display space for scholarship, library support in furthering the development of the game, and library resources curated to support game studies at SUNY Oneonta.
  • Midnight Bouquet

    Aultman, Jody (2021)
    Gold work is embroidery using metal threads and bullions. It is thought to have been created in Asia nearly 2000 years ago. In the Middle Ages England developed a style called Opus Anglicanum, which means “English work.” It refers to embroideries in ecclesiastical hangings. (Pile, 2018) Many were worked on linen showing religious themes. (Bumpkin, 2015) The 12th century saw a decline in goldwork embroidery due to the plague killing half of the population. The 16th century saw a revival of the technique of heavily embroidered garments which were used as attire for the rich, creating a status symbol for the wealthy. (Pile, 2018) Early 19th century disappeared from fashion with a limited use in haute couture. Today goldwork embroidery is used for military pieces, religious and ceremonial purposes. (Bumpkin, 2015) Today goldwork is no longer privileged to the church and the wealthy, although it is very time consuming with stunning looks. The goldwork attracts attention from embroiderers going in new directions with the art. The larger meaning of this project is to create a garment using goldwork embroidery. I have used many embroidery techniques throughout my life and have had many students approach me wanting to learn. Since we do not have anything like this in our curriculum, I do independent studies with the students. While I was searching for different embroidery supplies and to see what was new or different, I came across the goldwork embroidery. I would like to create a garment using goldwork embroidery on black silk charmeuse evening dress. My plan is to make an evening gown out of black silk charmeuse, with a full skirt and tulle to help hold the shape. On the bodice of the dress, I plan to use different gold threads, Flatworm, Gimp Cords, Grecian Twist, Purl Threads, etc. to design a pattern. I will also use some gold on the skirt in various places, but not too much as the gold is heavy and can weigh the flow of the skirt down. I think this project will help my personal skills grow in that I can experiment with the goldwork and see what kinds of designs I can create. Once I become more familiar with the gold work embroidery, I will be better equipped to assist students in learning this advanced skill.
  • Reproduction across the Four Fields of Anthropology

    Han, Sallie; Betsinger, Tracy K.; Rudzik, Alanna E. F. (2021)
    The Routledge Handbook of Anthropology and Reproduction is a comprehensive overview of the topics, approaches, and trajectories in the anthropological study of human reproduction. The book—which will be available in print and as an e-book in November 2021—brings together work from across the discipline of anthropology, with contributions by scholars in archaeological, biological, linguistic, and sociocultural anthropology. A significant theme of the Handbook, which is co-edited by Han and Dr. Cecília Tomori (Johns Hopkins University), is the need to engage in conversations across the subdisciplines of anthropology. Featured in the volume are chapters on the bioarchaeology of reproduction (Betsinger), the sociolinguistics of pregnancy (Han), and the culture and biology of human infant sleep (Rudzik).
  • Faculty Publications in the Alden Room: The Alden Scholar Series

    Wienke, Lori; Stalter, Heather; Rhodes, Sarah; Hendley, Michelle; Dourlaris, Christie; Bensen, Mary Lynn (2021)
    One of the many treasures of the Alden Room in Milne Library is the Faculty Publications Collection. In this collection are books on various subjects written by faculty, professional staff, and administrative staff over the course of the College’s history since its foundation in 1889 as the Oneonta Normal School.
  • Integrating Service-Learning is Easier than You Think!

    Solano, Gina L. (2021)
    Are you interested in increasing student engagement as well as promoting social justice in your courses? If you have considered incorporating service-learning into one or more of your classes, but haven’t been sure about how to get started, join this session for inspiration and ideas about how to begin designing service-learning projects. Strategies will be shared about how to design projects that encourage students to become actively involved in the local community as well as how to create your own network of community partners. No matter what your content area is, there is always a way to have your students provide service, which not only reinforces the content and your course’s learning objectives but also benefits students by teaching them empathy, understanding, how to reduce bias, and provides them with an awareness of community issues. Academically, students benefit from service-learning through real-world application of the concepts and skills they are learning in their courses. Their experiences in the community build their resume as well as provide them with opportunities to network and open new doors of possibility. Come learn how to make a local, national, and even an international impact through incorporating service-learning into your pedagogy.
  • Bringing Social Studies alive for Elementary Education Majors

    Jakubowski, Casey (2021)
    NCSS, and other organizations concerned with civic education have announced, researched and reported that social studies is one of the least taught core four subjects in elementary school. As Elementary Education majors are weeded, screened, tested, and valued based upon literacy and numeracy skills, social studies is pushed by schools facing state accountability sanctions to the back of the priority list. Yet we have all gathered civics is crucial, and imperative in conjunction with the other four identified key social studies inquiry areas. The NCSS, and New York State have charged a new course, with the C3 (College, career and civics life) standards at the national level, and the new New York State Common Core Learning Standards aligned social studies frameworks, designed to refresh the New York State 2001 state learning standards frameworks. While the legislation, Commissioner’s regulations, and secondary testing elements of the Regents exams in Global History and Geography as well as the United States History and Geography exams weigh heavily on secondary teachers, elementary teachers found conflict with the demands of ELA and math, and limited time during the day. Further, Elementary Education majors, when surveyed, found social studies one of the least interesting subjects, and often were, in their own opinions, unprepared to teach classes after the General Education courses required for a bachelor's degree. This research is based on action research of my own instruction into the Inquiry Design Method (IDM), pioneered by the C3 teachers. Essentially, the practice asks teachers to engage their students in “big ideas” and “big questions” by deep diving into events and happenings which dramatically impact the narrative created for social studies. I take this a step further, and ask my students in methods classes to focus on the love of investigation. Over the course of the semester, we have examined how the social studies K-6 frameworks intersect with other disciplines, and their cross curricular integration and purpose. I describe this work in my now under contract work Engaging the Citizenry (Edumatch 2022). As a class we investigate centers, designed around the five senses. We examine how family histories are part of the “Grand narrative” of the past. We implemented a living history day comparing tools, cooking, and shelter of different time periods from the Paleolithic to the Civil War. As a class, we remember that subjects should not be isolated, and that the “core four” create the scaffold for every learning experience each student has. In this day and age of information overload, we stop, and we reflect on critical questions: Why do you think? What do you wonder? How can we investigate?
  • Immune-Mediated Repair and Regeneration of the Nervous System

    Duscher, Kristen; Chumpitazi, Christina; Watanabe, Junryo (2021)
    All animals have the ability to repair damaged or diseased tissues. The degree to which regeneration can occur can vary from some invertebrates and vertebrates regenerating entire limbs, to mammals which have a very restricted regenerative capacity. While damages to muscle, peripheral nerves, and, to a limited extent, liver initiates regenerative programs to restore function, the central nervous system (CNS) healing is largely incomplete. Rapid and efficient clearance of cellular debris is necessary for tissue regeneration to occur. Myelin debris can be found in the white matter tracts years after an injury to the CNS in both humans and primates. Myelin is a membrane outgrowth of glial cells that ensheath axons purpose of which is to allow fast saltatory conduction of action potential along the axon. Myelin sheath also has within it many proteins that are inhibitory for axon growth, presumably to prevent errant axon sprouting. The prolonged presence of myelin-associated inhibitors of axon regeneration is thought to be a major contributor to the failure of recovery after injury to the CNS. Myelin in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) also contains inhibitors of axon regeneration. In stark contrast to the CNS, injury to the PNS results in rapid clearance of myelin thereby making the environment permissive for axon regeneration. It has been demonstrated that endogenous antibodies are required for rapid and robust clearance of myelin debris after injury to the PNS. Endogenous antibodies enter the site of injury and bind myelin debris which recruits macrophages to rapidly phagocytose the debris. It was hypothesized that Th2 activated (alternatively activated) macrophages (or M2 macrophages) are playing a critical role in the clearance of myelin and other apoptotic debris in PNS injury. Perhaps, then, this might be another explanation why the PNS recovers and the CNS fails to recover after injury. This would have significant implications for people who suffer from spinal cord injuries.
  • Together We Grow: A Thriving Community Garden Initiative in the City of Oneonta

    Virk-Baker, Mandeep (2021)
    The City of Oneonta has a higher prevalence of food insecurity (12.0% vs. 10.5%), and a higher poverty rate (29.0% vs. 13.7%) as compared to the US. Majority of the city population (53%) lives in food desserts that are lacking access to fresh and healthful whole foods. Purpose of the project was to test the feasibility of Oneonta Community Gardens Initiative and provide opportunity for the residents to grow healthful and affordable fresh food and participate in creating green space. Methods: The City of Oneonta donated land and provided needed resources for the community garden. The garden is divided into 30 spaces and has options for handicap accessibility. Various stakeholders including local elected officials, city employees, residents, and local volunteer groups worked collaboratively for setting up the garden. The City of Oneonta created guidelines for organic-only gardening, and an application process for the residents to obtain permits for gardening at the community garden. Results: The Oneonta Community Gardens initiative began with 30 organic gardening spaces. A total of 12 households participated in 2018, and the participation increased to 22 households in 2019. The participation during the COVID19 pandemic reached its full capacity with 30 households in 2020, and 30 households participating for the 2021 gardening season. Conclusion: The initiative has been well received by the local community and demonstrates the feasibility of a successful community garden. The project could serve as an example for other cities and municipalities with high food insecurity and areas with high poverty rates.
  • Dietary Differences among Light vs. Heavy Smokers from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer (ATBC) Prevention Study Cohort

    Virk-Baker, Mandeep; Weinstein, Stephanie; Parascandola, Mark; Albanes, Demetrius (2021)
    Background: Smokers tend to have a poorer diet as compared to non-smokers. Less is known about dietary differences between light vs. heavy smokers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate reported dietary intake by the level of smoking and its link to cancer mortality. Methods: Using data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, we evaluated dietary intake among light vs. heavy smokers in Finnish male smokers, aged 50 - 69 years. We analyzed the association of these dietary intakes with cancer mortality and survival for the cohort participants. Out of 27,111 participants, 17,300 (63.8%) reported smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day and were classified as heavy-smokers, and 9,811 (36.2%) reported smoking ˂ 20 cigarettes/day and were classified as light-smokers. Dietary data were collected at the baseline using a detailed Food Frequency Questionnaire. Cancer deaths were ascertained until 2016 using the Finland Cancer Registry. Results: Reported intakes of cereal (212.13 ± 0.67 vs. 221.78 ± 0.84 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001), vegetables (110.91 ± 0.54 vs. 118.29 ± 0.71 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001), fruits (209.91 ± 1.48 vs. 232.44 ± 1.98 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001), and total dietary fiber (18.44 ± 19.29 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001) were significantly lower among heavy-smokers as compared to light-smokers. Reported intakes of red meat (73.14 ± 0.27 vs. 68.04 ± 0.32 g/day; p ˂0.00001), processed meat (78.10 ± 0.47 vs. 69.44 ± 0.54 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001), dairy products (737.23 ± 3.06 vs. 719.42 ± 3.74 g/day; p ˂ 0.0001), coffee (640.56 ± 2.80 vs. 549.23 ± 3.13 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001), and alcohol (20.55 ± 0.18 vs. 13.50 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001) were significantly higher among heavy-smokers as compared to light-smokers. Conclusions: Dietary intake varies significantly by the level of smoking and heavy-smokers have poorer intakes as compared to light-smokers. The observed dietary differences have important implications for cancer prevention and control efforts, suggesting a need to incorporate dietary components into tobacco cessation interventions. Funding: This research was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH and the National Cancer Institute. Additionally, this research was supported by U.S. Public Health Service contracts N01-CN-45165, N01-RC-45035, N01-RC-37004, HHSN261201000006C, and HHSN261201500005C from the National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services. Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Exploration of Gun Violence in Our Schools

    VanSlyke-Briggs, Kjersti; Waid, Nicole; Lowe, Brian; Rhodes, Sarah; Keel, Gina; Thornton, Frank (2021)
    Explorations of Gun Violence in Our Schools presents featured chapters by SUNY Oneonta faculty from two recently published texts about K-12 school shootings in the United States. "A Relentless Threat: Scholars Respond to Teens on Weaponized School Violence" and "Dress Rehearsals for Gun Violence: Confronting Trauma and Anxiety in America’s Schools" were both published in 2021.
  • Against all Odds: Experiential, Collaborative and Service Teaching during the Strange Days of Remote Instruction

    Stengler, A. Erik; Johnson, Mary (2021)
    The academic year 2020/21 presented serious challenges for teaching and learning. One of the major difficulties was to maintain the standards of experiential learning despite the switch to online/dual instruction modalities and the sudden withdrawal of funds that were already allocated, precisely when there was more need of them than ever in order to create alternative experiential learning opportunities. Despite these obstacles the Science Track courses of the Cooperstown Graduate Program managed to continue to provide the experiential learning projects that are part and parcel of their curriculum, with the added value of also maintaining and cultivating the collaborations with external institutions from our surrounding communities for whom these projects are an essential service, at a time when they most needed the support that CGP is well known to provide through service teaching. The projects include the design of activities for the Wings of Eagles Discovery Center in Horseheads, NY; research on public gardens on Otsego county for the Cornell Cooperative Extension in Cooperstown, NY; the creation of an audio guide to historic buildings and sites in Little Falls, NY for the Little Falls Historical Society; and the participation in an international educational collaboration to reproduce the measurement of the circumference of the Earth by the Greek polymath Erathostenes in the 3rd century BC. All these activities could be performed in compliance with all restrictions and limitations that were in effect at any given time; most of them were carried out outdoors. We present a brief summary of these projects and a status report of our plans to make the outputs of Science Track projects like these publicly available through a dedicated public online repository.
  • Dextral and Extensional Faults in the Iron Mountains, Southwest Virginia; Strain Variation in an Over-thickened Salient Wedge During Late Stage Alleghanian Collision

    Scharman, Mitchell (2021)
    Along strike strain variation related to the Alleghanian Orogeny are observed in the Iron Mountains, southwest Virginia, located in the transition between the Virginia salient and Tennessee recess. A regional scale dextral transpression fault—the E-W striking Byllesby-Falls fault system (BFFS)—is present across the Iron Mountains. Tectonic convergence direction during the later stages of the Alleghanian orogeny transitioned from an initial NW-directed transport phase to a WNW-directed transport phase (e.g. Wise, 2004). This change in tectonic transport direction introduced a lateral kinematic component into the structural corner of the orogen and was accommodated by formation of the BFFS during the later Alleghanian stage. Additionally, there are 2 populations of mesoscale normal faults observed in Iron Mountains: 1) faults orthogonal to BFFS with purely normal slip motion, and 2) faults parallel to the BFFS with either oblique normal slip or alternating between normal and dextral slip motion. The first normal slip fault population is appropriately oriented to accommodate tangential extension along the BFFS during oblique convergence in the structural corner. The second normal fault population may have formed to accommodate extension in response to an over-steepening orogenic wedge as it exceeded critical taper angle. However, this normal fault population also accommodated dextral motion within the salient wedge. These fault populations in the Iron Mountains indicate that extension and dextral transpression motion were simultaneously active components and record three-dimensional structural processes in the salient wedge during the last stage of Alleghanian collision.
  • Depth Perception in 2D Images

    Madden, David; Vandenplas, Devon; Baum, Jessica; Flug, Natalie; Garcia, Jonathan; Schumer, Benjamin; Maurno, Katherine; Staropoli, Mark; Tadbiri, Dina; Santos, Elio M. (2021)
    When near and far objects in two-dimensional images, are carefully aligned so that they appear to be interacting with each other, misperceived distance can lead to misperception of object size. This technique is usually referred to as forced perspective. We studied the depth perception of a small sample of college students who viewed forced perspective images and were asked to make judgements of size or the distance of objects. Some of the factors we examined included: familiar size, relative size, distance, knowledge of the metric system, binocular vision related symptoms, and the action and reactions in the pictures. Preliminary analysis showed that most participants were able to make accurate judgements of absolute size and distance, but not when asked to make comparisons of the relative size of two objects. Relative size seems to be one of the most compelling cues creating forced perspective images. Future work will include correlational analysis that can capture the relationship and strength of the each of the factors in this study.

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