Recent Submissions

  • Predictors of second language acquisition in students with literacy difficulties

    Le, Tina (2019-05)
    Students with literacy difficulties, such as dyslexia, have impairments in both reading and writing: two essential academic tools to foster productive life-long education. Impairments in reading and writing can affect the way students learn a second language because of new vocabulary acquisition and print comprehension, which is dependent on how transparent the type of orthography is. The multiple-deficit model of dyslexia provides a better description of comorbidity that further deviates these difficulties. Four predictors that are examined when analyzing literacy difficulties are orthographic differences, cognitive abilities, affective factors and teacher will and capacity. The purpose of this literature review is to discuss the results of the four predictors and accommodations of these difficulties within the classroom setting.
  • Let's talk about it: challenges in narrative-discourse skills for children who use AAC

    Blais, Olivia (2019-05)
    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices are used by individuals that are unable to successfully communicate with the use of speech or are used to supplement other forms of communication. Children who use AAC devices in their daily lives may be at a higher risk for impairments in their narrative language skills due to many factors. The intent of this scoping review was to examine which factors may influence a child’s narrative language skills when using an AAC device, which other elements of language may be impacted among this population, and which types of intervention have been used in response to these obstacles. This review also discusses further research recommendations.
  • Long-term and short-term effects of childhood hemispherectomies on language abilities

    Richardson, Brooke A. (2019-05)
    Introduction: A cerebral hemispherectomy is a surgical procedure in which either the left or right hemisphere of the brain is completely removed, and is undergone as a result of intractable seizures. Methods: This scoping review was conducted using eighteen relevant articles, and utilized the databases provided through the Feinberg Library. Results: Because language deficits are so significant in many patients prior to hemispherectomies, language abilities tend to either stay the same or improve once the hemispherectomy is complete. Discussion: Although the trends appear to be consistent across studies, it is important to acknowledge that individual factors may have impacted patients language success, maintenance, or regression following surgery. Conclusions: This literature review suggests that further research is needed regarding postoperative language therapy.
  • A Comparison of the Effect of Parkinson's Disease on Verbal and Signed Modalities

    Ball, Nora (2019-05)
    Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in movement. The effects of PD on verbal communicators have long been known, but little is known of its impact on American Sign Language users (ASL). Due to impairments found in the communication of verbal PD communicators, recent studies have investigated impairments found in ASL PD communicators. Studies have shown deficits in prosody, intonation and articulatory approximations created by PD. Possible associations between an ease of articulation and increased difficulties in perception have been theorized. This literature stipulates possible similarities between the effect of PD on verbal and signed modalities. This literature review will analyze the results of previously conducted studies and speculate recommendations for future research.
  • Investigating the availability of services for individuals with communication disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Capurso, Cynthia-Ann (2019-05)
    In Sub-Saharan Africa, it is estimated that there are at most six Speech-Language Therapists per one million individuals with communication disorders. It is evident that this population is severely limited in appropriate healthcare services. This literature review identifies the underlying factors that contribute to the healthcare shortage for those with communication disorders in order to determine solutions. The most prominent aspects that impede healthcare development in Sub-Saharan Africa for these individuals are the severely limited availability of health workers, inadequacy of training among professionals, and culturally appropriate care. Global responsibility and sustainability within the health workforce is necessary to implement the most advantageous solutions in order to mitigate this issue holistically.
  • Craniofacial morphology as a clinical implication for intelligibility-based speech therapy in adults with Down Syndrome

    Reagan, Samantha Claire (2019-05)
    Down Syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder associated with craniofacial features that may impact speech intelligibility and cause communication breakdown. Speech intervention has not been investigated in-depth in adults with DS due to the notion that motoric deficits are insensitive to therapy. This review seeks to identify literature pertaining to poor speech intelligibility as a component of communication deficits in this population for the purpose of informing clinical services. The results identified underlying articulatory characteristics that affect the quality and intelligibility of verbal output as well as the positive effect of speech therapy on intelligibility. The literature supports the significance of focusing on motoric-based intervention in adults with DS as well as the need for further research regarding clinical implications.
  • Best Practices in Cochlear Implantation in Prelingually Deaf Children Who Use Tonal Languages

    Campbell, Madeline (2019-05)
    Objective: This review seeks to determine what cochlear implant design, insertion technique, and aural rehabilitation method will improve tonal perception and speech perception for prelingually deaf pediatric cochlear implant and tonal language users. Methods: Seventeen relevant papers were identified in this review. Results: Fine Structure Processing coding strategy, a lateral electrode array inserted through the round window, and music training have all been found to help improve tonal perception. Conclusion: Using the Fine Structure Processing coding strategy in the low-frequency region channels, a lateral wall electrode array that is inserted through the round window, and music training postoperatively will help make individuals’ tonal perception more accurate and improve their speech perception of the tonal language they speak.
  • The Effect of Advanced Parental Age on Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Hanlon, Abigail (2018-05)
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by varying deficits in social communication and social interactions, and/or restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The origin of ASD has long been studied and speculated. There is an increased interest in the risks associated with development of ASD. In recent years, parental age has been studied as a possible contributing factor to the development of autism. Studies are investigating the link between maternal and paternal age and autism. Possible associations have been speculated to be increase gene mutations, genetics, high risk pregnancy and lifestyle. This literature to date indicates possible associated factors, but is not yet definitive. This literature review will discuss the results of several studies and the recommendations for future research.
  • The Psychological and Emotional Impact of Hearing Loss on School-Aged Children

    Studt, Mallory E. (2018-05)
    School-aged children with hearing loss face significant psychological and emotional concerns that normal hearing children do not. Relevant studies identified children with hearing loss have an overall poorer global self esteem, poorer academic achievement, increased loneliness and behavioral issues. Research has speculated on the appropriate classroom environments best suited for these children, and comparisons have been made on mainstream and specialized classroom environments. The literature demonstrates mainstream classrooms correlating to a higher rate of speech intelligibility, and increased social competence amongst children with hearing loss than compared to the specialized classrooms.
  • A proposed ototoxicity monitoring protocol based on specificity, feasibility, and early identification

    Moser, Caitlin (2018-05)
    Ototoxicity is damage to inner ear structures resulting from exposure to an ototoxic medication. Ototoxic pharmacotherapy agents are commonly prescribed to treat infectious diseases and cancers. Establishment of an effective ototoxicity monitoring protocol can improve patient quality of life by focusing on feasibility, specificity, and early identification. Currently ototoxicity monitoring protocols exist, however these programs have inconsistency in success. In relation to developing countries, the need for an ototoxicity monitoring protocol is imperative as the use of ototoxic medications increase. However, U.S. guidelines are not feasible for application in these rural, developing countries due to resource restrictions. A literature review was conducted to evaluate the components of current programs. This study aims to propose a protocol that embellishes early identification and intervention through implementation of the most effective, precise, and feasible components.
  • Effects of peer-mediated interventions on social communication of children with autism spectrum disorders who utilize augmentative and alternative communication systems

    Scott, Jillian (2018-05)
    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are developmental disorders characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction. Peer-mediated interventions(PMI) have been found to have a positive impact on social interaction between children with ASD and their typically-developing peers. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices are systems that supplement or replace existing communication when impairments in speech are present. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of PMI on the use of AAC devices by children with ASD. The main focus was on the social interactions that were facilitated by PMI between children with ASD and their typically developing peers. Children with ASD may not have the internal motivation that other AAC users have to interact socially. This may be why few relevant studies have been identified on this specific topic. Results will be discussed and future research recommendations will be made.
  • The Double D: A Review of Dementia Symptoms in Adults with Down Syndrome and the Validity of Assessment Tools

    Fishman, Lior (2017)
    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic disorder. Individuals with DS experience cognitive and functional deficits, rapid aging and have an increased risk of dementia diagnosis. Dementia results in intellectual difficulties and disturbance to memory and language. It has been reported that approximately 70% of individuals with DS will develop dementia. Due to varying cognitive abilities, concrete diagnosis is challenging. Dementia Scale for Down Syndrome, Dementia Screening Questionnaire for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities, and the Adaptive Behavior Scale are used for dementia diagnosis in individuals with DS. As life expectancy continues to rise and the prevalence of dementia diagnosis is increasing it is important to make early concrete diagnosis in order to provide early treatment. The purpose of this review is to determine the validity of assessment tools used for dementia diagnosis in adults with Down syndrome and recognize symptoms that may be indicators to allow for diagnosis.
  • Electrocochleography as a Diagnostic Tool for Ménière’s Disease: A Comparison Between Presentation Methods and Various Sound Stimuli

    Nye, Sierra (2017)
    Ménière’s disease is a vestibulocochlear disease thought to be caused by endolymphatic hydrops, or increased fluid pressure in the inner ear. At the time of this review, guidelines for diagnosis require audiometric evaluation and clinical judgment of symptoms. There is no requirement for the use of objective diagnostic tools in the diagnosis of Ménière’s disease. Electrocochleography was previously a variable and unreliable tool for diagnosing Ménière’s disease. However, with improvements in its technology, electrocochleography could play a greater role in evaluating Ménière’s disease. This poster compares several electrocochleography presentation methods, as well as different sound stimuli, and their diagnostic efficacy.
  • Osteoporosis and Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Dzienzynski, Jenette (2017)
    Osteoporosis is a disease that affects 7.9 to 22.6% of women in the United States. This illness causes a loss of bone mineral density at different sites of the body. There appears to be a correlation between osteoporosis and sensorineural hearing loss, but studies have displayed conflicting results regarding this association. Furthermore, if this relationship exists, the exact physical cause of the sensorineural hearing loss is unknown. After review of the literature, although some studies denied the existence of a correlation, most research confirmed the relationship between osteoporosis and sensorineural hearing loss. Additionally, some studies have proposed demineralization of the temporal bone, damage to the cochlear nerve, and protein imbalance in the cochlea as some possible causes of sensorineural hearing loss resulting from osteoporosis. Although more research is needed to better understand this association, current literature provides a starting point from which to expand this area of research.
  • A Review on the Use of Presurgical Infant Orthopedics to Improve Speech Sound Development in Cleft Lip and Palate Children

    Miller, Charlotte (2017)
    The purpose of this study was to observe the benefits of presurgical infant orthopedics (PSIO) as an early intervention device to improve speech sound development. Speech sound development was observed in terms of articulatory place, manner, and speech intelligibility. Infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were fitted with passive PSIO devices within the first three weeks of birth. Children’s speech was recorded and assessed on various parameters by listeners. Results regarding the use of PSIO to improve articulatory place, manner, and speech intelligibility were not found.
  • A Comparison of Language Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Kerr, Emily (2016)
    Recently, many studies have been performed to determine the relationship of language deficits of children with autism spectrum disorder and children with specific language impairment (SLI). Both autism and SLI are defined by impairments in one specific area of language; however, overlap in the deficits of these disorders is becoming apparent. While lines have been previously drawn to separate these two disorders, the parameters of impairment between autism and SLI may not be as easily defined as once thought.
  • Neurological Predictors of Persistent Versus Recovered Developmental Stuttering

    McGrattan, James (2016)
    Developmental stuttering affects ~5% of preschool-aged children. While stuttering disappears in the majority of these children within 3 years after onset, it persists into adulthood in 1% of children. Determining anatomical and physiological differences in the brain between persisting and recovering stuttering may lead to early prediction of risk/non-risk, and thus, early intervention can be appropriately implemented.
  • A Comparison of Treatment Approaches for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Papin, Jordy (2016)
    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is defined as a developmental disorder that affects speech motor planning and programming, and leads to disrupted accuracy and consistency of articulatory movements necessary for speech. As most cases are idiopathic, there are a wide range of treatment approaches for CAS. This presentation aims to compare the efficacy of different treatment approaches.
  • The Effects of Ganciclovir and Valganciclovir Antiviral Treatments in Children with Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Centola, Allyson (2016)
    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is one of the leading causes of non-hereditary newborn hearing losses. Typically children with a hearing loss would receive amplification to help combat the loss; however, new research has shown that children who have cCMV can receive antiviral treatments in lieu of amplification. Ganciclovir and valganciclovir are the antiviral treatments that are currently being used. These antiviral treatments help eliminate the viral load in the blood and thus improve the child’s hearing loss.

View more