Now showing items 1-20 of 6638

    • Restoration of a Lake Ontario-connected fen through invasive Typha removal

      Graham, Andie; Mudrzynski, Bradley; Polzer, Eli; Wilcox, Douglas A. (Society for Ecological Restroation, 2022-04)
      Lake-level regulation that began in 1960 eliminated large fluctuations of Lake Ontario water levels, altering coastal wetland plant communities. More than a half century later, the altered hydroperiod supports dense, monotypic stands of invasive cattail (Typha angustifolia and Typha glauca), which have diminished overall plant community diversity. As a result, Lake Ontario coastal wetlands are less capable of providing many of their traditional ecological functions. One such wetland is Buttonwood Fen, a floating, lake-connected peatland on Lake Ontario’s southern shore near Rochester, NY. We implemented cattailcontrol measures from 2016 to 2018 with the goal of decreasing live and dead cattail biomass and increasing cover of native fen taxa. Site manipulation included removal of dead cattail biomass, cutting new cattail growth when rhizome carbohydrate reserves were at their lowest, and hand-wicking regrowth with herbicide in early fall. Results showed a decrease in live cattail stem density and cover and dead biomass cover, as well as an increase in cover of fen taxa. Although not a replicated study, our results suggest that removing dead cattail biomass and targeted treatment of live cattail stems via cutting and hand-wicking with glyphosate can reduce cattail and improve site quality.
    • Wetlands in Regulated Great Lakes

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Meeker, James E. (U.S. Department of the Interior--National Biologicl Service, 1995)
    • Wetland and Aquatic Macrophytes as Indicators of Anthropogenic Hydrologic Disturbance

      Wilcox, Douglas A. (Natural Areas Journal, 1995)
      Hydrologic disturbance can affect wetland and aquatic macrophyte communities by creating temporal changes in soil moisture or water depth. Such disturbances are natural and help maintain wetland diversity; however, anthropogenic changes in wetland hydrology may have negative effects on wetlands. Since plant communities respond to habitat alterations, observations of plant-community changes may be used to recognize effects of hydrologic disturbances that are otherwise not well understood. A number of plants, including Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaf cattail) and Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife), are recognized as disturbance species; they are often fond in roadside ditches, in wetlands that have been partially drained, or in low areas that have been flooded. Other species commonly occur on mudflats exposed by lowering of water levels. In addition, wetland shrubs and trees invade of die as a result of draining or flooding. In more subtle terms, the relative composition of plant communities can change without the addition or loss of species, and zonation patterns may develop or change as a result of altered hydrology. Remote sensing (photointerpretation) and field vegetation studies, coupled with monitoring of water levels, are recommended for gaining an understanding of hydrologic diturbances in wetlands.
    • Response of wetland vegetation to the post-1986 decrease in Lake St. Clair water levels: Seed-bank emergence and beginnings of the Phragmites australis invasion

      Wilcox, Douglas A. (Elsevier, 2012)
      Water-level fluctuations are critical for maintaining the diversity and resultant habitat value of wetland plant communities in the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, activation of the seed bank can also provide an opportunity for invasive species to displace native species, as occurred when common reed, Phragmites australis, expanded across many wetlands after lake levels receded following highs in 1997. Timing of the invasion process is not clear, however, as Phragmites propagules had to be present to exploit the exposed soils. A data set from Dickinson Island on the St. Clair River delta collected in 1988–1991, 1996 during a previous lake-level decline was analyzed to document prior Phragmites growth, as well as overall seed-bank response. Aboveground biomass was determined for all plants each year in randomly placed quadrats in a 5-ha area exposed when lake levels decreased by 0.65 m from 1986 to 1988. A total of 38 taxa were identified in 1988, but the number decreased, along with biomass of many species, as canopy-dominating Typha angustifolia and Phragmites increased in later years. Although Phragmites did not expand greatly until after the decline from the 1997 high, it likely inoculated the area with viable seed during the previous low. Because post-1997 lake levels were lower than those post-1986, they exposed a greater area for Phragmites colonization from seed; lake levels also remained low for a longer time. Differences in bathymetry below the 1986 and 1997 lake-level elevations likely played a role in greater post-1997 spatial expansion of Phragmites at other sites in the Great Lakes also. The next high lake level will likely be required to displace Phragmites, but the effect will be temporary.
    • The Carbonate Chemistry of Green Lake, Jamesville, NY

      Effler, Steven W.; Field, Stephen D.; Wilcox, Douglas A. (Oikos Publishers, 1981-08)
      The temporal and vertical distributions of inorganic carbon and related forms were assessed for the mixolimnion of Green Lake, Jamesville, NY based on a biweekly monitoring program conducted for a 14-month period. The daily time structure of the distributions was delineated for a single diurnal cycle. Attendant [H2CO3] ([H2CO3] + [CO2 (aq)]) and calcite equilibrium conditions were determined through a solution of equilibrium equations, adjusted for temperature and ionic-strength. Inorganic carbon equilibrium conditions within the iron-rich chemocline/monolimnion were evaluated with the aid of a computer model, which incorporated ion-pair interactions, utilizing data obtained from a single sampling.
    • Meromixis and Stability at Green Lake, Jamesville, NY, Sept. 1977 - Nov. 1978

      Effler, Steven W.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Field, Stephen D. (Oikos Publishers, 1981-08)
      The meromictic character of Green Lake, Jamesville, NY, is described based on a biweekly monitoring program conducted for 14 months. A sharp chemical gradient was observed in the lower waters throughout the study, supporting the classification of the lake as meromictic. An isodensity plot is presented for the study period. Densities were estimated with an equation of state obtained from the literature, which incorporated depth, temperature, and specific conductance information. Temporal variations in total stability are depicted, which were mitigated by seasonal thermal stratification. The chemical stability component remained constant (closed system value of 32.4 g-cm cm(-2)), and contributed only 5.7% to the total, for the maximum stability case. The work of wind in distributing the summer heat income (8,750 g-cl cm(-2)) was 348 g-cm (-2). Based on the identity of the chemically enriched forms within the chemline/monolimnion, the low magnitude of the chemical stability the large seasonal contribution of thermal stability to total stability, and the lake settling, it is probable that the lake is an example of biogenic meromixis.
    • Palaeohydrographic reconstructions from strandplains of beach ridges in the Laurentian Great Lakes

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Johnston, John W; Thompson, Todd A. (The Geological Society of London, 2014)
      The current temporal and spatial context of water-level change, drivers of change, and possible future scenarios of the Laurentian Great Lakes is controversial. Palaeohydrographs are being constructed from measured subsurface elevations of palaeo-swash zones and modelled ages in strandplains of beach ridges that are preserved in embayments along the lakes’ edge. More than 800 elevations and 200 ages have been collected from 15 strandplains to construct site strandplain palaeohydrographs. Palaeo-beach elevations from whole strandplains or sets of correlative palaeo-beaches within strandplains are then used to establish an outlet palaeohydrograph for each lake. Adjusting strandplain palaeohydrograph elevations to account for glacial isostatic adjustment and refining age models help define the outlet palaeohydrograph. Common basin-wide water-level patterns and changes in outlet location or conveyance can then be interpreted. Systematic patterns of elevation and geomorphic/sedimentologic properties in individual, groups and sets of beach ridges in strandplains suggest that long-termpatterns of water-level change and sediment supply occurred on decadal, centennial and millennial scales. Outlet palaeohydrograph construction for Lake Superior revealed discrepancies between geological and historical rates of glacial isostatic adjustment. These differences are currently being investigated using new data from Lake Huron.
    • The effects of NaCl Deicing Salts on Sphagnum Recurvum P. Beauv

      Wilcox, Douglas A. (Environmental and Experimental Botany, 1984)
      In response to documented impacts of deicing salt runoff from a salt storage area along the Indiana Toll Road on the vegetation of Pinhook Bog, a student of the effect on NACl on one of the prominent bryophytes of the bog was initiated. Salt concentrations between 300 and 1500 mg/l as CL significantly reduced growth in length of Sphagnum recurvum in laboratory cultures. Growth in biomass was also reduced at higher concentrations under certain treatment conditions. Chloride appeared to be a greater growth inhibitor than chloride. In experiments in which water contact was reduced and evaporational plant surfaces increased, salt was deposited on plant tips through the evapotranspiration process, resulting in plant mortality at all NaCl concentrations tested. Washing of plant to simulate rainfall removed the salt encrustations, but they developed again quickly and produced similar lethal effects within 3 weeks of the last wash treatment. Since growth reduction and mortality of S. recurvum were shown at NaCl concentrations observed in Pinhook Bog, it is likely that deicing salts were responsible for the elimination of Sphagnum from the impacted area.
    • Promoting Academic Growth for ELLs with Socioemotional Learning

      Barrett, Joshua (SUNY Brockport, Department of Education and Human Development, 2022-08-01)
      The problem I want to address is the lack of soco-emotional support given to ELLs in their educational journey. This problem affects ELLs mentally as well as academically. There needs to be a focus on the academic aspect with support of the mental aspect. Without proper support, ELLS social and emotional health declines and their academic performance is not showcased to its fullest extent. Teachers are not able to differentiate lessons and develop plans for ELLs as their social and emotional health are not taken into consideration. By implementing strategies, the child’s full identity can be represented and their academic skills are showcased. This is showcased in a professional development, targeting teachers, and focusing on the learning goal of defining socioemotional learning and its connection to academic skills for ELLs. The findings of the associated research and professional development opportunity gives insight to how the use of socioemotional learning improves ELLs academic abilities. The field of socioemotional learning is an evolving subject, so research must continue in order to determine the most accurate information associated with the effect on academic development.
    • Differentiated Instruction for English Language Learners

      Albaram, Khadigeh M. (SUNY Brockport, Department of Education and Human Development, 2022-08-01)
      This capstone project aims to support teachers who work with English Language Learners (ELLs), also known as English Learners (ELs). The goal of this capstone is to help teachers integrate differentiated instruction (DI) for ELLs into their regular lessons. The one-size-fits-all strategy teachers have been using for so long is no longer appropriate for our students' needs, preferences, and learning styles. To enhance students' learning, teachers must differentiate instruction and offer them a variety of learning opportunities. This capstone project shows that ELL students make academic progress when DI is implemented. Their success is influenced by the overall school setting, not just classroom instruction. Research in this project has revealed effective instructional strategies necessary to provide support to all ELLs in the classroom. These effective instructional strategies are also included in the professional development designed to help teachers at Discovery Charter School support ELLs.
    • “As Black as They Were Before”: The History of Skin Colour and the History of the Holy Rood-Tree

      Wade, Erik (Early Middle English, 2022-06-06)
      A twelfth-century manuscript preserves an English homily known as the History of the Holy Rood-Tree. In it, the three Rods of Moses perform a number of miracles, including turning the skin of several Ethiopian men and their sons white. The Ethiopian mothers, however, remain Black. The History is perhaps the earliest surviving English text to create a hierarchy of skin colour, and to explicitly state that white skin is more beautiful than black skin. This article frames the History as an early chapter in the history of European depictions of Blackness. The Ethiopians know and respect God, and the History represents their Blackness as abject yet affording insight into God that white characters do not have. At the same time, they implicitly desire whiteness, in an uncanny precursor to the internalized feelings of inferiority that Frantz Fanon described for modern Black people. The History reminds us of the truth of Fanon’s claims that the European past holds modern Black people prisoner, and that it is important to write long histories of race and anti-Blackness.
    • Great Lakes Clams Find Refuge From Zebra Mussels in Restored, Lake-Connected Marsh

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine (Ecological Restoration, 2004)
    • Assessing Plethodon cinereus (Red-backed Salamander) Skin Microbiome Differences Across Northern NY

      Wojotowecz, Chase; Bricetti, Luke; Ankrah, Nana Y. D.; Garneau, Danielle (2022-08-24)
      The role of global climate change in increasing the prevalence of amphibian disease, including chytridiomycosis, is well known. The skin microbiome is considered an important component of the amphibian immune system. Specific bacterial taxa and high skin microbial diversity are factors that are known to boost amphibian disease resistance. In this study, we explored the impact of environmental conditions on Plethodon cinereus (Red-backed Salamander) skin microbial abundance and diversity at a variety of different sites in New York’s North Country. We surveyed P. cinereus specimens from 5 sites varying in elevation and dominant vegetation type. Salamander skin microbiomes were subsequently sampled via sterile swab, plated and characterized by visual inspection of colony morphology. We performed DNA extractions and PCR to prepare samples for genetic sequencing to determine bacterial species identity. In total, 31 unique bacterial taxa were collected from the 5 sites. The highest and lowest bacterial diversity were observed at the Paul Smiths’ Visitor Interpretive Center’s Forest Ecosystem Research and Demonstration Area (FERDA) sites single tree and control silviculture stands, respectively. Beta diversity tests also indicated that the skin microbial communities at these 2 sites were most similar to each other and noticeably different from that of the Altona Flat Rock and Rugar Woods sites. These results indicate that site conditions are important determinants of P. cinereus skin microbial community diversity patterns. Although the identity of bacterial species (pathogenic, non-pathogenic) are yet to be confirmed, this study has added support to the concept that environmental conditions alter salamander skin microbiomes, which in turn can influence salamander disease resistance.
    • Oh deer, what do we have here? Monitoring stand and landscape-level changes in wildlife habitat use in northern New York

      Cave, Hannah; Rascoe, Liam; Garneau, Danielle; Lesser, Mark (2022-08-24)
      Forest composition and structure is a primary determinant of wildlife community patterns. However, disturbances such as selective harvesting, wildfires, and maple-sugaring operations, along with seasonal changes in habitat, may also influence wildlife species richness and abundance at the landscape-level. The Altona Flat Rock, a sandstone pavement barrens, contains Pinus rigida (Pitch Pine)- and Pinus banksiana (Jack Pine)-dominated forest types nested within the largely northern hardwood dominated landscape of upstate New York. Sections of these forest types have undergone recent disturbance (i.e., wildfire in the Jack Pine, maple sugaring and harvest in the northern hardwoods), changing structure and/or composition in those areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate wildlife habitat use over time and space across these adjacent, but very different, forests. Since spring 2018, we have used game cameras to continuously monitor wildlife in the hardwood-dominated forests surrounding the Flat Rock (n = 12). Concurrently, we have also been monitoring wildlife use in the Pitch Pine (n = 4) and Jack Pine barrens (n = 8). The most ubiquitous herbivore across all 3 sites was Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer), while Canis latrans (Eastern Coyote) and Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare) were most abundant in the Jack Pine forest type. Interestingly, Sciurus carolinensis (Gray Squirrel) and Sciurus vulgaris (Red Squirrel) were found almost exclusively in either the hardwood or Jack Pine forests, respectively, suggesting differences in dietary needs/preferences. Species richness varied dramatically across forest types, with northern hardwood, Jack Pine, and Pitch Pine richness values of 20, 31, and 2, respectively. Disturbance in the Jack Pine stand initially decreased richness, however, over the duration of the study there was little difference between the disturbed (26 species) and undisturbed (22 species) Jack Pine stands. We have observed slightly lower species richness in the mature hardwood forest (13 species) versus the young hardwood forest (19 species). Further analysis will determine temporal (seasonal and diel) wildlife diversity patterns. This study will provide wildlife and forest managers insights into the influence of forest type, and impacts of disturbance and management practices, on wildlife habitat.
    • Effect of COVID-19 on stock prices

      Case, Connor (2022-05-14)
      The purpose of this study was to dissect the impact of COVID-19 cases on stock price of the largest public companies by market capitalization in each of the 11 Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) sectors, from March 9th, 2020, until December 27th, 2021. This topic is so interesting considering the behavior of the S&P 500 index for example, which rose 58.50% while COVID-19 cases soared well over one hundred thousand new cases per week throughout the same period. Research done on a pandemic’s effect on stock markets have had the opposite response, at least for a year or so until the markets stabilize, including the Spanish Flu (1918-1920), Asian Flu (1957-1958), and more recently the SARS virus (2003). This study was conducted using panel regression analysis, and using observations gathered on a weekly occurrence. This study concluded that there is a highly significant positive relationship between the closing price of the 11 companies with new weekly COVID-19 cases, meaning that every time there was an increase in COVID-19 cases by 1%, the closing price of the 11 companies would increase by 1.9%. The outcome can be explained by an increased number of people having time to day trade due to layoffs or working from home, COVID-19-related stimulus packages offering the average American more funds to invest, or the most likely – investors looking past the catastrophic event to eventually return to normality as the reason to invest.
    • Educational factors and their effect on college tuition in private institutions across the United States

      Decker, Matthew J. (2022-05-16)
      To date, educational and economic factors have caused significant variation of tuition prices of private universities for the 2019 and 2020 fiscal educational year. This paper offers a cross-sectional model observing the causation of increasing college costs across the United States with underlying support from the human capital theory of education. The analysis at hand focuses on educational and institutional variables and their effects on the associated tuition costs for only private institutions. A series of STATA econometric tests were completed in order to determine a model, which further tests were then run for deeper analysis.
    • Development of a preliminary vegetation-based indicator of ecosystem health for coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Dybiec, Jacob M.; Danz, Nicholas P; Uzarski, Donald G. (Elsevier, 2020)
      Wetland plants, due to their sedentary nature, hold great potential for use as indicators of ecosystem condition in the Great Lakes. However, natural variations in lake levels have historically confounded efforts to create such indicators. Our goal was to use zone-level vegetation data collected over a seven-year period of low to high water levels to overcome these difficulties and identify metrics capable of accurately reflecting disturbance despite lake-level variation. Through a combination of multivariate statistical analyses and a review of the literature, we identified and tested a series of plant-based metrics for wet meadow, emergent, and submergent zones of lacustrine coastal wetlands of Western Lake Huron. These were combined into zone-specific indicators of ecosystem health, which were then applied to wetlands of the remaining Great Lakes to assess basin-wide viability. The resulting indicators were found to reflect disturbance without bias towards high or low water levels. While they must be assessed for use in riverine and barrier-beach coastal wetlands before full-scale implementation can occur, we suggest their use on a preliminary basis in monitoring and management efforts.
    • The effects of deicing salts on vegetation in Pinhook Bog, Indiana

      Wilcox, Douglas A. (Canadan Journal of Botany, 1986)
      A four-year study identified the effects of road salt contamination on the vegetation of Pinhook Bog after an operation of an uncovered salt storage pile adjacent to the bog for 10 years. Nearly all the endemic plant species (including moat species) were absent from the portion of the bog where mean salt concentrations as high as 468 ml/L sodium and 1215 mg/L chloride were measured in the interstitial waters of the peat mat. Skeletons of dead tamaracks. The impacted was invade by nonbog species and dominated by Typha angustifolia. As salt concentrations decreased by 50% over four years, many of the endemic bog plants, including Sphagnum, returned to the impacted area. Declines were noted in the abundance of some of the invading species, while others continue expansion. Many of the invading and reestablished bog plants are known to be salt tolerant and pioneers in secondary succession of disturbed bogs.
    • Classification of Typha-dominated wetlands using airborne hyperspectral imagery along Lake Ontario, USA

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Suir, Glenn M.; Reif, Molly (2021 Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management Society., 2021)
      Shoreline wetlands along Lake Ontario are valuable, multi-functional resources that have historically provided large numbers of important ecosystem goods and services. However, alterations to the lake’s natural hydrologic regime have impacted traditional meadow marsh in the wetlands, resulting in competition and colonization by dense and aggressive Typha angustifolia and Typha x glauca (Cattails). The shift to a Typha-dominated landscape resulted in an array of negative impacts, including increased Typha density, substantial decreases in plant species richness and diversity, and altered habitat and changes in associated ecosystem services. Successful long-term adaptive management of these wetland resources requires timely and accurate monitoring. Historically, wetland landscapes have been surveyed and mapped using field-based surveys and/or photointerpretation. However, given their resource- and cost-intensive nature, these methods are often prohibitively time- and labor-consuming or geographically limited. Other remote sensing applications can provide more rapid and efficient assessments when evaluating wetland change trajectories or analyzing direct and indirect impacts across larger spatial and temporal scales. The primary goal of this study was to develop and describe methodology using U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Coastal Mapping Program hyperspectral imagery, light detection and ranging data, and high-spatial resolution true-color imagery to provide updated wetland classifications for Lake Ontario coastal wetlands. This study used existing field-collected vegetation survey data (Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program), ancillary imagery, and existing classification information as training data for a supervised classification approach. These data were used along with a generalized wetland schema (classes based on physical and biological gradients: elevation, Typha, meadow marsh, mixed emergent, upland vegetation) to generate wetland classification data with Kappa values near 0.85. Ultimately, these data and methods provide helpful knowledge elements that will allow for more efficient inventorying and monitoring of Great Lake resources, forecasting of resource condition and stability, and adaptive management strategies.
    • Evaluating the use of hyperspectral imagery to calculate raster-based wetland vegetation condition indicator

      Suir, Glenn M.; Wilcox, Douglas A. (Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management Society, 2021)
      Field observations and measurements of wetland plants have traditionally been used to monitor and evaluate wetland condition; however, there has been increasing use of remote sensing applications for rapid evaluations of wetland productivity and change. Combining key aspects of field- and remote sensing-based wetland evaluation methods can provide more efficient or improved biological indices. This exploratory study set out to develop a raster-based Wetland Vegetation Condition Indicator system that used airborne hyperspectral imagery-derived data to estimate plant-community quality (via wetland classification and Coefficient of Conservatism) and vegetation biomass (estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The Wetland Vegetation Condition Indicator system was developed for three Lake Ontario wetland areas and compared to a field-based floristic quality index and a dominant-plant based Floristic quality indexdom. The indicator system serves as a proof-of-concept that capitalized on the spatial and spectral attributes of high-resolution imagery to quantify and characterize the quality and quantity of wetland vegetation. A Pearson correlation analysis showed moderate r values of 0.59 and 0.62 for floristic quality index and floristic quality indexdom, respectively, compared to the indicator method. The differences are potentially due to the spatial resolution of the imagery and the indicator method only accounting for the dominant plants within each assessment unit (pixel), therefore disregarding understory plants or those with low abundance. However, the multi-metric Wetland Vegetation Condition Indicator approach shows promise as an indicator of wetland condition by using remotely sensed data, which could be useful for more efficient landscape-scale assessments of wetland health, resilience, and recovery.