• Logic and Truth Tables

      Okafor, Ijeoma B.; The College at Brockport (2006-09-16)
      Objectives: Students should be able to complete a Truth Table. Students should be able to write and interpret different types of Conditional statements.
    • Long Pond Monroe County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Long Pond, located on Lake Ontario near Rochester, New York, is surrounded by a mix of residential development, state park, and protected wildlife areas. Land use within the watershed is a mix of suburbia, including the Village of Spencerport, and agriculture. The waters of Long Pond are considered hypereutrophic, meaning it is very productive due to high nutrient loading. This productivity is likely due to nonpoint sources and the point source represented by the Spencerport Sewage Treatment Plant which releases advanced secondary sewage effluent into a tributary of Long Pond (Makarewicz 2000). Nuisance algae, bacterial abundance, and algal mat development near Long Pond along the southern shoreline of Lake Ontario were evident. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of Long Pond and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the mouth of the pond.
    • Long-Term (1927-1978) Changes in the Phytoplankton Community of Lake Michigan at Chicago

      Baybutt, Robert I.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; The College at Brockport (1981-04-01)
      Fifty-one years of phytoplankton data from the South District Water Intake of the Chicago Water Filtration Plant were analyzed to determine changes in the phytoplankton community related to the eutrophication of Lake Michigan. From 1930 to 1940, a net biomass (~100 mg C/m3) indicative of oligotrophic-mesotrophic conditions were implied by the net algal biomass. By 1961 net algal biomass was ~600 mg C/m3-a biomass indicative of a eutrophic lake. Much of the biomass increase is due to Tabellaria, Stephanodiscus tenuis and S. binderanus. Since the early 1970's, there has been a consistent general decrease in algal biomass to levels associated with oligotrophic-mesotrophic conditions. The decrease in net algal biomass, the decrease in abundance of eutrophic species, the small but general increase in genera that were decreasing in relative abundance until ~ 1972, and the increase in dissolved reactive silica concentrations in Lake Michigan suggest a reversal of cultural eutrophication of Lake Michigan near Chicago. Only the increase in the relative abundance (22% of the total community biomass in 1978) of blue-green algae, mostly Oscillatoria and Gomphosphaeria, argues for accelerated eutrophication.
    • Long-term and short-term effects of childhood hemispherectomies on language abilities

      Richardson, Brooke A. (2019-05)
      Introduction: A cerebral hemispherectomy is a surgical procedure in which either the left or right hemisphere of the brain is completely removed, and is undergone as a result of intractable seizures. Methods: This scoping review was conducted using eighteen relevant articles, and utilized the databases provided through the Feinberg Library. Results: Because language deficits are so significant in many patients prior to hemispherectomies, language abilities tend to either stay the same or improve once the hemispherectomy is complete. Discussion: Although the trends appear to be consistent across studies, it is important to acknowledge that individual factors may have impacted patients language success, maintenance, or regression following surgery. Conclusions: This literature review suggests that further research is needed regarding postoperative language therapy.
    • Long-term Impact of an Ice Storm and Restoration Cutting in a Rare Pine Barren

      Ceradini, Joseph; Dame, Caitlin; Glidden, Brian; Hays, Daniel; Livensperger, Carolyn; Schiesser, Robert; Adams, Kenneth (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2009)
      One of the more significant natural disturbances in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada in recent memory was the ice storm of January, 1998. In northern New York, thick accumulations of ice on tree branches caused severe crown damage across 280,000 ha of forest, including a rare pine barren in Clinton County. More than half of the trees in the pine barren were severely damaged by the ice storm, especially small-sized jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and mid-sized pitch pine (P. rigida) and red pine (P. resinosa). Over 60 percent of the sampled trees were dead after 10 growing seasons. Survival of damaged pitch pine trees was enhanced by growth of new branches from epicormic buds on the main stem. Experimental restoration cuttings were used in portions of the ice-damaged barren to decrease hazardous fuel loadings, reduce the density of ericaceous shrubs, scarify the soil surface and stimulate the release of jack pine seeds from the serotinous cones attached to broken branches. After 10 growing seasons, jack pine seedling density in the restoration cuttings averaged 9,500 stems per ha. The experimental cuttings successfully regenerated new jack pine stands without fire. Meanwhile, tree regeneration in the ice-damaged, unmanaged stands was sparse and most of these seedlings were generally red maple (Acer rubrum) or red oak (Quercus rubra). This study demonstrated that ice-damaged, fire-structured pine stands can be successfully regenerated using mechanical site treatments in northern New York.
    • Long-Term Teacher-Student Relationships: What are the Strengths and Weaknesses?

      Beers, Morris J.; Schlosser, Linda; Baker, Patricia E.; Stouffer, Alicia M. (2002-04-01)
      Some educators believe that learning can be enhanced when teachers and students participate in educational models such as multi-age grouping and student-teacher progression (aka looping) over two or more school years. This study addressed the need for research reporting the strengths and weaknesses of these two models. The school observed in this study participated in multi-age grouping for specific activities and in the recent past had participated in student-teacher progression. These questions were asked: What are the strengths and weaknesses of looping? What are the strengths and weaknesses of multi-age grouping? What are the strengths and weaknesses of family grouping as perceived by the parents, students, and teachers? The majority of parents, teachers, and students responded positively and wanted to continue participating in multi-age instruction. They observed that one of the inherent strengths of multi-age instruction and multi-year looping is the development of a long-term relationship between all three groups. Students commented on the benefits of working with their peers – helping one another with learning tasks and the availability of many teachers rather than just one.
    • Long-term Trends and the Trophic Status of Conesus Lake 2012: A report to the Livingston County Planning Department Geneseo, NY

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; LaFountain, Joshua M.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2012-10-01)
      Conesus Lake monitoring conducted by personnel from The College at Brockport during the summer of 2012 determined the current trophic status of the lake and if any improvements or further degradation of water quality had occurred. To accomplish this goal, lake chemistry was monitored from 22 May to 14 August 2012 and the following were completed: a trophic state assessment of the lake and an evaluation of long-term trends in lake chemistry. Recommendations 1. The monitoring of Conesus Lake should continue. Current results suggest a slow improvement in it’s surface water. The status of the lake’s water quality has been an issue for many years. If it is indeed improving as suggested, this success story needs to be communicated to the general public. 2. The importance of managing nutrients and soil loss from the watershed is now even more important to prevent a relapse or return to less desirable conditions. Continuing efforts to reduce nutrient losses from sources in agriculture, from septic systems above the ring sewer, and from lawn fertilizers should be emphasized.
    • Look @ me 2.0: self-sexualization in Facebook photographs, self-objectification, and body image

      Ruckel, Lindsay M. (2013-02-04)
      Growing attention has been paid to examining people’s self-presentation on Social Networking Sites (SNSs). To date, one study has explored the extent to which women present themselves in a sexualized way in their profile photographs on SNSs. SNSs provide a unique opportunity for self-sexualization, or the presentation of one’s body in a sexually objectifying way for others’ evaluation. The current study tested the relationship between women’s self-objectification and their self-sexualization in their Facebook profile photographs. This work also investigated how self-sexualization relates to body image satisfaction, internalization of the “thin ideal”, and how contingent self-worth is on appearance. Facebook profile photographs of 100 women, ranging from 18-49 years old were coded for self-sexualization. Results suggested that women who reported higher levels of self-objectification and who identified more strongly with the appearance-contingency of self-worth were more likely to self-sexualize in their Facebook profile photographs. However, no relationship was found between self-sexualization and internalization of the “thin ideal” or body image satisfaction. Potential implications and directions for future research are explored.
    • A Look into the Feelings and Perceptions of Parent-Teacher Conferences and the Effectiveness they Have

      Swank, Karen (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-07)
      Parent-teacher communication and relationships are an important component to student success. Parent-teacher conferences are a time for relationships to be built and to establish direct one-on-one communication. This study looks into teachers' and parents' feelings and perceptions of parent-teacher conferences in a rural school setting. The results show that there are similar feelings between both parties and suggests areas where improvements can be made. Future research could continue to examine the feelings and perceptions of parents and teachers in other areas, as well as examine the effects any improvements could have on parent-teacher conferences.
    • Look! Up in the Sky! It's What's-His-Name!

      Burelbach, Frederick M. (2014-10-27)
    • Looking for Consensus: An Attitude Survey Examining Attitudes of Parents and Teachers in Public Elementary School

      Ribble, Robert B.; Lesser, Janine (1991-10-01)
      Changes in contemporary society have led to the re-evaluation of assumptions about humanity and its institutions. Values, morals, and character are being questioned and rewritten to address the needs of a new era. Given their important place in society, educational systems have increasingly become a space for these public re-imaginings. Moral and values education is being re-examined in the hope of bolstering academic success and addressing moral issues that arise in the community. This study constructs a reliable and valid instrument that will survey attitudes towards transferring morals and values in the elementary classroom. The survey measures an overall attitude towards moral education and compares the attitudes of teachers and parents. It asks about the innate importance of morals education in the public school curriculum, the use of moral training or a moral reasoning approach, and the influence that the presence or lack of a moral environment has on the school environment. Thirty parents and thirty teachers were surveyed twice, first with a pilot survey and then with an amended one which refined the questions. The author found that a majority of respondents felt a universal core of values could be agreed upon to create a program and that a morals curriculum should be directly taught to elementary school children. An overwhelming majority think a morals education curriculum will have a positive influence on classroom behavior. Views on teaching religion as the source of morals were mixed, with a greater emphasis being placed on morals emerging from feelings. Overall, respondents feel that the school is secondary to the family in instilling values. Finally, there was no significant difference between the responses of teachers and parents.
    • Looking into the Prevalence of Substance Abuse among the LGBTQIA+ Population

      Levitsky, Naomi (2021-01)
      In this essay, I explore the prevalence of and reasons for substance abuse among the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning, Intersex, & Asexual, or LGBTQIA+ community and ways to lessen the stigma and provide for more adequate treatment opportunities.
    • Los goles con la mano: ¿deben o no ser considerados como parte del juego?

      Torres, Cesar R.; The College at Brockport (2011-01-01)
      Este artículo evalúa el rol de los goles con la mano en el fútbol y analiza qué debe ser considerado como parte del juego. Para ello, se presentan y analizan los argumentos utilizados más frecuentemente por los actores involucrados en el fútbol al defender los goles con la mano. La evaluación de estos argumentos se realiza desde una teoría interpretivista del deporte competitivo en tanto práctica social. Dicha evaluación demuestra la invalidez de estos argumentos. This paper evaluates the role of hand goals in football and analyzes what should be considered part of the game. First, the arguments most frequently used to defend hand goals are presented and analyzed. Then, these arguments are evaluated from an interpretivist theory of competitive sport understood as a social practice. This evaluation demonstrates the invalidity of the arguments in support of hand goals.
    • Loss of Nutrients and Soil from Sandy Pond Tributaries, Oswego County, N.Y.

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; White, Daniel J.; The College at Brockport (2002-12-01)
      North and South Sandy Ponds comprise one of the largest coastal bay ecosystems on Lake Ontario. Unlike South Sandy Pond, North Sandy Pond supports intensive recreational activities and intensive shorefront residential development including a commercial campground and several marinas. Both ponds have an over abundance of nutrients and are the likely cause of the over abundance of aquatic weeds in the water. The limnological literature is quite clear on the causes of this unwanted overabundance of aquatic weeds and microscopic plants – an excess amount of nutrients or fertilizers are entering the water. A short list of possible sources of nutrients and soil include point and non-point sources in the watershed of Sandy Pond, septic system losses in direct drainage areas adjacent to the Pond (e.g., from cottages and boats), and resuspension of nutrients from sediments in the Pond itself. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of losses of soil and nutrients from the five major tributaries draining sub-watersheds of North Sandy Pond hereafter referred to as Sandy Pond. Stream discharge and concentration of nitrate, total phosphorus, sodium, total suspended solids, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen were measured and converted into the amount of material lost from the watershed or loading into Sandy Pond during events and non-events.
    • Lost

      Dewey, Madelyn (2016-01-01)
    • Lost Boys and Yellow Homes

      Perez, Spencer Jude; School of the Arts (2018-01-01)
    • Love and Duty

      Driver, Julia; Washington University, St. Louis (2014-01-01)
      The thesis of this paper is that there is an important asymmetry between a duty to love and a duty to not love: there is no duty to love as a fitting response to someone’s very good qualities, but there is a duty to not love as a fitting response to someone’s very bad qualities. The source of the asymmetry that I discuss is the two-part understanding of love: the emotional part and the evaluative commitment part. One cannot directly, or “at will,” control an emotional response, but one can undermine any commitment one would normally have under the circumstances. Thus, the feeling of love is not a duty, though being disposed to act a certain way with respect to the person one has the feelings for is controllable.
    • Love as Intimate Identification

      Helm, Bennett; Franklin and Marshall College (2010-11-01)
      It is widely acknowledged that love is a distinctively intimate form of concern in which we in some sense identify with our beloveds; it is common, moreover, to construe such identification in terms of the lover’s taking on the interests of the beloved. From this starting point, Harry Frankfurt argues that the paradigm form of love is that between parents and infants or young children. I think this is mistaken: the kind of loving attitude or relationship we can have towards or with young children is distinct in kind from that which we can have towards adult persons, as is revealed by reflection on the depth of love and its phenomenology. My aim is to present an alternative conception of the sort of distinctively intimate identification at issue in love, arguing that this account makes better sense of love and our experience of love.
    • Love Canal: community vulnerability and human-induced environmental disaster

      Goldstein, Hana (2018-05)
      This case study paper will examine the causes and effects of the human-induced environmental disaster at Love Canal. It will specifically highlight the significant impact it had on a lower income, working class neighborhood. Lower income communities tend to have less power and less resource accessibility, which in turn creates their enhanced vulnerability when a disaster strikes. In 1978, it was discovered that hazardous waste had contaminated homes and schools in the Love Canal area, a former chemical landfill which later became a 15 acre neighborhood in the City of Niagara Falls in Western New York. On August 7, 1978, the United States President Jimmy Carter declared a federal emergency at the Love Canal. It became the first man-made disaster to receive emergency funds from the federal government to remedy an industrial disaster. Lessons to take away from this environmental tragedy include the significant leadership role of local resident, Lois Gibbs in the environmental justice movement and the proper disposal of hazardous waste for the protection of the public health and the environment.