• Assessment of Growth of Moral Development in Children Through Literature

      Kretzer, Hilary; The College at Brockport (1997-06-01)
      The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of children’s literature on moral growth in 3rd grade students. Twenty-eight 3rd graders from a suburban western New York school were examined, including 11 boys and 17 girls ages 8-9. The researcher uses a student survey to gauge initial student opinions/attitudes about honesty and respect. Students then undergo an 11 day classroom program in which they focus on those values through children’s literature. Results were mixed, with some students expressing confusion over survey questions, however, 31% of subjects showed an increase in their moral development, versus 8% who showed a decrease. Fifty-four percent of children showed both increases and decreases, leading the researcher to conclude that their moral development did not change, while 8% of children showed no increases or decreases. Implications for future research include studying a larger population, conducting the study over a longer-period of time, and the correlation between moral development and the specific value taught.
    • Assessment of Invasive Quagga Mussel Populations and Forced Circulation Devices on Lake Water Temperature in Otsego Lake, NY

      Yokota, Kiyoko; Stickney, Sierra (2021)
      Aquatic invasive species pose a threat to our local ecosystems and can have economic impacts. Quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) and Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are two types of invasive bivalves from Ukraine that have infiltrated Otsego Lake, in Otsego County, New York. Quagga mussels were recently identified in the Northern end of the lake on August 22, 2020. Both Quagga and Zebra mussels can be transported from water body to water body via watercrafts, fishing gear and other recreational equipment. Quagga mussels can survive and reproduce in deeper waters compared to zebra mussels. This poses a problem as reproductive females of Quagga mussels were observed in Lake Erie at a depth of 37 and 55 m, with temperatures ranging from 6 and 4.8°C respectively (Roe and MacIsaac 1997). Therefore, it can be expected that Quagga mussels could potentially colonize Otsego Lake all the way to the bottom. Additionally, several forced air circulation devices are found around Otsego Lake, including at the SUNY Oneonta Biological Field Station boathouse. These devices known as “ice eaters” prevent the formation of ice on the surface as it runs continuously through the winter. The artificial loss of ice at the surface, eliminates the natural “reverse stratification” where deeper water (4 to 5°C in Otsego Lake) is well protected from decreasing temperatures due to the less dense water and ice at the top. However, if more shoreline artificially loses ice, there could be faster “lake-wide-ice-out” in the spring when solar radiation and warmer air heat the surface of the water faster in the absence of snow or ice. Mussel sample traps will be deployed at several locations around Otsego Lake including locations near an “ice eater” and in deeper parts of the lake. In May, the traps will be collected and both Quagga and Zebra mussels will be tallied, sized, and estimated for age using the ridges located on the surface of the shell. Temperature loggers will be deployed by a rope attached to an anchor at strategic locations around the “ice eater” at BFS Boathouse. This will then capture data from the area affected by the artificial circulation as well control sites that have otherwise similar bathymetric and shoreline characteristics. This research aims to evaluate the ability of Quagga mussels to survive and grow during the winter of 2021, and this will be compared to the established Zebra mussel. This study also aims to determine the effects of continuous forced air circulation on lake water temperature. The results will aid in predicting the possible consequences of continued forced circulation on lake-wide thermal dynamics and how this may influence water quality. Additionally, the results from the mussel traps may reveal potential effects of ice eaters on the population dynamics between Zebra mussels and the recently introduced Quagga mussels.
    • Assessment of the Stratigraphic Controls on Deltaic Subsidence in the Mississippi River Delta

      Autin, Whitney J.; DeRose, Nicole; The College at Brockport (2015-05-08)
      Louisiana’s coastlines are being lost due to a rise in sea level and land subsidence. This study isolates one aspect of land subsidence, called autocompaction, to access its contributions to overall subsidence. Autocompaction is the process where a growing sequence of sediments collapses due to an increasing overburden load. A total of 36 sediment cores from the Sale-Cypremort deltaic lobe were analyzed. Each core was divided into facies units of natural levee, marsh, poorly drained backswamp, and bay mud. A soil analysis was conducted along with the sediment cores. Each soil was identified as a facies type. By identifying facies, geotechnical parameters based on facies type were applied in an equation that solved for consolidation settlement, also called autocompaction (Sm). Autocompaction measures the decrease in layer thickness by vertical compression. The autocompaction values were compared to depth of facies, thickness of facies layers, as well as depth to Pleistocene. Results show that as thickness of facies layers increases, compaction increased. As depth to Pleistocene increased, compaction had a slight increasing trend. Natural levee facies can be considered firm and nearly incompressible, while marsh, poorly drained backswamp, and bay mud facies are soft and compressible.
    • Associations between Family Factors and Pre-adolescent Children’s Fitness

      Scheidt, Douglas M.; Bellnier, Kim Lizabeth; The College at Brockport (1996-05-01)
      This study examined the associations between family factors including: parental support/involvement, parental exercise behavior, parental rewards, children's perceptions of parental exercise behavior and children's fitness. The data were collected via a questionnaire for parents and a questionnaire for the fifth grade children from The Village Elementary School in Hilton, New York. The PACER test for cardiorespiratory endurance from the FITNESSGRAM test battery was also administered to the fifth grade students. Only paternal behaviors were significantly related to children's fitness. Therefore, a post hoc analysis was conducted to examine possible gender differences. For the variables of parental involvement/support, and parental exercise behavior there was a statistically significant relationship found between paternal involvement, paternal exercise habits and girls' fitness. In addition, there was a significant association found between girls' perceptions of father's exercise behavior and girls' fitness. There was no relationship found between parental rewards and children's fitness. Children's activity was significantly associated with their own fitness and children's perceptions of their parent's exercise behavior was correlated with their parent's self-report of personal exercise behavior. Implications of this study include the importance of father's modeling of exercise and its relationship with daughter's fitness.
    • Associativity of the Secant Method

      Northshield, Sam (American Mathematical Monthly, 2002)
      Iterating a function like 1+1/x gives a sequence which converges to the Golden Mean but does so at a much slower rate than those sequences derived from Newton's method or the secant method. There is, however, a surprising relation between all these sequences. This relation, easily explained by the use of good notation, is generalized by means of Pascal's "Mysterium Hexagrammicum". Throughout, we make contact with many areas of mathematics and physics including abstract groups, calculus, continued fractions, differential equations, elliptic curves, Fibonacci numbers, functional equations, fundamental groups, Lie groups, matrices, Moebius transformations, pi, polynomial approximation, relativity, and resistors.
    • Asymptotic behaviors and application of nonlinear networks

      Evans, Simone (2019-05)
      We study the asymptotic behavior of networks with discrete quadratic dynamics. While single-map complex quadratic iterations have been studied over the past century, considering ensembles of such functions, organized as coupled nodes in an oriented network, generates new, interesting questions and applications to the life sciences. We extend results from single-node dynamics to the more general case of networks, and present novel, network-speci c results. We then consider two existing models from the dynamic networks literature: threshold-linear networks and a reduced model of inhibitory neural clusters. We search for graph features which lead to robust dynamics under minor perturbations within our model, as well as between the three di erent models; in other words, we search for possible features of universality and the conditions under which they hold. We create a classi cation system of large-scale networks. This classi cation system is based on network dimensionality reduction (i.e. treating a large group of nodes as a single node). Additionally, we present conditions under which reducing network dimensionality is permittable. This has important implications for applications to the study of natural networks (such as biological systems), which are often extremely large (composed of many coupled nodes). Finally, we explore possible applications of the techniques used in these three network models (complex quadratic networks, threshold-linear networks, and inhibitory clustering neural networks) to other problems in the natural sciences: a chemical oscillator model and a neural clustering model.
    • Atheism: Young Hegelian Style

      Levine, Andrew; University of Maryland (2009-01-01)
      In the decade after the death of Hegel in 1833, a group of young philosophers sought to extend some of Hegel’s ideas to criticize contemporary thought and society. These were the so-called “Young Hegelians,” which included the young Karl Marx. With interest in Marx and Marxism on the wane, interest in the Young Hegelians has also subsided. That is unfortunate, since the Young Hegelians have much to teach us. This paper recounts the Young Hegelians’ critique of religion, beginning with that of Ludwig Feuerbach in his seminal work, The Essence of Christianity.
    • Attachment in Professional Caregiving

      Turano, Jenna; Fulkerson, Gregory (2019)
      The study of Attachment Theory began with Harry Harlow’s experiment with monkeys and attachment relationships with artificial mothers. The experiment consisted of monkeys being tested on which surrogate mother they would go to. One surrogate mother was comforting and the other had milk. Harlow’s hypothesis expected monkeys to run to the surrogate mother with milk, which was proven false when the monkeys would go to the milk surrogate but quickly moved to the comforting surrogate. The next step of Harlow’s experiment was to see the reaction of the monkeys to the rejection of the surrogate mother. The result of the part of the experiment was that the monkeys tried everything in their power for the comforting surrogate mother to love and comfort them. From this conclusion, a British psychologist, John Bowlby, formulated how attachment is fundamental within the development of a person. This emphasizes Harlow’s research and how quality of care
    • Attendance Works: The Effects of Truancy on High School Students Success

      Outland, Rafael; Bruce, Mark; The College at Brockport (2015-10-01)
      Chronic absenteeism effects 5 to 7.5 million students in the United States. Students who are chronically absent are developmentally behind, suffer academically, and have increased negative behaviors in school. This results in students receiving lower academic marks affecting their GPA, receiving more referrals, and being retained. Chronic absenteeism is defined as students who are absent from school 20 or more days, 10 percent of the year, or 3 days in a month both excused and unexcused. The purpose of the study was to review chronic absenteeism at Brockport High School and determine the correlation between students GPA, the referrals they received, and retention rate. Brockport High School reported having 140 students (e.g. 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th graders) chronically absent from school during the 2014-2015 school year. The findings in the results displayed that there was a correlation between chronic absenteeism and the three variables (GPA, Referrals, and Retention). The results are further discussed as well as those limitations and implications of the research. Recommendations for further studies are explored as well.
    • Attention to low & high prevalence events in action video game players & non-action video game players using sustained multiple object tracking & change detection tasks

      Racioppo, Keith R. (2020-05)
      Surveillance is an important real-world skill involving several cognitive abilities over a prolonged period. Multiple object tracking (MOT) and change detection research have begun to conceptualize the cognitive processes associated with surveillance in a laboratory setting. The current study incorporated change detection into a more sustained MOT task than what had been studied previously. This experimental design may better represent real-world situations in which identification of changes in items occurs in the real world due to the often-infrequent rate in which it is necessary to recognize changes. Additionally, long-term action video game experience and short-term experiences, such as exposure to rates of prevalence, are examined to help identify potential trainings to improve performance. After four 10-minute MOT trials, a short change detection task was conducted to assess a possible relationship of gaming and recent prevalence experience on later tasks. A main effect of items tracked was the only significant effect found throughout the research, indicating individuals can effectively track 2 items for changes and not 4. A main effect of prevalence was found in the MOT task, giving merit to the inclusion of prevalence in change detection MOT tasks put forth by this study. However, neither gaming experience in the MOT task nor prevalence experience in the follow-up task led to improved performance in the task. This study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in a small sample size and low power. Further research is necessary to examine potential mechanisms for surveillance training, but the current design can serve as guidance for future studies.
    • Attitudes and Beliefs amongst Parents and Students in Mathematics

      Wainwright, Jamie; The College at Brockport (2011-05-01)
      The purpose of this quantitative teacher action research project is to investigate the relationship between the attitudes and preconceived notions that parents have with their children's drive and performance in a high school mathematics class. Many other researchers have looked at the pure involvement of parents but I would like to go farther than that and look at the actual kind of involvement. When parents have had bad experiences with mathematics, does that correlate with their child's attitudes toward the class? Do these attitudes have a connection with the expectations parents have on the grades their children should be receiving in mathematics? Do the parents' prior experiences with math have a relationship with the level of their involvement in their students' math education? Will the implementation of a parent-involvement strategy such as family homework assignments help to improve these attitudes? It is very important that we find answers to these questions so we can improve the attitudes of society towards mathematics. If there is a correlation between parent's attitudes and their students' achievement, we can implement programs that may intervene and create a better family relationship with mathematics. The world revolves around mathematics and we need to make sure that students have all of the support needed to be successful in this subject area.
    • Attitudes and opinions on the current Seneca language revitalization efforts.

      Gautieri, Gina G. (12/11/2013)
      Indigenous languages all over the world, including Native American languages, are being lost at a rapid rate (Baker, 2011). This is often the result of years of suppression and assimilation to the dominant White culture. Therefore, there is a need for heritage language revitalization and maintenance to ensure the languages remain. Today, efforts to revitalize these indigenous languages are ongoing, including those for the Seneca language. Very few studies, however, have focused specifically on these efforts with the Seneca language. The goal of this study was to determine the attitudes and opinions of those learning or involved in the current Seneca language revitalization effort and thus add to the literature on language revitalization. The participants of this study included teachers and students from schools in Western New York near the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation where Seneca language classes are offered. An online Likert-scale survey was used to collect data from teachers, while a paper version of the survey was given to student participants in their Seneca language classes. Results indicated that the current Seneca language revitalization efforts are effective, but may need some improvement to fully revitalize the language. In addition, the Seneca language, culture, and traditions are valued in the schools, but not as much as in the communities outside of the schools. This study may serve as a basis for further research in this area.
    • Attitudes of parents and children toward maintaining their heritage language.

      LaRotonda, Ashley (2015)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of refugee parents and children in terms of maintaining the heritage language (HL) in an environment that is ethnically dominant in a different culture. A qualitative research design consisting of interviews was used to examine how refugee parents and children felt about keeping their HL, and also culture. The languages in this research include Nepali, Burmese, Karen, and Chin. The researcher interviewed parents and children about HL maintenance. The parents that were interviewed were newcomers (living in the United States for less than four years), and not newcomers (living in the United States for more than four years). The purpose of this research was to understand why refugee parents and children have negative or positive attitudes on the topic of maintaining HL. The researcher used Fishman's (1990, 1991) Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale for Threatened Languages as a framework to describe how likely it is that populations can maintain their language. Results of this research state that HL maintenance was an occurrence in both newcomer and not newcomer families. All children and parents that were interviewed in this research had positive attitudes toward maintaining their HL. This research concludes with recommendations on how schools can maintain HL. The researcher recommended having a culturally relevant classroom, and using translanguaging as an instructional strategy. Another recommendation included how cities, such as Buffalo, can maintain HLs. A recommendation is to create a widespread message of acceptance toward HLs in public schools.
    • Attitudes of Students Toward Science Education and Innovative Teaching Strategies to Overcome Low Achievement in the Secondary Science Classroom

      Robinson, Scott D.; Baker, Patricia E.; Brazwell, Margaret Marie; The College at Brockport (2001-07-01)
      A student’s attitude can greatly impact their learning experience. This study utilizes two methods to measure the attitude of students in secondary science classrooms, direct questioning of students and teachers and surveys using Likert and Semantic Differential Scales. Surveys of teachers show that the majority feel teaching science to be a beneficial, challenging, and meaningful experience and that a positive attitude is necessary for student achievement. Students showed an underlying positive attitude toward science learning, though some found the classes to be boring or difficult. The author argues positive attitudes may stimulate the behavior necessary to become engaged in learning and allow teachers to more easily meet their students’ learning needs. To increase positive attitudes towards science, they argue for an increase use in classroom and laboratory demonstration, with students observing and engaging in the scientific process.
    • Attitudes towards Condom Usage among College-Going Women

      Banerjee, Priya; Carson, Caitlyn; The College at Brockport (2015-05-10)
      This thesis looks at differences in attitudes toward condom usage across ethnicities and age for college women. A 25 question MCAS Multidimensional Condom Attitudes Scale, along with three questions to measure cultural influence written by the researcher and a demographic survey was given to 100 female students on the campus of The College at Brockport. The survey sought to answer the primary research question: Is there a difference in attitudes towards condom usage among college-going Hispanic women and women of other ethnicities? The research question was constructed with a broader goal of exploring two questions of practical application: If the researcher were to discover that the general attitude toward condom use were to be assessed at a low level across ethnicities, what could be done to improve attitudes towards condom use and frequency of condom use? Secondly, if there were to be a difference in attitudes toward condom use between ethnicities, what would be the cause of such a difference? The ANOVA test determined that there was no statistically significant difference in attitudes towards condom usage in any of the five subscales between ethnic groups. Thus eliminating the question as to whether or not attitudes are culturally informed. Additionally, tests indicated that, although attitudes towards condom usage are generally positive, this did not appear to improve condom usage.
    • Attitudes Towards Women Among Inner-City Seventh Graders

      Begy, Gerald; Avery, Laurel A.; The College at Brockport (1989-12-01)
      The purpose of this study was to explore seventh-grade students’ attitudes about women. This was completed in two phases: An adapted, Attitudes About Women survey, and through student drawings. Participants were asked to, "Draw a woman doing something." Students who participated in this study were enrolled in an inner-city, upstate New York school district. The subjects were selected at random. Two hundred and fifty-three students constituted the population sampled. Group responses, using a Likert scale of, strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree, were analyzed using a standard deviation formula. The ancillary purpose of the study was to measure the attitudes of seventh grade students towards women. The most significant piece of data acquired was, when asked to complete using a written format, student responses were very liberal. Data showed women should receive equal pay for the equivalent jobs of males and the provision of childcare should be shared equally. Pictorial responses of the students still depicted women in traditional roles, e.g., secretarial, teacher, homemaker, and others. It should be noted that women were portrayed in non-traditional roles, also. The closeness in percentage of these numbers suggests that the potential exists for elimination of women in traditional roles – that perhaps gender differences will be eliminated eventually.
    • Attitudes, beliefs, and confidence of speech-language pathologists when working with English Language Learners with communication disorders.

      Caruso, Krista R. (2014)
      Research has shown a self-reported lack of training by Speech-language Pathologists (SLPs) regarding working with English language learners (ELLs) with communication disorders. Along side this lack of training, SLPs are identifying specific problem areas encountered when working with the ELL population, as well as a desire for more training opportunities. This study examined Western New York SLPs attitudes and beliefs regarding the confidence they feel when working with the ELL population, as well as their background knowledge and prior training on specific topics pertinent to ELLs via an online survey. Further, a case study was conducted analyzing the participating SLPs’ practice and identified problem areas encountered with regard to ELLs. Overall, findings identified problem areas self-reported by SLPs that were congruent with the current literature in the field. Largely, findings also indicated that more training in practicum areas that relate to working with the ELL population is desired and important to SLPs. A compiled resource booklet was created for information including best practices and language resources with regard to optimal service delivery in an effort to increase knowledge and confidence when working with the ELL population. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed with regard to SLPs and their practice when providing service delivery to the ELL population on their caseloads.
    • Attitudes, Beliefs, and Perceptions of College Level Students

      Wade, Carol H.; Weise, Lindsay C.; The College at Brockport (2012-12-01)
      The purpose of this research is to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of college level students enrolled in an algebra course at the community college level. A survey was given to measure mathematical attitudes, beliefs, and math anxiety. Significant findings were found when looking at the difference in prior mathematics courses, repeating college algebra, enrollment status, gender, and age. By identifying the preconceived notions and beliefs that students have about mathematics and their academic ability, a teacher can use this knowledge to better meet the needs of students.
    • Audience Emotion & Experience as a Source for the Development of New Marketing Strategies for Concert Dance

      Maloney, Mariah; Fraga, Maurice A.; The College at Brockport (2016-08-06)
      Traditional concert dance marketing strategies tend to rely exclusively on the use of abstracted body language to transmit meaning from digital and stage presentations to the eyes of viewers. These images can be highly attractive to dance audience and fellow artists who follow and relate to this genre of performance, but are typically beyond the reach and interest of most non-dance spectators. This research investigates how the study of sports and music marketing strategies, in relation to how they connect to their respective audiences, may give new insights and directions in how concert dance advertising plans can incorporate more emotional and relatable content to non-dance spectators who do not have the same sensibility and history with abstract physical language. By embracing more well-rounded and balanced approaches to promotion such as those currently being put forth by the sport and music sectors, the concert dance industry can help infuse their dance marketing efforts with a fresh jolt of personal engagement, encouraging the general public to see concert dance as a viable form of entertainment and art that can have relevance and value to their lives.
    • Augmented Reality Technology Used To Enhance Informal Science Learning

      Veronesi, Peter; Reidy, Erin; State University of New York College at Brockport (2018-05-11)
      With science advancements ever-changing and an increased use of multimedia to display information to the public, science literacy and critical thinking skills are important for the public to keep up to date. Students will need to know how to interpret science information they are faced with throughout their lives to make decisions and critique scientific arguments (Squire & Mingfong, 2007). Science education reform is becoming more focused on incorporating science practices with the use of tools and processes to enhance learning. An authentic learning experience can be described as experiencing real problems and consequences in context (Rosenbaum et al., 2007). Augmented reality technology can be used to create authentic learning experiences as it allows for many unique affordances in the field such as place based learning context, personal embodiment of a role, and solving a problem modeling real life science research.This paper will examine augmented reality technology in science education and the pedagogical support behind this technique. The project is comprised of a literature review discussing the benefits and support for augmented reality games used in science education followed by the descriptions of six different augmented reality science games that were created using the online platform “Taleblazer”.