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Recent Submissions

  • Discrepancies in maternal reports of infant sleep vs. actigraphy by mode of feeding

    Rudzik, Alanna E. F.; Robinson-Smith, Lyn; Ball, Helen L. (Elsevier, 2018-09)
    Objectives: Many studies of infant sleep rely solely on parentally-reported data, assuming that parents accurately report their infant's sleep parameters. The objective of this paper is to examine whether night-time sleep parameters of exclusively breastfed or exclusively formula-fed infants differ, and whether correspondence between parental reports and objective measures varies by feeding type. Methods: Mother-infant dyads intending to breastfeed or formula-feed exclusively for 18 weeks were recruited. Mothers were multiparas and primiparas, aged between 18 and 45 years. Infants were full-term, normal birthweight singletons. Maternal report and actigraphic data on infant sleep were collected fortnightly, from four to 18 weeks postpartum. Data were analysed cross-sectionally using t-tests and GLM analysis to control for interaction between feed-type and sleep location. Results: Actigraphy-assessed infant sleep parameters did not vary by feed-type but parentally reported sleep parameters did. Maternal report and actigraphy data diverged at 10 weeks postpartum and discrepancies were associated with infant feeding type. Compared to actigraphy, maternal reports by formula-feeding mothers (controlling for infant sleep location) over-estimated infant's Total Sleep Time (TST) at 10 weeks and Longest Sleep Period (LSP) at 10, 12 and 18 weeks. Conclusions: These results raise questions about the outcomes of previous infant sleep studies where accuracy of parentally-reported infant sleep data is assumed. That parental reports of infant sleep vary by feeding type is particularly important for reconsidering previous studies of infant sleep development and intervention studies designed to influence sleep outcomes, especially where feed-type was heterogeneous, but was not considered as an independent variable.
  • Small Mammal Community Response to Wildfire at the Altona Flat Rock Sandstone Pavement Barren

    Garneau, Danielle; Hendrick, Michala; Darienzo, Lauren; Farr, Emily; Epifaino, Alex; Garneau, Danielle (2021-03-17)
    The Altona Flat Rock is a sandstone pavement barren, dominated by the fire-dependent species known as Pinus banksiana (Jack Pine). Changes in seed availability, understory structure, and predator presence influence wildlife migration within the barren. Additionally, small mammal abundance often fluctuates cyclical in response to tree masting. In July 2018, a wildfire occurred at the Flat Rock pine barren. We aimed to monitor small mammal response to wildfire over the course of a year. Small mammal traps were set along established transects capturing the fire severity gradient and adjacent reference unburned area. Along those same transects, giving up density surveys (GUDS) were performed to foraging patterns in these varied microhabitats. We predicted greater capture rates and community diversity in the burn immediately post-fire due to access to the abundant serotinous Jack Pine seeds. In fall 2018 immediately following the wildfire, a total of 67 small mammals were captured with 1.5 times more in the unburned than burned area. The small mammal community consisted of Peromyscus spp. comprising 87% of captures and insectivores Sorex cinereus (Masked Shrew) and Blarina brevicauda (Northern Short-tailed Shrew) were absent from the burn. In fall of 2019, a total of 21 small mammals were captured with 3 times more in the burn than in unburned area. Community composition was exclusively Peromyscus spp. Over the course of a year, we noted a significant reduction in captures and a shift in microhabitat usage from unburned (2018) to burn (2019) likely in response to regenerating vegetation ameliorating predation risk. Interestingly, average body mass and total body length were higher in Peromyscus spp. in 2019, perhaps in response to increased seed predation. GUD survey results show seed foraging was 67% greater in 2018. Collaborators monitoring game cameras at the barren noted increased predator use of the unburned and burned areas in winter 2018 and spring 2019, respectively and a significant decline of predators from the area in late summer-fall 2019. A predator decrease in fall 2019 is paralleled with a significant decline in Peromyscus spp. This preliminary research has revealed the complexity of small mammal response to wildfire. Long-term monitoring will likely uncover their connection to resources, microhabitat structure, and predator abundance as regeneration continues.
  • The reception of Malthus’s Essay on Population in the United States

    Andrews, David (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020)
    The American Declaration of Independence reflects the same Enlightenment ideals that led William Godwin and the Marquis de Condorcet to argue for the possibility of the perfectibility of humanity through institutional reform, so Malthus’s Essay on Population also serves as a rebuke to Americans who, believing that European poverty was due to European institutions, sought to build a new society that would provide freedom, equality and general prosperity. But there were competing visions. Nationalist supporters of government promotion of manufacturing argued that Malthusian misery and vice were not inevitable because, in the absence of oppressive European institutions, productivity increases as population increases. Southern defenders of slavery, on the other hand, viewed Malthus as a symbol of the horrific so-called ‘free labour system’, under which wage workers, who could be exploited and discarded, were worse off than slaves because of the slave owners’ interest in the well-being of their property
  • The Effects of Marketing on Commercial Banks’ Operating Businesses and Profitability: Evidence from US Bank Holding Companies

    Chen, Kai (Emerald Publishing, 2020-04)
    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the role that marketing plays in commercial bank management. Specifically, we examine the effects of marketing activities on banks' operating businesses, i.e. deposit, loan and service businesses. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of marketing activities on bank profitability. Design/methodology/approach: A series of hypotheses about the associations of marketing activities with banks' deposits, loans, services and profitability are developed. The fixed-effects linear model with an AR (1) disturbance is applied on the panel dataset of FR Y-9C reports to test these hypotheses. Findings: The results show that total loans and service proceeds are positively associated with marketing activities, which is measured by banks' advertising and marketing expenses. The effects of marketing activities on loan and service businesses are far-reaching to the second quarter in future. Moreover, the results reveal that profitability, measured as net income over total assets, increases with marketing activities. Practical implications: From the findings of this study, bank managers can learn the strengths and weaknesses of their marketing strategies and therefore better coordinate the marketing resources used in different areas of business. The study provides bank managers with a direction to examine the weaknesses in their marketing management. Originality/value: An issue in bank marketing that has not been explored yet is whether and how marketing activities affect commercial banks' specific businesses, such as deposits, loans and services, and how improvements in the specific businesses further affect bank profitability. This study is the first one to address this fundamental issue in bank marketing. Furthermore, the study provides the supplementary evidence that marketing contributes to commercial banks' profitability.
  • Estimating the Discount Rate of S&P 500 Portfolio With Cointegration Analysis

    Chen, Kai; Marcus, Richard D. (North American Business Press, 2020-11)
    Using cointegration analysis, this paper examines the evolution of the discount rate of S&P 500 portfolio from 1926 to 2019. By estimating on a 30-year time window moving over time, we find that the discount rate has gradually become significantly smaller. The results suggest that capital cost in the U.S. stock market, represented by the discount rate of S&P 500 portfolio, has been declining as time goes by, which implies that the U.S. stock market has become more informative and efficient, since the risk of a stock, which determines its capital cost, is associated with the stock’s asymmetric information.
  • Freedom Courts: An Analysis of Black Women’s Divorce in Attala County During Mississippi’s Anti-Divorce Campaign, 1890–1940

    Ashford, Evan Howard (University of BolognaInter-university Consortium for the Study of Euro-American History and Politics (CISPEA), 2021-03)
    The essay argues that divorce, as a legal maneuver, provided Black women with the opportunity tochallenge oppression within the household while simultaneously pushing back against broader ef-forts to curtail access to divorce. Framed within the New Negro Era, the article analyzes the compet-ing realities of divorce as both a racialized political issue and an internal struggle for independence.Utilizing newspapers and divorce petitions, the article captures how divorce gave Black women avoice and a platform in which they could declare independence in a society that was historicallyknown for its suppression of African Americans.
  • Cutting and Adapting Text for the Virtual Performing Landscape

    Malone, Toby; Huber, Aili (New and Noteworthy: The LMDA Newsletter, 2020-12-21)
    Cutting is almost inevitable in the process of performing classical texts, for time management; company logistics; sense; structure; or adaptation. Over the last year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the process of cutting has changed markedly as performances have moved into the virtual realm.
  • The Darkest Themes: Perceptions of Teen-on-Teen Gun Violence in Schools as Portrayed in Teen Literature

    VanSlyke-Briggs, Kjersti; Rhodes, Sarah; Turner, Jenna (Young Adult Library Services Association, 2020)
    This qualitative study examines the perceptions of librarians and teachers on the use of teen literature (also known as young adult literature [YAL] or adolescent literature in education scholarship) that portrays school shootings with teens. The researchers conducted both focus group interviews and an online Qualtrics survey to collect data, as well as group discussions from an online class for education graduate students on teen literature with school shootings as central to the plot. Both professional populations investigated supported the use of this literature with teens but lacked direct experience using literature with this subject matter and voiced a hesitancy in knowing where to begin in the selection of texts and planning for implementation.
  • Monumental Mobility: The Memory Work of Massasoit (review)

    Walker, William S. (Oxford University PressOrganization of American Historians, 2020-12)
    [excerpt] Monumental Mobility is a welcome addition to a growing literature examining monuments and memorials related to the history of settler colonialism. While Confederate statues have sparked high-profile public controversies, monuments that address the history of settler colonialism have garnered less attention; nevertheless, some have provoked strong criticisms, especially from activists who seek to “decolonize” museums and public history...
  • Responsive Redesign and its Effects on Perceived Usefulness

    Fischer, Kimberly; Schofield, Damian (AIRCC Publishing Corporation, 2021-02-26)
    This paper describes the introduction of a new website at TCGplayer, who provide an online store for Magic the Gathering collectible cards. This paper describes an experiment that was undertaken to test a new, responsive design, against the current, non-responsive design. It was predicted that redesigning the shopping cart for a mobile device screen, will result in a higher Perceived Usability (PU), and higher satisfaction, as indexed using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).
  • Understanding the Language of Information Literacy

    Orgeron, Jean-Paul (Elsevier, 2018-01)
    Understanding the language of information literacy is necessary for the effective use of library resources. The results of a recent study indicate that undergraduate students lack such an understanding, and the authors recommend that librarians, working with faculty, reassess information literacy terms. This article examines what is involved in reassessing these terms by drawing on several ideas from the philosophy of language, which provides a foundation for grasping the semantic challenges librarians face in educating users. Any reassessment of information literacy terms should recognize their ordinary and specialized use and aim for the holistic expression of core concepts, however complex they may be.
  • The state of Crumhorn Lake, 2021 and a plan for the management of Crumhorn Lake

    Stich, Daniel S.; Pfuhler, David Mathias (SUNY Oneonta, 2021)
  • Identification of Fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) at Thayer Farm, Otsego County, NY

    Heilveil, Jeffrey S.; Cassata, Samantha Angela (SUNY Oneonta, 2019)
  • Doublespeak: Louisa Jacobs, the American Equal Rights Association, and Complicating Racism in the Early US Women’s Suffrage Movement

    Goodier, Susan (Cornell Press, 2021)
    Members of the U.S. women’s suffrage movement, usually noted as being from the 1840s to the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, faced many struggles related to race from the outset. Periods of close collaboration between Black and white activists have been punctuated by longer periods with virtually no cooperation between them. Turning our attention to Lou- isa Jacobs, the daughter of the once-enslaved Harriet Jacobs (author of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl), helps us unpack racial cooperation—and the lack thereof—in the years immediately following the Civil War.
  • Short‐term responses of freshwater mussels to floods in a southwestern U.S.A. river estimated using mark–recapture sampling

    Stich, Daniel S.; Sotola, V. A.; Sullivan, K. T.; Littrell, B. M.; Martin, N. H.; Bonner, T. H. (Wiley, 2021)
    Floods can directly affect riverine organisms by displacing them, and population‐level responses to floods can vary depending on flood magnitude and organism mobility. Benthic organisms can resist displacement until substrates become unstable, whereas mobile organisms are generally more resilient. Freshwater mussels are benthic organisms with low mobility, and there is limited research on their population‐level responses to floods. This study provides novel insights to population‐level responses of mussels to large floods (>500 m3/s). Population dynamics (i.e. abundance, survival, and site fidelity) and sampling efficiency (i.e. detection probability) were estimated in a robust design framework for four freshwater mussel species (Cyclonaias petrina, Cyclonaias pustulosa, Amblema plicata, and Tritogonia verrucosa) from 2017 to 2019 at two sites (upper and lower sites) within riffle habitats in the Colorado River, Texas, U.S.A. Individuals of each species were affixed with shellfish tags, with C. petrina and C. pustulosa individuals also being affixed with passive integrated transponder tags. Changes in population dynamics related to the flood event at each site were directly tested. During sampling, a major flood occurred at each of the two study sites; the floods differed in magnitude but were in the 99th percentile of historical flows at their respective gages. There were site‐ and species‐specific differences in estimated abundances, survival, and site fidelity during periods with the floods. Estimated abundances of C. petrina, C. pustulosa, and T. verrucosa were reduced 40–78% by the lesser flood magnitude (1,283 m3/s) at the upper site. Estimated abundances of C. petrina, C. pustulosa, and A. plicata were reduced 93–95% by the greater flood magnitude (4,332 m3/s) at the lower site. There was a reduction in survival of C. petrina at the upper site, while initially high survival at the lower site was reduced during the interval with the flood for all species. Finally, there was a reduction in site fidelity of C. pustulosa at the lower site. Floods reduced the abundance of all species within riffle habitats at the two sites. Large floods, therefore, affect population dynamics of mussels, but the fate of the displaced mussels is unknown, and with limited inference, reach‐scale effects are unknown. This study adds to the growing body of knowledge about responses of aquatic organisms to large floods, although quantification of recolonisation and fate of displaced mussels are needed to fully understand long‐term effects of large floods on mussel communities.
  • The state of Lake Forest and Lake Allure, NY, 2020 and a plan for the management of lakes Forest and Allure

    Stich, Daniel S.; Carey, Samantha (SUNY Oneonta, 2020)
    Lake Forest and Lake Allure are two private waterbodies situated in the “Forever Wild” Adirondack Park. The impoundments were formed in the early 1900s when dams were constructed on Stewart Brook and Stewart Creek by Earl Woodward. Soon after, the Northwoods Lake Association (NWLA) was founded to serve, protect and manage these resources. NWLA members serve as vested lake stewards who are invested in the care of these lakes. These impoundments are cherished by residents, visitors and the Northwoods Lake Association, who strive to both manage and protect the resources. The State of Lake Forest and Lake Allure, NY and Comprehensive Lake Management Plan for Lakes Forest and Allure was created to provide the above parties with the information, tools, resources and recommendations to help preserve and protect the lakes for future generations.
  • “Children in Misery” or young crusaders?: the political utilization of children by the Women’s Christian Temperance Union

    Murphy, Shayna (2020-05)
    This paper discusses the Women’s Christian Temperance Union’s use of children for political purposes during their fight for Prohibition. In an effort to sympathize their mission and to create a sense of urgency around the banning of alcohol, members of the WCTU created an image of children as victims in their propaganda. However, the WCTU understood the importance of creating future voters, and so often created propaganda that presented children as active heroes. This conflicting portrayal of children showed that the WCTU used children as political tools and used such contrasting portrayals to reach a political goal rather than aptly represent children of alcoholic families. To understand this relationship between the WCTU and children, I analyzed posters created by the WCTU that present children as victims of alcohol and then content produced directly for children by the WCTU.
  • Chatbots: history, technology, and a case analysis

    Jay, Benjamin (2020-08)
    This thesis examines the more than 50 year history of chatbots that led to the development of Amazon’s Alexa, Google’s Assistant, and Apple’s Siri. A chatbot, commonly known as a conversational agent, is a computer framework that can have a normal conversation with a user by using a natural language processor (Reshmi and Balakrishnan, 2018). The goal is to understand the psychological and mathematical theories that worked well throughout history, as well as those that did not, and the impact they had on the evolution of modern chatbots. This thesis incorporates these theories into a new chatbot created using Google’s chatbot AI platform called Dialogflow. By following a Coursera course titled Building Conversational Experiences with Dialogflow, this thesis creates a chatbot that can schedule tours of a school and can answer questions about the SUNY New Paltz 2020 Commencement ceremony. Creating even the most basic chatbot requires a comprehensive understanding of the underlying theories and extensive coding experience (Abdul-Kader & Woods, 2015). This thesis assumes a foundation knowledge of computer coding.
  • The devil can cite scripture for his purpose: Shakespeare’s use of the parable of the Prodigal Son in ​Henry IV, The Merchant of Venice, King Lear​, and ​The Tempest

    Almeyda, Dariana (2020-05)
    Scholars have long identified the Bible as one of William Shakespeare’s main sources of inspiration. An extension to “The Devil Can Cite Scripture for His Purpose: Shakespeare’s Use of Biblical Allusions in ​The Merchant of Venice,”​ this paper explores Shakespeare’s implementation and reimagining of the parable of the Prodigal Son in ​Henry IV, The Merchant of Venice, King Lear,​ and ​The Tempest.​ His manipulation of the parable creates a universal sense of morality for the characters in each play and serves as a common ground for audiences of his time to understand and better relate to his works. To modern readers, his reworkings of the parable also serve as a social commentary on sixteenth-century English society steeped in religious conflicts and motifs. He creates several characters that act like prodigals, a term socially recognized by its relation to the parable found in Luke 15, but also universally understood as both an adjective and noun to mean “spending money or resources freely and recklessly; wastefully extravagant. / A person who spends money in a recklessly extravagant way” (“Prodigal”). ​Shakespeare’s various reworkings of this parable prompt a conversation about the price of forgiveness, love, and whether or not grace and mercy are truly free.
  • Exploring love languages: the key to building and maintaining healthy relationships

    Adams, Aryiah (2020-05)
    Communication is the heart of who we are as human beings. It is just as necessary as food and shelter because communication allows us to develop a civilized society that can transmit valuable information and knowledge. The desire to be loved and nurtured is also a fundamental human need that can be expressed through language. Through a series of interviews, the paper explores five “love languages” developed by Dr Gary Chapman used to communicate emotional fulfillment. The paper challenges the idea that time is a key component to the development of the five love languages. The research demonstrates that over time individuals discover their love language and that of their partner. Time further serves as a learning period that allows couples to recognize the emotional desires of their partner. Time then becomes the impetus for consistent acts of love creating growth between couples as they express love their partner accepts. The five love languages speak to the basic fundamentals needed to communicate love.

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