• Assessing the Quality of Ruffed Grouse Habitat in a Managed Early-Successional Mixed Hardwood Forest at Lake Alice Wildlife Management Area, Chazy, NY

      Stryszowska, Kinga; Ramsdell, Connor (2017)
      Ruffed grouse Bonasa umbellus are valuable upland game birds that are found in early-successional upland forests consisting of trees such as aspen Populus spp. that form dense stands. Grouse utilize saplings found in this young forest habitat as cover from predation, while tree buds, catkins, and leaves constitute the majority of their dietary requirements. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation established a clear cut management site at Lake Alice Wildlife Management Area (LAWMA) in the early 1970s in order to improve ruffed grouse habitat, primarily for increased hunting opportunities. In the fall of 2016, I began to research this site in an attempt to determine the current quality of the habitat. I conducted a vegetation composition and density analysis in three out of the five stands using fixed circular plots. I conducted grouse flush count surveys over nine weeks, counting the number of grouse flushes I encountered every hour. Average vegetation data supports that the area holds adequate stem density for grouse protection (4,942 stems per hectare, as suggested by DeStefano et al. (2001)). The clear-cut is heavily dominated by American elm Ulmus americana, and not aspen, although aspen are present. Flush data from the 2016-2017 hunting season shows that the number of flushes per hour collected at the site were higher than the state average from the previous hunting season, and even topped the average for the surrounding Champlain Valley and Transition region (NYSDEC 2016b). This data suggests that a healthy grouse population and grouse habitat exists at the site.
    • The Ausable River

      Garneau, Danielle; Craig, Anika; McKinley, Kristine; Putnam, Alex (2016)
    • Baseline Study of Herbivore Preferences to Plant-vigor: A Distance-Mentored Undergraduate Research Experience

      Garneau, Danielle; Titus, John; Peterson, Marc (2014)
      Plants conspicuously display their energy production by a number of phenotypic characteristics; such as the number of leaves, flowers, pods, and their growth rate. When under predation by an herbivore, these factors can change significantly. Using such indicators to classify plant-vigor or health, leaf-area measurements of Brassica rapa were used to determine if the herbivores themselves select for healthier plants. The herbivore used in this study is the common field cricket (Acheta domesticus). Wisconsin Fast Plant cultivars of Brassica were grown in eight separate terraria. Two varietals of Brassica (green and yellow) were planted, resulting in four terraria for each type. Control groups (two green and two yellow) have no herbivores added to the tanks. Conversely, the experimental groups have Acheta applied to them. Variables such as the number of leaves, flowers, seed pods, height, and cricket mortality, were measured once a week for seven weeks. Photographs of leaf-area consumed will be analyzed using ImageJ, a computer program used in scientific research. Dry biomass will also be measured as a secondary means of measuring herbivory. Preliminary data shows a significant influence of seed pod production in the experimental groups and also a lack of development in yellow varietals compared to green Brassica. Once the leaf-area of predated leaves and the biomass of the terraria are analyzed, then correlations between herbivore selection and plant-vigor can be assessed. Congestion within the green tanks and general collateral damage during data collection has no doubt influenced the numbers received. This can be amended, as every stem that snapped was recorded in a journal, and such data can be omitted to eliminate unwanted variables.
    • Bird Window Strike Monitoring at SUNY Plattsburgh

      Garneau, Danielle; Hansen, Bendik (2014)
      Bird window collisions are a major anthropogenically-derived threat, resulting in 100-1000 million bird deaths annually in the U.S., making it the second largest mortality factor for birds. The relationship between bird window collisions (BWC) and building factors, such as size, window area, proximity to nearest road (as well as traffic intensity on that road), and vegetation density surrounding buildings was studied. Six buildings, with different size and vegetation densities, were selected for this study. Daily carcass searches around each building were performed for 21 days, traffic intensity was determined via observation, and window area and vegetation density were calculated using ImageJ and ArcGIS respectively. Only one indicator of a BWC was found (a feather pile), thus there were not enough data to perform any correlation analyses between the factors mentioned above and BWCs based on the survey of SUNY Plattsburgh campus buildings alone. However, other BWC studies indicate that higher window area increases BWCs most strongly in areas of lesser development. This might be useful in focusing conservation efforts when planning major construction projects.
    • Bryophytes of Ausable Chasm

      Garneau, Danielle; Trahan, Rosemary (2017)
      We surveyed bryophyte diversity along the Rim, Inner sanctum, and Little Dry Chasm trails at Ausable Chasm. Using 50cm2 quadrats comparisons were made between bryophyte Genera. Results suggest that the Dry Chasm trail had the greatest bryophyte Genera richness (S=10) and the common species were also found along the Rim trail. All four Genera observed on the Inner Sanctum trail were unique to that trail and likely reflect the complexity of rocky substrate.With further study and long-term monitoring, the findings of this study may have significant implications for human impact on bryophyte communities in this unique tourist attraction.
    • Camera Trap Evaluation of Wildlife Use of Culverts in Northern New York

      Garneau, Danielle; Cheeseman, Craig; Rafferty, Alicia; Lauria, Ashley; Lee, Elizabeth (2016)
      Culverts are structured tunnels that are designed to divert water underneath roadways. Wildlife use culverts to connect to other habitat within their home range and their use reduces roadkill mortalities. The goal of this study was to determine the species completing passage through culverts of varied characteristics (e.g., shape, size, surrounding vegetation, construction material), as well as seasonal and diel patterns of usage. Eight cameras were deployed to and monitor bi-weekly to assess wildlife passage at four culverts between Fort Ann and Whitehall, New York. The greatest frequency of successful passage occurred at the box culvert (62 individuals), however the greatest richness of species (n=26) was observed near the circular culvert 7. Raccoons were the most commonly observed species, followed by fisher, red and gray foxes, eastern coyote, beaver, white-tailed deer, river otter, mink, and weasels. The higher water levels in the box culvert facilitated greater passage of aquatic species. The need to reduce wildlife and human damage resulting from roadkill is great, especially as landscapes become more fragmented. It is important to determine ideal culvert characteristics to increase wildlife connectivity through culvert use in the Adirondack Park and across the United States.
    • Camera trap monitoring of wildlife following a wildfire at the Altona Flat Rock forest

      Jaeger, Tristan; Adams, Matthew; Staats, Lloyd; Garneau, Danielle; Lesser, Mark (2020-05-05)
      Forest disturbance can drastically alter wildlife habitat (i.e., cover, forage and prey abundance). Response of wildlife to disturbance events, particularly the timing involved in returning to pre-disturbance conditions, are important aspects of overall ecosystem recovery and resilience. Here, we study wildlife occurrence and usage patterns following a disturbance at a sandstone pavement pine barren in northern NY. This site is dominated by Pinus banksiana (Jack Pine) with an understory largely comprised of Vaccinium angustifolium (Low-bush Blueberry) and Gaylussacia baccata (Huckleberry) serving as a major wildlife resource and fuel for this fire-dependent system. In July 2018, ~220ha of this forest was burned in a wildfire. In fall 2018, eight game cameras were installed along transects traversing a gradient of burn severity as well as an adjacent unburned reference area. Annual and seasonal abundances, and diel wildlife activity were characterized using the camTrap package in R Studio. Over the course of the study, overall species richness in the unburned and burned areas were differed (n= 15 and n= 13 respectively), though total occurrences were higher in the unburned (n = 361) than in the burned area (n = 480). Common species captured on the barren include Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer), Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare), and Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Red Squirrel) which more prevalent in the unburned, while Canis latrans (Coyote) were more common in the burned area. Seasonal trends in wildlife abundance show a clear benefit to being in the unburned area in fall through winter 2018 as it provides resources and hiding cover. In spring, wildlife increased activity within the regenerating burn which remained in high use until summer-fall 2019. Interestingly, Coyote’s use of burned and unburned areas tracks that of their Snowshoe Hare prey and is most pronounced in the burn during spring. At the barren, Snowshoe Hare and Coyote behave nocturnally as compared the diurnal activity of White-tailed Deer. In the unburned area, Coyote appear to shift activity to capture the morning peak of Deer. Further long-term monitoring will elucidate how wildfire affects wildlife community composition, abundance, and distribution on the Altona Flat Rock sandstone pavement barren.
    • Characterization of Microplastics using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

      Garneau, Danielle; Ashline, Erin (2018)
      Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) is a spectroscopy technique widely used to analyze polymer profiles of particulate at a chemical level. The goal of this study was to assess the polymer composition of microplastics ingested by aquatic organisms from Lake Champlain. Preliminary results suggest fibers are the most prominent particle type in organisms (N = 482). Among these fibers, the most common plastic polymer was polyester [PET] (14.5%), followed by cellulose [20u ave particle size] (11.1%), alpha-cellulose [99.5% pure] (11.0%), and rayon (8.5%). Fragments were the second most prominent particle type (N = 168) and were commonly polyester [PET] (52%), followed by vinal (9%), polypropylene, isotactic (4%), and rayon (4%). Pellets (N = 14) were primarily vinylidene chlorine [200ppm mhdq] (14.2%) and polyethylene, chlorinated 36% chlorine (14.2%), followed by both vinal (7%), and cellulose nitrate (7%). Films (N = 11) were primarily rayon (27%), poly [methylmethacrylate] (27%), followed by poly [1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene terephthalate] (18%), and polypropylene, isotactic (9%). The least common polymer type found were foams (N = 10) comprised of polyethylene, chlorosulfonated (50%), polyethylene, chlorinated 36% chlorine (40%), and alzon [casein] (10%). Overall, polyester [PET] was more abundant as compared to other plastics and derives from synthetic clothing and food and beverage packaging.
    • Chazy and the Miner Institute

      Garneau, Danielle; Gonzalez, Amanda; Trahan, Rosemary (2016)
    • Chrysemys picta (Painted turtle) Demographic and Home Range Patterns in Rural vs. Urban Ponds

      Garneau, Danielle; Drollette, Kelley; Whyte, Cassondra (2014)
      Research suggests that turtle populations are declining and gender ratios are skewed as a result of urbanization. In particular, most turtle populations appear male skewed where anthropogenic disturbance has occurred. In summer/fall 2013, we compared demographic trends in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) in both a rural and urban pond setting near Plattsburgh, NY. An urban golf course pond complex (Plattsburgh, NY) was compared to a rural quarry pond (Chazy, NY). We performed capture-mark- recapture on turtles using hoop traps. Turtles were marked by notching the carapace with a file using a typical 3 letter system. Gender was determined from length of foreclaw and age by size of the turtle. We found that the rural site contained more adults and both sites were female skewed. Program Mark was used to estimate rates of survival, immigration, recapture, and population size (N). The rural had approximately 1.4 times more painted turtles than the urban site. Survival rates were higher at the rural pond. Monthly, home range size fluctuated among female turtles and was largest earlier in the season. The smallest home range occurred the month prior to overwintering, as temperatures declined. Smartphone location-enabled Google forms grossly overestimated home range size, this error reduced when time was taken to sync data when accuracy values were low. This information will help to inform developers, landowners, and biologists alike of the impact of urbanization (e.g., habitat loss, habitat split/fragmentation) on persistence of turtle species.
    • Chrysemys picta (Painted turtle) Demographic Patterns in Rural vs. Urban Ponds

      Garneau, Danielle; Gardner, Brittany; Galante, Desiree (2014)
      Research suggests that turtle populations are declining and gender ratios are skewed as a result of urbanization. In particular, most turtle populations appear male skewed where anthropogenic disturbance has occurred. In fall 2012, we compared demographic trends in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) in both a rural and urban pond setting near Plattsburgh, NY. An urban golf course pond complex (Plattsburgh, NY) was compared to a rural quarry pond and wildlife management area (Chazy, NY). We performed capture-mark-recapture on turtles using hoop traps. Turtles were marked by notching the carapace with a file using a typical 3 letter system. Gender was determined from length of foreclaw and age by size of the turtle. We found that the rural site contained more adults and more males. We found that there were more painted turtles in the rural as compared to urban areas, which may be due to lesser predation and road mortality risks. The results from this local turtle project will become part of a continental-scale survey of turtle population health. This information will help to inform developers, landowners, and biologists alike of the impact of urbanization (e.g., habitat loss, habitat split, habitat fragmentation) on persistence of turtle species.
    • Chrysemys picta (Painted turtle) Demographic Patterns in Rural vs. Urban Ponds: An Ecological Research as Education Network (EREN) project

      Garneau, Danielle; Hilling, Thomas; Busch, Allison; DeSantis, Grace (2016)
      Research suggests that turtle populations are declining and gender ratios are skewed as a result of urbanization. In particular, most turtle populations appear male-skewed where anthropogenic disturbance has occurred. In summer/fall 2015, we compared demographic trends in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) in both rural and urban pond settings near Plattsburgh, NY. An urban golf course pond complex (Plattsburgh, NY) was compared to a rural pond in Point au Roche Park, just north of Plattsburgh, NY. Prior studies (2013-14) focused on a rural pond, Krystal Lake quarry in Chazy. We performed capture-mark-recapture on turtles using hoop traps. Turtles were marked by filing a notch into the carapace scutes using a typical 3 letter system. Gender was determined from length of foreclaw and pre-cloacal tail measurements, and age by turtle carapace size. Program Mark was used to estimate population size (N) and other parameters. The N value was 1.23 X greater at the rural site when compared to the urban site. We found that the rural site contained about the same amount of adults and the urban and rural sites were female and male skewed, respectively. This information will help to inform developers, landowners, and biologists alike of the impact of urbanization (e.g., habitat loss, habitat split/fragmentation) on persistence of turtle species.
    • The Ecological Value of Cemeteries and Historical Places

      Moriarty, Melissa; Zborowski, Daniel; Garneau, Danielle (2018)
      Habitat loss and fragmentation is a common conservation threat in the United States. Land in urban areas is at a premium for biodiversity preservation and historic landmarks and cemeteries are green spaces that undergo limited disturbance. Historic and sacred sites, such as those designated by historical markers and listed as cemeteries often contain remnant old growth trees, native species and potentially rare or endangered flora. Old growth trees are often considered a ‘keystone structure’, providing resources that are crucial for other species and/or a ‘foundational species’, essential in forest ecosystems providing food and shelter for wildlife. These mature trees are more prone to environmental factors such as competition with invasive plants, climatic extremes, air pollution, disease/pets and habitat fragmentation, therefore it is crucial to evaluate these historical places to assess their ecosystem service roles. A rapid decline of old foundational trees will have major impacts on the ecosystem services reported in this study. Using a citizen science survey approach and the iNaturalist smartphone app, as well as i-Tree Eco software, we surveyed trees at cemeteries and various historical places in Clinton County, NY. Tree species, diameter at breast height, tree height, percent crown dieback, as well as signs of disease, and woodpecker damage were recorded. The survey found that the most common tree species were Picea abies (Norway spruce), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), and Picea pungens (blue spruce). Black locust sequesters the most carbon ≈ (525 kg/yr), while Norway spruce reduces runoff (≈75 m3). Annually, mature foundational trees combined annually removed ≈ 57.03 kg ($870/yr) of pollution, stored ≈ 148.7 tons ($21,300) of carbon, ≈ sequestered 1.302 tons ($186.00/yr) of carbon, and produced ≈ 3.472 tons of oxygen. Locally, Riverside Cemetery annually sequestered the most carbon (0.4 tons), produced ≈ 1.2 tons of oxygen, and stored ≈ 1.5 tons of CO2, followed by Gilliland Cemetery. Interestingly, Gilliland Cemetery was found to be a monoculture of the invasive species black locust; more research could provide insight as to ecosystem functioning prior to the invasion. Further research is needed to help provide a stronger ecological value to these historical and sacred spaces.
    • Environmental Impact of Trains in the Adirondacks

      Garneau, Danielle; Busch, Ali; Varin, Zoey (2016)
    • Evaluating Bioremediation Potential for Plastic Pollution with Wax Worms, Galleria mellonella

      Garneau, Danielle; Elliott, Alexandria M. (2017)
      Recently researchers have been seeking methods to address plastic pollution problems. These range from oceanic harvesters, to washing machine bags which limit fiber emissions, to bioremediators. In 2015, researchers determined that 100 Galleria mellonella (Wax Worms) were capable of consuming 92 mg of polyethylene in a 12 hour period. In order to assess Wax Worms’s potential as bioremediators, we ran pilot trials using 5 worms under low and high light conditions and exposed them to different forms of plastic such as; PVC (tubing), PET (water bottle), polypropylene (bottle cap), ethylene/vinyl acetate (inner liner bottle cap), and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (overhead projector sheet), as well as no plastic (control worms). Additional trials (including additional plastic types) are in progress with adjustments in conditions and worm abundance based on pilot study findings. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) was used to verify both plastic and fecal polymer composition. Both worms and plastics were photodocumented before and during the experiment to assess signs of foraging (e.g., channeling, chewing) morphological changes in plastics. Fecal material was found to be nylon and azlon (casein) suggesting worms are processing plastic. Consumption of plastic varied across polymers, specifically more polypropylene, PET, and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose was consumed compared to other types. Channeling was noted on several plastic pieces. Our lab experiment will serve as a baseline for future testing of the bioremediation potential of Wax Worms at addressing small-scale plastic pollution.
    • Examining the Presence of Microplastic in Wastewater-Derived Soil Amendment

      Koritkowski, Carlee; Garneau, Danielle (2020-05-05)
      There is growing research on the impact of microplastics in terms of uptake in consumer products (e.g., sea salt, bottled/tap water, beer, mussels, fish, and soil amendments). Studies have shown that wastewater effluent and biosolids are potential pathways for microplastics to enter marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments. Some soil amendments derive from the bacterial mats associated with wastewater processing and are potential pathways of microplastics via soil runoff into surrounding waterbodies. The presence of microplastics in these ecosystems impacts food webs at varying trophic levels and contributes to the persistence of microplastics in the environment. We examined a wastewater-derived soil amendment for microplastics using standard characterization methods. Quantification of microplastics following distilled water hydration of 82g of soil amendment yielded 69 particles. These particulate were primarily fibers (69%) and foams (19%), with lesser films (4%), beads (4%), and fragments (3%). The majority were smaller (125-355um) fiber particles. A standard bag of this soil amendment is 14515g with coverage of 232m2. The average-sized lawn in the United States is approximately 911m2, resulting in the potential to contribute 330,240 particles into soil and ultimately adjacent waterways. Next steps have begun to streamline this process by adopting the wet peroxide oxidation digestion method in an attempt to reduce organic matter. Nile red staining is a recently introduced method that effectively binds to plastic and is visualized using ultraviolet light. Microplastic researchers have developed automated (MP-VAT) software to streamline microplastic quantification and characterization in conjunction with Nile red staining procedures. We aim to incorporate this new approach and evaluate best practices in microplastic quantification and characterization of wastewater-derived soil amendments, as their potential ecosystem consequences are broad. It is important to continue elucidating pathways of these emerging persistent pollutants.
    • Field and Molecular Survey of Lyme Disease in Northern New York

      Garneau, Danielle; Provost, Alexandra; Bowman, David; VanBrocklin, Hope (2015)
      The black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis), which is the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) vector, is prevalent in northern New York. By parasitizing small animal reservoirs, the black-legged tick infects the host species and creates the ecological cycle of the Lyme bacterium. Ixodes scapularis tick drags were performed weekly from May to July at three different regional sites. At each site, ticks were sampled from 5 different microhabitats (e.g., disturbed, forest edge, forest interior, grassland, and wetland). Tick abundance was greatest in Ausable/Chesterfield and the Plattsburgh area, and rare at the Watertown site. DNA extractions were performed, followed by nested PCR to detect the (Borrelia burgdorferi) Lyme spirochete bacterium. A total of (n = 170) ticks were collected at all sites, with 61% of those ticks testing positive for Lyme disease. A majority of the total ticks (n = 109) were collected during the month of June. The forest edge ticks, which were collected predominantly in the Ausable/Chesterfield, had the highest occurrence (79%) of Lyme disease. In contrast, the average Lyme prevalence for the other surveyed microhabitats was 53%. Of the microhabitats, the grassland had the lowest prevalence (44%) of Lyme disease. These differences could result from habitat suitability of important hosts (Peromyscus leucopus and Tamias striatus), which might occur in higher abundance in the Ausable/Chesterfield region, possibly reflecting the prevalence of oak (Quercus spp.) and their acorn mast. Several of these sites have undergone timber management, which can enhance acorn abundance in pitch pine/oak barren habitat (Ausable/Chesterfield). Temporally, only a third of the ticks from the month of May tested positive, which then increased to 58% in June, likely reflecting seasonal nymph activity. This preliminary study suggests that Lyme disease is common in the northern New York, with the occurrence of Lyme disease in black-legged ticks being the highest in those inhabiting forest edge microhabitat of the Champlain Valley during the month of June.
    • Field and Molecular Survey of Lyme Disease in Northern New York in 2015

      Garneau, Danielle; Paulo de Mattos, Adolfo Jr; Smith, Matthew (2016)
      The black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis), which is the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) vector, is prevalent in northern New York. By parasitizing small animal reservoirs, the black-legged tick infects the host species and creates the ecological cycle of the Lyme bacterium. Ixodes scapularis tick drags were performed weekly from May to July at nine different regional sites. These sites comprised 5 different microhabitats (e.g., disturbed, forest edge, forest interior, grassland, and wetland). Tick abundance was greatest in Wickham Marsh Forest Edge and the Plattsburgh disturbed area, and rare at the Residential sites. DNA extractions were performed, followed by nested PCR to detect the (Borrelia burgdorferi) Lyme spirochete bacterium. A total of (n = 126) ticks were collected at all sites, with 92% of those ticks testing positive for Lyme disease. A majority of the total ticks (n = 80) were collected during the month of June. The forest edge ticks, which were collected predominantly in Wickham Marsh, had the highest occurrence (94.5%) of Lyme disease. In contrast, the average Lyme prevalence for the other surveyed microhabitats was 83.3%. Of the microhabitats, the wetland had the lowest prevalence (0%) of Lyme disease. These differences could result from habitat suitability of important hosts (Peromyscus leucopus and Tamias striatus), which might occur in higher abundance in the Wickham Marsh region, possibly reflecting the prevalence of oak (Quercus spp.) and their acorn mast. This study has the purpose to add new insights to the study of last year in relation to different habitats and urbanized areas, assessing the prevalence of ticks and lyme that is common in the northern New York, with the occurrence of Lyme disease in black-legged ticks being the highest in those inhabiting forest edge microhabitat of the Champlain Valley during the month of June.
    • Field and Molecular Survey of Northern and Southern Flying Squirrels in Northern New York

      Waldron, Alexis; Bliss, Amanda; Thone, Gretchen (2014)
      In northern New York, there are 2 sympatric species of flying squirrel, the northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (Glaucomys volans). Recent research suggests that the boundaries between the northern and the southern flying squirrels have been shifting northward, in part due to climate change affecting resource availability. As a result, northern New York would now be the southern terminus for northern, and the northern terminus for the southern flying squirrels. The goal of our research is to develop a molecular survey of the two species that can be compared to morphological measurements made in the field to better confirm species in our area. As weather permits, we are establishing an arboreally mounted trapline and recovering scat, hair, and other tissue samples for DNA extraction, polymerization chain reaction (PCR), and restriction digests to determine species. The molecular assay has been optimized; however the harsh winter has limited our trapping success for tissue collection in the field. Determining frequency of capture will assist in predicting where the boundary of these species lies in Clinton County.
    • Georeference Inventory of SUNY Plattsburgh's Taxidermy Collection

      Garneau, Danielle; Van Splinter, Jessica (2014)
      In the midst of global climate change, invasive species, habitat loss/fragmentation, and pollution, which leads to local extirpation and extinction, taxidermy collections are essential in educating the public on the importance of natural history. Documentation of where specimens are collected is critical to understanding mammal range shifts in this time of global change. The goal of this inventory was to georeference SUNY Plattsburgh's taxidermy collection to assess whether there were some regional hotspots of collection that might be sources of sampling in the future. Georeferencing included noting species name, collection site, morphological measurements, as well as other information on the voucher specimen tag and importing that into GIS. Approximately, half of all the voucher specimens in the collection were unmarked, 35% were collected from Clinton County (19% Plattsburgh), and 10% from Essex County (3% Lewis). All specimens documented were collected from New York State. Several unique specimens were documented including a bobcat (Lynx rufus), black bear (Ursus americanus), fisher (Martes pennan), red (Vulpes vulpes) and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteous). Small mammals, including deer mice and white-footed mice (Peromyscus spp., 15%), red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonious, 10%), and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus, 8%) were among the most abundant voucher species. The importance of continued sampling in these same voucher collection sites, might prove helpful when tracking range expansions as climate changes over the next century. SUNY Plattsburgh's snowshoe hare voucher specimens correspond to the southern edge of the historic range of the species and span the border of that range across four counties (e.g., Clinton, Essex, Warren, Ulster). Future implications for this information may include documentation of shifts in their southern range boarder as local conditions change in response to anthropogenic effects.