• Oak Orchard Creek Orleans County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      Oak Orchard Creek is a major tributary of Lake Ontario, with a watershed straddling Orleans and Genesee counties. Surrounding land use is a mix of residential, small commercial businesses, and agriculture. The Elba and Oakfield sewage treatment plants are located along Oak Orchard Creek, as are three hydroelectric dams located in Oak Orchard, Glenwood, and Waterport (Zollweg et al. 2005). The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation lists fishing in Oak Orchard as threatened. There have been high measures of DDT, DDE, DDD, PAHs, and arsenic identified near Lyndonville, NY, at one of these sites (Makarewicz 2000). Nuisance algae, bacterial abundance, and algal mat development along the southern shoreline of Lake Ontario are major causes of beach closings, fouling the nearshore waters and limiting water recreation. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of Oak Orchard Creek and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the mouth of the creek.
    • Oak Orchard Creek Watershed The Location of Sources of Pollution, Annual Loss of Nutrients and Soil to Lake Ontario, and a Test of Effectiveness of Zone Tillage as a Best Management practice

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2009-05-01)
      Oak Orchard Creek is on New York State’s “303(d)” (1972 Clean Water Act) list of impaired water bodies. Waters designated as 303(d) do not meet water quality standards that states, territories, and authorized tribes have set for them, even after point sources of pollution have installed the minimum required levels of pollution control technology. A 303(d) designation may require the eventual development of Total Maximum Daily Loading (TMDL) for a watershed as a mechanism of managing nutrient losses from a watershed. Funding was received by the Orleans County Soil and Water Conservation District from the Environmental Protection Agency to implement actions that address point and nonpoint sources of nutrient loading to the creek and Lake Ontario’s coastal zone. Thus, the intended use of the funds received was to support the coordination and acceleration of implementation of management practices for nonpoint source pollution, adaptive management strategies, and investigations identifying sources of nutrient pollution. Within the Oak Orchard Creek watershed, the specific goal of prevention and reduction of water pollution in the coastal zone of Lake Ontario is through watershed management, aquatic ecosystem restoration, and nonpoint source management. In this report, as a result of a contract with Orleans County Soil and Water Conservation District, The College at Brockport provides evidence indicating the identity, the location, and the intensity of pollution sources in the Oak Orchard watershed, compares Zone Tillage with Conventional Tillage practices, and develops an annual nutrient budget for Oak Orchard Creek as a basis for development of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL).
    • Oak Orchard Harbor Autumn Data Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1978-11-01)
      Fish, benthos, and macrophytes samples were collected over four days (30 September through 3 October 1978) at Oak Orchard Harbor, New York, to evaluate the potential biological impact of dredging the harbor area. Figure 1 is a map of the harbor area indicating the location of sample sites. Information on marina development, boat traffic and fishing pressure is included to document the heavy usage of this harbor during the fall salmon run. This is a data report. The final report will include both our analysis and interpretation of the data regarding potential impacts of dredging.
    • Oak Orchard Harbor Spring Data Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1979-06-01)
      Between 20 April 1979 and 20 May 1979, benthos, fish, and birds were collected or observed at Oak Orchard Harbor, New York, to evaluate the potential biological impact of dredging the harbor area. This is a data report. In the final report, our analysis and interpretation of the data collected will be presented. Figures 1 and 2 are maps of the Oak Orchard Harbor area indicating the location of sampling sites. Table 1 provides information on bottom characteristics at the benthos sampling sites. Fishing pressure and boat traffic were light compared to the usage during the fall 1978 sampling trip.
    • Oak Orchard Harbor Summer Data Report to the Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Haynes, James M.; The College at Brockport (1979-08-01)
      On 8 and 9 July 1979 benthos, fish, macrophytes and birds were collected or observed at Oak Orchard Harbor, New York, to evaluate the potential biological impact of dredging the harbor area. This is a data report. In the final report, our analysis and interpretation of the data collected will be presented. Figures 1 and 2 are maps of the Oak Orchard Harbor area indicating the location of sample sites. Table 1 provides information on bottom characteristics at the benthos sampling sites. Fishing pressure and boat traffic were heavy compared to the usage during the fall 1978 sampling trip. Water temperature was 19° c.
    • Oatka Creek Water Quality Assessment: Identifying Point and Nonpoint Sources of Pollution with Application of the SWAT Model

      Pettenski, Dale Matthew; The College at Brockport (2012-06-01)
      In this Oatka Creek study, I determined the sinks and sources of nutrients, sediment and bacteria pollution, evaluated the effectiveness of best management practices on reducing phosphorus and sediment losses from the watershed, and developed a total maximum daily load (TMDL). The objectives were as follows: Objective 1: Conduct segment analyses throughout the Oatka Creek watershed to identify sources of nutrients and sediment. Objective 2: Evaluate nutrient and sediment load contributions of segments of Oatka Creek and its tributaries within the basin and to the Genesee River using discharge measurements and weekly water chemistry monitoring. Objective 3: Create, calibrate and validate a Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to evaluate allocated source contributions, and sources identified via segment analysis and flux (load) measurements and suggest remediation strategies to reduce phosphorus loads and concentrations in Oatka Creek.
    • Object boxes for tutoring in a literacy lab at a year round elementary school

      Rule, Audrey C.; Stewart, Roger A.; Haunold, Jill (2005-09)
      A tutoring program at a year-round public school coordinated by a certified teacher and staffed with preservice teacher tutors enrolled in a college class followed best practices and featured unique tutoring materials called object boxes (sets of objects and corresponding word or letter cards housed in boxes and used to teach language concepts). An evaluation study of the tutoring program compared pretest and posttest normal curve equivalent (NCE) scores on the TERA-2 of 86 first and second grade students who initially attained an NCE of 59.8 or lower. Those who attended 45 hours of the Literacy Lab tutoring program on their off-track time scored significantly higher (p = .002) on the posttest (mean NCE gain score = 18.1) than a control group (mean NCE gain score = 6.2) who practiced reading at home. The effect size (0.78) was large, indicating the efficacy of the program. Four different object boxes from the program are pictured and described: a word family that shows alliteration and assonance; a hink-pink riddle box; a box of objects representing words with two meanings; and an African scene with sentence cards.
    • Object Lessons: 3D Printing and Inter-professional Collaboration Between the Library and the Literature Classroom

      Dumuhosky, Laura; Wierzbowski, Kenneth R.; Norcia, Megan A.; The College at Brockport (2017-09-18)
      While the digital revolution has been readily embraced by the hard sciences, adoption by the humanities has been somewhat more delayed. A number of factors have prevented wide-scale inclusion of technology into humanities coursework including, but not limited to, a lack of training, resources or support for professional development. The new Makerspace at the Drake Memorial Library provided the chance to unite 3D printing technology, pedagogy, literary criticism, information literacy, and historical context into a children’s literature course at the College at Brockport. Students were charged to locate a single object from a work of children’s literature and to analyze its importance to the plot of the novel or the development of a character. Selected objects were then 3D printed by the library Makerspace. Students then met with a librarian to reinforce threshold concepts set forth by ACRL’s Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education through a unique gamified Harry Potter - themed lesson. Students were able to successfully synthesize the relationship between object and text, culminating in the display of their objects in the library along with their written assignments.
    • Objectivity and Nonfiction

      Brownson, Carol; SUNY College at Fredonia (1983-01-01)
    • Objectivity and the Transactional Theory of Perception

      Freeman, Eugene; San Jose State College (1972-01-01)
      The visual demonstrations of Professor Adelbert Ames support the transactional theory of perception. This theory asserts that the very contents of our sense experiences are shaped by our past experiences, as well as our expectations of future experiences. This theory, in turn, supports a critical realism about the relationship between perception and reality.
    • Obligate Grassland Breeding Bird Ecology on Islands and Mainland Habitats in the St. Lawrence River Corridor

      Norment, Christopher; Amatangelo, Kathryn L.; Haynes, James M.; Lawrence, Gregory (2018-08-09)
      The decline of obligate grassland breeding birds in North America over the past 40 years has resulted in focused grassland management and conservation efforts, including in New York State. Thus, there is a need for knowledge of obligate grassland breeding bird habitat preferences and high-quality grassland bird habitat. The primary objective of my study was to evaluate the quality of two large islands in the St. Lawrence River, Galop Island and Ogden Island, as obligate grassland breeding bird habitat, by comparing their grassland bird communities to those present at two mainland sites, the Green Landowner Incentive Program (LIP) site and Whitehouse Point. I conducted double-observer bird point counts, and vegetation and arthropod surveys in 2015 and 2016. Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) were the most abundant obligate grassland bird species across the four sites, and were two of five obligate grassland breeding bird species observed over both years. Total obligate grassland breeding bird and Bobolink abundance were higher at the Green LIP site, Ogden Island, and Whitehouse Point, and lower at Galop Island. Savannah Sparrow abundance was similar across all four sites during both years of study. I found that percent graminoid cover was the best predictor of total obligate grassland breeding bird and Bobolink abundance in both years, though it was a weaker predictor of Savannah Sparrow abundance. Variability in arthropod biomass appeared to have little effect on obligate grassland breeding bird abundance, but was high across all sites during both years. Ogden Island supported an abundant obligate grassland breeding bird community, but Galop Island requires focused management to facilitate conversion of shrubland and early successional forest to high-quality grassland habitat. The Green LIP site’s high obligate grassland breeding bird abundance highlights the importance of private land management in the conservation of obligate grassland breeding birds. My study indicates that large islands in the St. Lawrence River may provide high-quality obligate grassland breeding bird habitat if are managed to retard or prevent succession of grasslands into shrubland and forest habitat.
    • Obscura: MFA Thesis - Sculpture

      Mattison, Sarah Reese (2014-12)
      From the architectural element to Microsoft, windows are analogous to notions of the portal, the frame, and the screens of film, television, the computer and mobile phone. They represent a passage to other worlds, new ways of thinking and ideas, a frame for voyeurism, spiritual insights, as an escape from the banality of daily life, as well as a medium for inner reflection. The window’s function is paradoxical: providing a physical separation from inside and outside while still enabling cross examination, existing as both an internal and external form simultaneously. They are usually transparent but also have a reflective surface. They close out and close in. Windows frame both virtual and physical realities thus challenging notions of time and space. These dualities are at the heart of my thesis question. Through my thesis, I ask, “where does the external end and the internal begin?” Where do you end and I begin?” The entry point for my thesis project, Obscura, was an exploration of the physical and metaphorical expressions of window. Physically, I took the elements of a window and undressed them one by one: the frame, glass, coatings, screen, etc. Through this process, I was also attempting to dismantle the metaphorical concepts of beyond / outer / other / exterior / separateness by highlighting the tangled hierarchy of an absolute binary: without an inside, there is no outside, no exterior without an interior, and vice versa. The concepts exist simultaneously and are entrenched to the point where one does not exist without the other – a chicken and egg dilemma. Which comes first, inside or outside? Mother or child? Time or space? You or me? How are these signifiers nested together in an interwoven whole?
    • Observations of Emergent Literary Behaviors in a Literacy-Enriched Play Environment: Does Teacher Guidance Make a Difference?

      Smith, Arthur; Totten, Cheryl M.; The College at Brockport (1992-09-01)
      This study was completed to investigate whether there are differences in emergent literacy behaviors between a teacher guided literacy-enriched play environment and a literacy-enriched play environment without teacher guidance. This study occurred over a five week period. During the first week, base-line data were collected using qualitative naturalistic observations where literacy behaviors were recorded during spontaneous play. The play area was literacy-enriched with play centers, environmental print, and literacy props. Six four-year olds were exposed to the environment for a half hour daily. During the first week of treatment, three of the subjects received teacher guidance / modeling while they played. These three subjects experienced the literacy-enriched environment without teacher guidance at a different time than the treatment group. After three weeks of exposure to the redesigned play environment, observations of the children's literacy behaviors were noted while they played in the enriched environment. Qualitative naturalistic observations of children's literacy behaviors were used to compare the treatment and control groups. There were differences in literacy behaviors between the experimental and control groups.
    • Observing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) behavior in Northwestern Vermont Using Trail Cameras

      Garneau, Danielle; Cole, Brittany (2016)
      Trail cameras are an increasingly popular and reliable non-invasive technique in wildlife ecology surveys. They have proven to be reliable, cost-efficient, and critical tools for gaining understanding of common and elusive species in a cost-effective manner. The purpose of this study was to observe white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) behavior (e.g., foraging, yard preference, social group) in rural, urban, and agricultural edge sites in northwestern Vermont with the use of trail cameras. I predicted in colder temperatures and deeper snow, white-tailed deer (Ododoileus virginianus) would decrease daily activities and increase group size, as well as prefer densely forested areas for protection. I also predicted white-tailed deer to be most active in dawn/dusk hours. Species richness was greatest in camera observations at the rural (n = 6), agricultural edge (n = 5), and urban sites (n = 3). White-tailed deer were observed three times as often in spring 2016 as compared to fall 2015. Predators were observed at all sites and included eastern coyote (Canis latrans) and red (Vulpes vulpes) and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Camera data suggest that deer were observed more often in urban and agricultural edge habitat in the fall, whereas more observations occurred in rural habitats in the spring. Patterns in diel activity show that white-tailed deer were most active at dusk, dawn, and during crepuscular hours equally at the agricultural edge, urban, and rural sites, respectively. Habitat-specific thermal properties were observed as white-tailed deer were observed most often at temperatures between (31 - 40°F) at agricultural edge and urban, and (11 - 20°F) at rural sites. Habitat-specific behavioral changes were noted such that at the agricultural edge and urban site, the white-tailed deer displayed vigilance, foraging, and walking proportionally throughout the study, whereas at the rural site walking and foraging were the most common behaviors. White-tailed deer are common to New England forests and serve as excellent species for study using non-invasive techniques, such as game cameras. Landscape- and stand-level habitat characteristics appear to influence white-tailed deer behavior as one considers moderation of temperature, diel movement, and grouping.
    • Obstacles to Attending Treatment in an Urban Mental Health Clinic: A Client’s Perspective Approach to Identifying Factors Influencing Treatment Attendance

      Delaney, Nicholas M.; The College at Brockport (2012-04-01)
      The majority of clients seeking, and participating in, mental health treatment face a variety of barriers to their regular attendance; much of the focus, however, has continued to be centered around the experience of the provider and not on the client. The following research investigates the perceptions held by clients in an urban, low income, mental health setting, about what barriers they face. Clients completed a survey asking them to identify, on a likert scale, the degree to which they experienced barriers in several areas as they pertained to their mental health treatment. Clients also identified ways in which they believed they could be aided by the clinic in circumventing their barriers. The research findings, though descriptive in nature, point towards an institutional blind spot that allows for lower income clients to fall through the cracks of the mental health care industry.
    • Ocean Girl

      Potter, Meena; Pittsford Sutherland High School (2018-01-01)
    • Oceans of Plastic

      The effects of plastic pollution on the oceans as well as its effects on wildlife.
    • Ochreville

      Cotsonas, Thomas G.; The College at Brockport (2006-05-01)
      Ochreville is a cycle of stories set in one quarter-mile stretch of road in a small town in Upstate New York. Each story represents a different time in the neighborhood's history, starting with the clearing of the land in the late 1960's and progressing up to the present day when almost all the woods and fields have been destroyed. The stories deal primarily with the paralyzing effects of conformity in a suburban American setting.
    • Ode to Cat Hair

      Hedding, Christina; The College at Brockport (2015-05-01)
    • Odysseus' Well-Named Libidinal Encounters

      Phillies Feldman, Thalia; Canisius College (2014-10-23)