• The Ecological Value of Cemeteries and Historical Places

      Moriarty, Melissa; Zborowski, Daniel; Garneau, Danielle (2018)
      Habitat loss and fragmentation is a common conservation threat in the United States. Land in urban areas is at a premium for biodiversity preservation and historic landmarks and cemeteries are green spaces that undergo limited disturbance. Historic and sacred sites, such as those designated by historical markers and listed as cemeteries often contain remnant old growth trees, native species and potentially rare or endangered flora. Old growth trees are often considered a ‘keystone structure’, providing resources that are crucial for other species and/or a ‘foundational species’, essential in forest ecosystems providing food and shelter for wildlife. These mature trees are more prone to environmental factors such as competition with invasive plants, climatic extremes, air pollution, disease/pets and habitat fragmentation, therefore it is crucial to evaluate these historical places to assess their ecosystem service roles. A rapid decline of old foundational trees will have major impacts on the ecosystem services reported in this study. Using a citizen science survey approach and the iNaturalist smartphone app, as well as i-Tree Eco software, we surveyed trees at cemeteries and various historical places in Clinton County, NY. Tree species, diameter at breast height, tree height, percent crown dieback, as well as signs of disease, and woodpecker damage were recorded. The survey found that the most common tree species were Picea abies (Norway spruce), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), and Picea pungens (blue spruce). Black locust sequesters the most carbon ≈ (525 kg/yr), while Norway spruce reduces runoff (≈75 m3). Annually, mature foundational trees combined annually removed ≈ 57.03 kg ($870/yr) of pollution, stored ≈ 148.7 tons ($21,300) of carbon, ≈ sequestered 1.302 tons ($186.00/yr) of carbon, and produced ≈ 3.472 tons of oxygen. Locally, Riverside Cemetery annually sequestered the most carbon (0.4 tons), produced ≈ 1.2 tons of oxygen, and stored ≈ 1.5 tons of CO2, followed by Gilliland Cemetery. Interestingly, Gilliland Cemetery was found to be a monoculture of the invasive species black locust; more research could provide insight as to ecosystem functioning prior to the invasion. Further research is needed to help provide a stronger ecological value to these historical and sacred spaces.
    • Environmental Impact of Trains in the Adirondacks

      Garneau, Danielle; Busch, Ali; Varin, Zoey (2016)
    • Evaluating Bioremediation Potential for Plastic Pollution with Wax Worms, Galleria mellonella

      Garneau, Danielle; Elliott, Alexandria M. (2017)
      Recently researchers have been seeking methods to address plastic pollution problems. These range from oceanic harvesters, to washing machine bags which limit fiber emissions, to bioremediators. In 2015, researchers determined that 100 Galleria mellonella (Wax Worms) were capable of consuming 92 mg of polyethylene in a 12 hour period. In order to assess Wax Worms’s potential as bioremediators, we ran pilot trials using 5 worms under low and high light conditions and exposed them to different forms of plastic such as; PVC (tubing), PET (water bottle), polypropylene (bottle cap), ethylene/vinyl acetate (inner liner bottle cap), and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (overhead projector sheet), as well as no plastic (control worms). Additional trials (including additional plastic types) are in progress with adjustments in conditions and worm abundance based on pilot study findings. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) was used to verify both plastic and fecal polymer composition. Both worms and plastics were photodocumented before and during the experiment to assess signs of foraging (e.g., channeling, chewing) morphological changes in plastics. Fecal material was found to be nylon and azlon (casein) suggesting worms are processing plastic. Consumption of plastic varied across polymers, specifically more polypropylene, PET, and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose was consumed compared to other types. Channeling was noted on several plastic pieces. Our lab experiment will serve as a baseline for future testing of the bioremediation potential of Wax Worms at addressing small-scale plastic pollution.
    • Examining the Presence of Microplastic in Wastewater-Derived Soil Amendment

      Koritkowski, Carlee; Garneau, Danielle (2020-05-05)
      There is growing research on the impact of microplastics in terms of uptake in consumer products (e.g., sea salt, bottled/tap water, beer, mussels, fish, and soil amendments). Studies have shown that wastewater effluent and biosolids are potential pathways for microplastics to enter marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments. Some soil amendments derive from the bacterial mats associated with wastewater processing and are potential pathways of microplastics via soil runoff into surrounding waterbodies. The presence of microplastics in these ecosystems impacts food webs at varying trophic levels and contributes to the persistence of microplastics in the environment. We examined a wastewater-derived soil amendment for microplastics using standard characterization methods. Quantification of microplastics following distilled water hydration of 82g of soil amendment yielded 69 particles. These particulate were primarily fibers (69%) and foams (19%), with lesser films (4%), beads (4%), and fragments (3%). The majority were smaller (125-355um) fiber particles. A standard bag of this soil amendment is 14515g with coverage of 232m2. The average-sized lawn in the United States is approximately 911m2, resulting in the potential to contribute 330,240 particles into soil and ultimately adjacent waterways. Next steps have begun to streamline this process by adopting the wet peroxide oxidation digestion method in an attempt to reduce organic matter. Nile red staining is a recently introduced method that effectively binds to plastic and is visualized using ultraviolet light. Microplastic researchers have developed automated (MP-VAT) software to streamline microplastic quantification and characterization in conjunction with Nile red staining procedures. We aim to incorporate this new approach and evaluate best practices in microplastic quantification and characterization of wastewater-derived soil amendments, as their potential ecosystem consequences are broad. It is important to continue elucidating pathways of these emerging persistent pollutants.
    • Field and Molecular Survey of Lyme Disease in Northern New York

      Garneau, Danielle; Provost, Alexandra; Bowman, David; VanBrocklin, Hope (2015)
      The black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis), which is the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) vector, is prevalent in northern New York. By parasitizing small animal reservoirs, the black-legged tick infects the host species and creates the ecological cycle of the Lyme bacterium. Ixodes scapularis tick drags were performed weekly from May to July at three different regional sites. At each site, ticks were sampled from 5 different microhabitats (e.g., disturbed, forest edge, forest interior, grassland, and wetland). Tick abundance was greatest in Ausable/Chesterfield and the Plattsburgh area, and rare at the Watertown site. DNA extractions were performed, followed by nested PCR to detect the (Borrelia burgdorferi) Lyme spirochete bacterium. A total of (n = 170) ticks were collected at all sites, with 61% of those ticks testing positive for Lyme disease. A majority of the total ticks (n = 109) were collected during the month of June. The forest edge ticks, which were collected predominantly in the Ausable/Chesterfield, had the highest occurrence (79%) of Lyme disease. In contrast, the average Lyme prevalence for the other surveyed microhabitats was 53%. Of the microhabitats, the grassland had the lowest prevalence (44%) of Lyme disease. These differences could result from habitat suitability of important hosts (Peromyscus leucopus and Tamias striatus), which might occur in higher abundance in the Ausable/Chesterfield region, possibly reflecting the prevalence of oak (Quercus spp.) and their acorn mast. Several of these sites have undergone timber management, which can enhance acorn abundance in pitch pine/oak barren habitat (Ausable/Chesterfield). Temporally, only a third of the ticks from the month of May tested positive, which then increased to 58% in June, likely reflecting seasonal nymph activity. This preliminary study suggests that Lyme disease is common in the northern New York, with the occurrence of Lyme disease in black-legged ticks being the highest in those inhabiting forest edge microhabitat of the Champlain Valley during the month of June.
    • Field and Molecular Survey of Lyme Disease in Northern New York in 2015

      Garneau, Danielle; Paulo de Mattos, Adolfo Jr; Smith, Matthew (2016)
      The black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis), which is the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) vector, is prevalent in northern New York. By parasitizing small animal reservoirs, the black-legged tick infects the host species and creates the ecological cycle of the Lyme bacterium. Ixodes scapularis tick drags were performed weekly from May to July at nine different regional sites. These sites comprised 5 different microhabitats (e.g., disturbed, forest edge, forest interior, grassland, and wetland). Tick abundance was greatest in Wickham Marsh Forest Edge and the Plattsburgh disturbed area, and rare at the Residential sites. DNA extractions were performed, followed by nested PCR to detect the (Borrelia burgdorferi) Lyme spirochete bacterium. A total of (n = 126) ticks were collected at all sites, with 92% of those ticks testing positive for Lyme disease. A majority of the total ticks (n = 80) were collected during the month of June. The forest edge ticks, which were collected predominantly in Wickham Marsh, had the highest occurrence (94.5%) of Lyme disease. In contrast, the average Lyme prevalence for the other surveyed microhabitats was 83.3%. Of the microhabitats, the wetland had the lowest prevalence (0%) of Lyme disease. These differences could result from habitat suitability of important hosts (Peromyscus leucopus and Tamias striatus), which might occur in higher abundance in the Wickham Marsh region, possibly reflecting the prevalence of oak (Quercus spp.) and their acorn mast. This study has the purpose to add new insights to the study of last year in relation to different habitats and urbanized areas, assessing the prevalence of ticks and lyme that is common in the northern New York, with the occurrence of Lyme disease in black-legged ticks being the highest in those inhabiting forest edge microhabitat of the Champlain Valley during the month of June.
    • Field and Molecular Survey of Northern and Southern Flying Squirrels in Northern New York

      Waldron, Alexis; Bliss, Amanda; Thone, Gretchen (2014)
      In northern New York, there are 2 sympatric species of flying squirrel, the northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (Glaucomys volans). Recent research suggests that the boundaries between the northern and the southern flying squirrels have been shifting northward, in part due to climate change affecting resource availability. As a result, northern New York would now be the southern terminus for northern, and the northern terminus for the southern flying squirrels. The goal of our research is to develop a molecular survey of the two species that can be compared to morphological measurements made in the field to better confirm species in our area. As weather permits, we are establishing an arboreally mounted trapline and recovering scat, hair, and other tissue samples for DNA extraction, polymerization chain reaction (PCR), and restriction digests to determine species. The molecular assay has been optimized; however the harsh winter has limited our trapping success for tissue collection in the field. Determining frequency of capture will assist in predicting where the boundary of these species lies in Clinton County.
    • Georeference Inventory of SUNY Plattsburgh's Taxidermy Collection

      Garneau, Danielle; Van Splinter, Jessica (2014)
      In the midst of global climate change, invasive species, habitat loss/fragmentation, and pollution, which leads to local extirpation and extinction, taxidermy collections are essential in educating the public on the importance of natural history. Documentation of where specimens are collected is critical to understanding mammal range shifts in this time of global change. The goal of this inventory was to georeference SUNY Plattsburgh's taxidermy collection to assess whether there were some regional hotspots of collection that might be sources of sampling in the future. Georeferencing included noting species name, collection site, morphological measurements, as well as other information on the voucher specimen tag and importing that into GIS. Approximately, half of all the voucher specimens in the collection were unmarked, 35% were collected from Clinton County (19% Plattsburgh), and 10% from Essex County (3% Lewis). All specimens documented were collected from New York State. Several unique specimens were documented including a bobcat (Lynx rufus), black bear (Ursus americanus), fisher (Martes pennan), red (Vulpes vulpes) and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteous). Small mammals, including deer mice and white-footed mice (Peromyscus spp., 15%), red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonious, 10%), and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus, 8%) were among the most abundant voucher species. The importance of continued sampling in these same voucher collection sites, might prove helpful when tracking range expansions as climate changes over the next century. SUNY Plattsburgh's snowshoe hare voucher specimens correspond to the southern edge of the historic range of the species and span the border of that range across four counties (e.g., Clinton, Essex, Warren, Ulster). Future implications for this information may include documentation of shifts in their southern range boarder as local conditions change in response to anthropogenic effects.
    • History of Wilcox Dock and the Georgia Pacific Paper Company

      Garneau, Danielle; Ramsdell, Connor; Hastings, Emily (2016)
    • Impacts on the growth of Sweet Corn (Zea Mays) exposed to plastic weed fabric and soil amendment with and without earthworms

      Lee, Linh; Gomez, Isabel; Garneau, Danielle (2020-05-05)
      Agricultural practices, such as farm field application of sewer sludge or use of plastic weed fabrics may impact yield of crop plants. Numerous studies have documented the presence of microplastics in wastewater treatment plant effluent and sludge and have noted negative impacts on terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Plastic mulch and weed fabrics are increasingly more common in small-scale farming and over time will degrade into finer microplastic particulate. Both plastic sources have the potential to leach residues into soils and adjacent waterbodies, with potential impacts on both plants and wildlife. Earthworm bioturbation has the potential to redistribute microplastics even deeper into the soils as they consume and lay castings. We established a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of farming-associated plastics on Sweet Corn (Zea mays) in the presence of Red Worms (Eisenia foetida). We sowed 4 corn seeds per pot across 5 treatments (control, macroplastic, microplastic, amendment 1mm, amendment 355um) with 6 replicates per treatment and lined and covered the pots with screening. Once plants were established (13 days), two Red Worms were introduced to three pots across all treatments. Plant height was measured weekly and upon harvest, stem diameter, leaf abundance, and weights were obtained. Preliminary results suggest that the amendment hastened the date of first germination (6 days post-planting). All plants germinated in 1mm amendment and macroplastic, whereas minimum (88%) germination was observed in 355um amendment and microplastic treatments. There was a statistical difference in the height of Sweet Corn after a week with the tallest plants deriving from the 1mm amendment treatment (p = 0.037, F = 2.643, df = 119). This study serves to help elucidate the complex interactions of microplastic and soil-dwelling organisms on yield of crop plants. Our results will inform farmers and land managers about avoiding techniques that will potentially increase plastics inputs into ecosystems.
    • Imperial Dam

      Garneau, Danielle; Hilling, Tom; Tanner, Sam; Beers, Chris (2016)
    • Inventory of Small and Large Mammal Diversity in a Fragmented Landscape: A Baseline for Investigating Ecological Impacts of Human Disturbance

      Burgess, Michael; Garneau, Danielle; Wantuch, Joseph (2015)
      Systematic study of biological diversity is a prerequisite for understanding the ecological effects of climate instability and human disturbance. Our study is part of the Rugar Woods All Taxa Biological Inventory (ATBI) project, which seeks to document the biodiversity of Rugar Woods. We performed a field survey to inventory small and large mammals within Rugar Woods, a 50-acre, temperate, mixed forest. We collected five replicate measurements of both track and stride length and width, as well as photo-documented and georeferenced each track. All observations of sign were inventoried in a database and spatially explored with the iNaturalist application. We recorded ten mammal species, from five families. The most frequently recorded species were weasels (Mustelidae), including long-tailed weasel, fisher, river otter, and mink. We recorded a red fox (Canidae), white-footed mouse (Rodentia), beaver (Rodentia), and grey squirrel (Rodentia), a raccoon (Procyonidae), and white-tailed deer (Cervidae). Mammal tracks were commonly recorded on the ice of the Saranac River where domestic dog tracks were infrequent, and open space likely facilitated animal movement. A majority of tracks were recorded from riparian emergent and scrub-shrub habitats. These habitats are ecologically productive, and are thus integral components of the predator-prey food web. Because of the impending removal of the Imperial Dam, our data provide an important baseline for studying the cascading ecological effects of dam removal. Additionally, the documented mammal species are an essential part of the forest community, and their presence in a fragmented urban forest is encouraging. Finally, many are also disease vectors (e.g., Lyme disease and rabies), thus understanding their habitat use patterns is vital for ecological epidemiology.
    • Investigation of the Northern Range Expansion of the Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginians)

      Garneau, Danielle; Gervich, Curt; Romanowicz, Ed; Appling, Leslie (2014)
      The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) has a very wide geographic range and is found throughout the south and northeastern United States, as far south as Central America and recently a few sightings have been noted in southern Canada. Low temperatures play a significant role in defining the opossum distribution, as they do not forage when temperatures are below 24.8°F. In parts of the opossum range, where they are forced to endure this temperature minimum, many experience increased mortality rates as a result of frostbite due to their small body size and hairless ears and tail. It may also be possible for them to persist in the northern extreme of their range by metabolizing body fat stores during cold winter months. Opossums found further north typically have a thick layer of underfur, which serves a thermoregulatory function. Because the opossum does not hibernate, it must forage year-round; however, this is difficult during the cold winters of upstate, New York. Typically the opossums stop foraging in temperatures less than 24.8°F, and avoid foraging in temperatures below 32°F . The goal of this study was to assess the progression of the northern migration of the opossum using a combination of qualitative roadkill and live sighting survey responses (i.e., bus drivers, mail collectors, Fed Ex drivers, hunters and trappers) and climate trends derived from long-term regional weather station records. We do not predict that sustainable Virginia opossum populations currently reside in high density within our region. Largely, this is because Clinton County is at the northern extent of their range in United States and their thermoregulatory needs cannot be met in these rural habitats. However, warming climate and increases in anthropogenic food sources may be making their northern migration possible in the near future.
    • Lyon Mountain: A Timeline of the History of a Small Mining Town

      Garneau, Danielle; Moll, Emily; Thomas, Brandi (2016)
    • Micro-plastic Bioaccumulation in Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) of Lake Champlain

      Mason, Sherri; Garneau, Danielle; Moseman, Erin (2015)
      Micro-plastics are discharged into watersheds through wastewater treatment plant effluent and onward into waterbodies. Studies have shown that micro-plastics are bioaccumulating within aquatic organisms found in both fresh and salt water. Students at SUNY Fredonia are jointly working with SUNY Plattsburgh to identify and quantify micro-plastics from within fish digestive tracks from the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain. Dr. Sherri Mason's team at Fredonia has identified dark fibers as the most abundant micro-plastic in fish digestive tracts (> 85%), with yellow perch (Perca flavescens), being the most frequent species containng plastics (94.4%). SUNY Plattsburgh sampled eight yellow perch caught ice fishing in Monty's Bay, Lake Champlain. Digestive tract samples were digested in a wet-peroxide solution then left to dry for further examination. All fish sampled contained microfibers within their digestive tracts, 75% of individuals contained fibers present while 25% had foam-like plastics. These samples will be further examined by Dr. Sherri Mason's lab for further confirmation on type, color, and polymer. In the future SUNY Plattsburgh plans to examine micro-plastics in zooplankton and cormorants to represent a trophic dynamic bioaccumulation of micro-plastics in Lake Champlain.
    • Micro-plastic Pollution: A Comparative Survey of Wastewater Effluent in New York

      Garneau, Danielle; Mason, Sherri; Chaskey, Elizabeth; Hirsch, Taylor; Drake, Todd; Ehmann, Karyn; Chu, Yvonne (2014)
      Micro-plastics are hypothesized to be discharged into the waterways through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. Students from SUNY Fredonia, jointly with students from SUNY Plattsburgh, have conducted a survey of regional plastic pollution at WWTPs in Chautauqua County, NY (Dunkirk and Fredonia) and Clinton County, NY (Peru and Plattsburgh) to explore this hypothesis. Samples of wastewater treatment effluent were collected using sieve arrays and materials were analyzed in the lab for any suspect micro-plastics. The suspect micro-plastics were placed into sample containers for future analysis. Preliminary results of this survey suggest suspect particles were present and discharged at rates of 109,556, 81,911, and 1,061,953 particles per day from Plattsburgh, Fredonia, and Dunkirk, respectively. Continued monitoring and dissemination of micro-plastic results to sewer facilities, may result in mitigation to reduce the amount of plastic discharge. These micro-plastics have become ubiquitous freshwater and marine pollutants, that are negatively impacting survival and fitness of aquatic species. Technological improvements to older facilities are likely to reduce micro-plastic waste and harm to the ecosystem.
    • Microplastic Bioaccumulation in invertebrates, fish, and cormorants in Lake Champlain

      Garneau, Danielle; Hammer, Chad; VanBrocklin, Hope (2016)
      It is estimated in the United States that 8 trillion microbeads enter our waterways daily. Microplastics are typically discharged into local watersheds through wastewater treatment plant effluent and marine debris, with as much as 1600 synthetic fibers emanating from washing a single piece of clothing. In this project, we assessed microplastic load within Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels), Gammarus fasciatus (amphipods), fish, and Phalacrocorax auritus (double-crested cormorants) digestive tracts. Specimens were processed using KOH bath, followed by wet peroxide oxidation digests. Bioaccumulated microplastics were characterized based on type (e.g., fragment, pellet/bead, fiber, film, foam) and size. Results suggest that the majority of microplastics combined for all organisms investigated were fibers (67%), fragments (19%), films (10%), and pellets/beads (4%). No microplastics were observed in zebra mussels. Amphipods contained fibers (50%), fragments (25%), and films (25%). Species-specific trends were observed among fish, specifically Osmerus mordax (rainbow smelt), Cottus cognatus (slimy sculpin), and Micropterus salmoides (large-mouth bass) are primarily consuming fibers. Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and rainbow smelt were the only species to consume pellets/beads (40%) and films (16%), respectively. Double-crested cormorants contained primarily fibers (78%), as well as films (19%), with minor contributions of pellets/beads and foam. Spatial distribution of microplastic load was greater in rainbow smelt at the most northern and southern sampling sites on Lake Champlain. In freshwater systems, microplastics absorb chemical pollutants and release plasticizers (e.g., carcinogens, neurotoxins, endocrine disruptors) into tissues, with the potential for fitness consequences in wildlife and humans.
    • Microplastic Biomagnification in Invertebrates, Fish, and Cormorants in Lake Champlain

      Garneau, Danielle; Stewart, James; Walrath, Joshua; Putnam, Alex; Hammer, Chad; VanBrocklin, Hope; Buksa, Brandon; Clune, Alexis (2018)
      The goal of this research was to determine whether microplastics (MP) are uptaken by invertebrates, fish, and Phalacrocorax auritus (double-crested cormorants) resident to Lake Champlain. We did so by quantifying and characterizing (e.g., fragment, fiber, film, foam, pellet) plastic particulate.Wet peroxide oxidation digests were performed on digestive tracts of 506 lake organisms, specifically invertebrates (n = 301), 15 species of fish (n = 190), and Phalacrocorax auritus (double-crested cormorants) (n = 15). Our research indicated that fibers were the were the most common (80.1%) type of particulate found in all organisms, followed by fragments (9.64%), films (6.36%), foam (3.01%), and pellets (Amia calva) contained the greatest average number of plastic particulate (n = 29.67), followed by lake trout (Salvelinus hamaycush) (n = 21.42), and northern pike (Esox lucius) (n = 20.1). Among digested fish, stomachs contained the greatest mean number of MPs (n=5.62), followed by the esophagus (n=5.36) and intestines (n=4.8). These findings suggest biomagnification and/or direct ingestion is occurring in Lake Champlain organisms, as invertebrates, fish, and double-crested cormorants contained on average 0.36, 6.08, and 22.93 microplastic particles.
    • Microplastic Biomagnification in Invertebrates, Fish, and Cormorants in Lake Champlain

      Garneau, Danielle; Putnam, Alexandra; Clune, Alexis; Buksa, Brandon; Hammer, Chad; VanBrockin, Hope (2017)
      Microplastics are plastic particles that are microplastics, which are pellets commonly found in personal care products, and secondary microplastics, which are degraded plastics. Microplastics have made their way into waterbodies by passing through wastewater treatment plants, as marine debris, via mechanical- and photo-degradation of plastic, and release of pre-production raw materials. Microplastics are known to absorb other pollutants and are hydrophobic particles that can biomagnify up the food web. When ingested by fish, particulates embed within the digestive tract and leach into tissues, posing a potential concern for human consumption. The goal of this research was to determine whether microplastics biomagnify within invertebrates, fish, andPhalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant) resident to Lake Champlain. We did so by quantifying and characterizing (e.g., fragment, fiber, film, foam, pellet) particulates. We performed wet peroxide oxidation digests on digestive tracts of (n = 438) lake organisms, specifically invertebrates (n = 258), 14 species of fish (n = 165), and Double-crested Cormorants (n = 15). Our research indicated that fibers were the most-abundant particulates in all organisms (n = 764), followed by fragments (n = 123), films (n = 40), pellets (n = 13), foam (n = 9). Microplastics were separated using stacked mesh sieves, with preliminary results showing a particulate size-distribution of: 1 mm, n = 86; less than 1 mm but 355 µm, n = 144; and less than 355 µm but 125 µm, n = 232. These findings illustrate biomagnification in Lake Champlain organisms, as invertebrates, fish, and Double-crested Cormorants contained on average 0.05, 3.6, and 22.93 microplastic particles. Results from this research serve to inform residents of the Lake Champlain watershed, anglers, non-profit lake organizations, as well as public health and government officials of the risks microplastics pose to aquatic biota and ultimately humans.