Now showing items 1-20 of 184

    • A Controlled Study of Behavioral Inhibition in Children of Parents With Panic Disorder and Depression

      Rosenbaum, Jerrold F.; Biederman, Joseph; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Kagan, Jerome; Snidman, Nancy; Friedman, Deborah; Nineberg, Allan; Gallery, Daniel J.; Faraone, Stephen V. (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2000-12)
      Objective: “Behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar” has been proposed as a precursor to anxiety disorders. Children with behavioral inhibition are cautious, quiet, introverted, and shy in unfamiliar situations. Several lines of evidence suggest that behavioral inhibition is an index of anxiety proneness. The authors sought to replicate prior findings and examine the specificity of the association between behavioral inhibition and anxiety. Method: Laboratory-based behavioral observations were used to assess behavioral inhibition in 129 young children of parents with panic disorder and major depression, 22 children of parents with panic disorder without major depression, 49 children of parents with major depression without panic disorder, and 84 children of parents without anxiety disorders or major depression (comparison group). A standard definition of behavioral inhibition based on previous research (“dichotomous behavioral inhibition”) was compared with two other definitions. Results: Dichotomous behavioral inhibition was most frequent among the children of parents with panic disorder plus major depression (29% versus 12% in comparison subjects). For all definitions, the univariate effects of parental major depression were significant (conferring a twofold risk for behavioral inhibition), and for most definitions the effects of parental panic disorder conferred a twofold risk as well. Conclusions: These results suggest that the comorbidity of panic disorder and major depression accounts for much of the observed familial link between parental panic disorder and childhood behavioral inhibition. Further work is needed to elucidate the role of parental major depression in conferring risk for behavioral inhibition in children.
    • Patterns of Psychopathology and Dysfunction in High-Risk Children of Parents With Panic Disorder and Major Depression

      Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Friedman, Deborah; Robin, Joanna A.; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F. (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2001-01)
      Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate 1) whether an underlying familial predisposition is shared by all anxiety disorders or whether specific risks are associated with specific disorders, and 2) whether panic disorder and major depression have a familial link. Method: The study compared four groups of children: 1) offspring of parents with panic disorder and comorbid major depression (N=179), 2) offspring of parents with panic disorder without comorbid major depression (N=29), 3) offspring of parents with major depression without comorbid panic disorder (N=59), and 4) offspring of parents with neither panic disorder nor major depression (N=113). Results: Parental panic disorder, regardless of comorbidity with major depression, was associated with an increased risk for panic disorder and agoraphobia in offspring. Parental major depression, regardless of comorbidity with panic disorder, was associated with increased risks for social phobia, major depression, disruptive behavior disorders, and poorer social functioning in offspring. Both parental panic disorder and parental major depression, individually or comorbidly, were associated with increased risk for separation anxiety disorder and multiple (two or more) anxiety disorders in offspring. Conclusions: These findings confirm and extend previous results documenting significant associations between the presence of panic disorder and major depression in parents and patterns of psychopathology and dysfunction in their offspring.
    • Traumatic Brain Injury and Schizophrenia in Members of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Pedigrees

      Malaspina, Dolores; Goetz, Raymond R.; Friedman, Jill Harkavy; Kaufmann, Charles A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming; Cloninger, C. Robert; Nurnberger, John I.; Blehar, Mary C. (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2001-03)
      Objective: Schizophrenia following a traumatic brain injury could be a phenocopy of genetic schizophrenia or the consequence of a gene-environment interaction. Alternatively, traumatic brain injury and schizophrenia could be spuriously associated if those who are predisposed to develop schizophrenia have greater amounts of trauma for other reasons. The authors investigated the relationship between traumatic brain injury and psychiatric diagnoses in a large group of subjects from families with at least two biologically related first-degree relatives with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. Method: The Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies was used to determine history of traumatic brain injury and diagnosis for 1,275 members of multiplex bipolar disorder pedigrees and 565 members of multiplex schizophrenia pedigrees. Results: Rates of traumatic brain injury were significantly higher for those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression than for those with no mental illness. However, multivariate analysis of within-pedigree data showed that mental illness was related to traumatic brain injury only in the schizophrenia pedigrees. Independent of diagnoses, family members of those with schizophrenia were more likely to have had traumatic brain injury than were members of the bipolar disorder pedigrees. The members of the schizophrenia pedigrees also failed to show the gender difference for traumatic brain injury (more common in men than in women) that was expected and was present in the bipolar disorder pedigrees. Subjects with a schizophrenia diagnosis who were members of the bipolar disorder pedigrees (and thus had less genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia) were less likely to have had traumatic brain injury (4.5%) than were subjects with schizophrenia who were members of the schizophrenia pedigrees (and who had greater genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia) (19.6%). Conclusions: Members of the schizophrenia pedigrees, even those without a schizophrenia diagnosis, had greater exposure to traumatic brain injury compared to members of the bipolar disorder pedigrees. Within the schizophrenia pedigrees, traumatic brain injury was associated with a greater risk of schizophrenia, consistent with synergistic effects between genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia and traumatic brain injury. Posttraumatic-braininjury schizophrenia in multiplex schizophrenia pedigrees does not appear to be a phenocopy of the genetic disorder.
    • Impact of Tic Disorders on ADHD Outcome Across the Life Cycle: Findings From a Large Group of Adults With and Without ADHD

      Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen; Mick, Eric; Coffey, Barbara; Geller, Daniel; Kagan, Jake; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Wilens, Timothy (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2001-04)
      Objective: The impact of tic disorders on the outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains a subject of high scientific and clinical interest. To evaluate the impact of comorbid ADHD and tic disorders from a lifespan perspective, the authors systematically examined data from adults with and without ADHD. Method: They comprehensively evaluated 312 consecutively referred adults with ADHD and 252 comparison subjects without ADHD. Tic disorders were characterized along with a wide range of neuropsychiatric correlates, including other comorbid disorders as well as indexes of function in the domains of school, cognition, and interpersonal functioning. Results: A significantly greater proportion of adults with ADHD (12%) than those without ADHD (4%) had tic disorders. Tic disorders followed a mostly remitting course and had little impact on functional capacities. In addition, tic disorders were not associated with stimulant use. Conclusions: These findings in adults with ADHD confirm and extend previous findings in young subjects with ADHD, documenting that although individuals with ADHD are at greater risk for tic disorders, the presence of tic disorders has a limited impact on ADHD outcome.
    • Meta-Analysis of the Association Between the 7-Repeat Allele of the Dopamine D4Receptor Gene and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

      Faraone, Stephen V.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2001-07)
      Objective: Family, twin, and adoption studies show attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to have a substantial genetic component. Although several studies have shown an association between ADHD and the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), several studies have not. Thus, the status of the ADHD-DRD4 association is uncertain. Method: Meta-analysis was applied to case-control and family-based studies of the association between ADHD and DRD4 to assess the joint evidence for the association, the influence of individual studies, and evidence for publication bias. Results: For both the case-control and family-based studies, the authors found 1) support for the association between ADHD and DRD4, 2) no evidence that this association was accounted for by any one study, and 3) no evidence for publication bias. Conclusions: Although the association between ADHD and DRD4 is small, these results suggest that it is real. Further studies are needed to clarify what variant of DRD4 (or some nearby gene) accounts for this association.
    • Separating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disabilities in Girls: A Familial Risk Analysis

      Doyle, Alysa E.; Faraone, Stephen V.; DuPre, Emily P.; Biederman, Joseph (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2001-10)
      Objective: Familial risk analysis was used to clarify the relationship in girls between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities in either mathematics or reading. Method: The authors assessed the presence of ADHD and learning disabilities in 679 first-degree relatives of three groups of index children: girls with ADHD and a comorbid learning disability, girls with ADHD but no learning disabilities, and a comparison group of girls without ADHD. Results: The risk for ADHD was similarly higher in families of ADHD probands with and without learning disabilities; both groups had significantly higher rates of ADHD than did families of the comparison girls. In contrast, only among relatives of ADHD probands with a learning disability was there a higher risk for learning disabilities. A strong (although statistically nonsignificant) difference emerged that suggested at least some degree of cosegregation of ADHD and learning disabilities in family members. There was no evidence of nonrandom mating between spouses with ADHD and learning disabilities. Conclusions: These results extend previously reported findings regarding the relationship of ADHD and learning disabilities to female subjects and raise the possibility that, in girls, the relationship between ADHD and learning disabilities is due to shared familial risk factors.
    • CAG-Repeat length in exon 1 of KCNN3 does not influence risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis of association studies

      Glatt, Stephen J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T. (Wiley, 2003-07-30)
      Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder both showsomeevidence for genetic anticipation. In addition, significant expansion of anonymous CAG repeats throughout the genome has been detected in both of these disorders. The gene KCNN3, which codes for a small/ intermediate conductance, calcium-regulated potassium channel, contains a highly polymorphic CAG-repeat array in exon 1. Initial evidence for association of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with increased CAG-repeat length of KCNN3 has not been consistently replicated. In the present study, we performed several metaanalyses to evaluate the pooled evidence for association with CAG-repeat length of KCNN3 derived from case-control and family-based studies of both disorders. Each group of studies was analyzed under two models, including a test for direct association with repeat length, and a test for association with dichotomized repeat-length groups. No evidence for a linear relationship between disease risk and repeat length was observed, as all pooled odds ratios approximated 1.0. Results of dichotomized allelegroup analyses were more variable, especially for schizophrenia, where case-control studies found a significant association with longer repeats but family-based studies implicated shorter alleles. The results of these meta-analyses demonstrate that the risks for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are largely, if not entirely, independent of CAG-repeat length in exon 1 of KCNN3. This study cannot exclude the possibility that some aspect of this polymorphism, such as repeat-length disparity in heterozygotes, influences risk for these disorders. Further, it remains unknown if this polymorphism, or one in linkage disequilibrium with it, contributes to some distinct feature of the disorder, such as symptom severity or anticipation.
    • Localization of sarcomeric proteins during muscle assembly in mouse cardiomyocytes and skeletal myotubes

      Sanger, Jean; Sanger, Joseph; Welchons, Matthew J (2017)
      This study seeks to investigate the role of contractions in myofibrillogenesis, and structure of nascent myofibrils. The model system employed in these experiments was cultured quail myotubes. In order to determine the role of contractions in myofibrillogensis, contractions were indirectly inhibited with elevated KCl, and directly inhibited with 2,3 butanedione monoxime (BDM), a small cell-permeable inhibitor of actin & muscle myosin interactions. Myotubes were treated with contraction inhibitors at 2½days –soon after the main fusion event. On the 6thculture day, there was significant delay in myofibrillogensis in myotubes exposed to elevated KCl. This delay was characterized by the expansion of nascent myofibrils at the spreading edges of myotubes. This delay in myofibrillogenesis was not accompanied by diminished accumulations of muscle myosin. On the 4thculture day, there was complete arrest of myofibrillogenesis at the nascent step with the treatment of BDM. As a result, it is concluded that contractions are necessary for the progression of nascent myofibrils to mature myofibrils. The structure of nascent myofibrils was further investigated with super resolution microscopy. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy revealed mini-A-bands –shorter than 1.5 μmin length –associated with nascent myofibrils. These structures were spaced at varying intervals, and oriented at angles deviating the from the actin superstructure of the nascent myofibril. Mini-A-bands were also observed to progressively in expand in length distal to the spreading edges of myotubes. STED imaging indicates that some mini-A-band are adjacent to, and not integrated within, the actin superstructure of nascent myofibrils.
    • Metabolic Control of Autoimmunity Through Autophagy

      Choudhary, Gourav (2019)
      Metabolism plays a key role in immune cell activation and differentiation. Immune cell activation depending on their biosynthetic and bioenergetic needs leads to profound metabolic reprograming. Proinflammatory subsets of immune system cells such as effector T cells show dependency on glycolysis, whereas, regulatory T cells rely on oxidative phosphorylation. Under metabolic stress, immune cells utilize autophagy to overcome nutrient scarcity, an alternate method of recycling amino acids and other metabolic precursors. Limitation of nutrients such as amino acids activates mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the immune cells. mTOR acts as a metabolic mediator, associated with mitochondria and metabolic needs of the immune cells. Homeostasis between mTOR activation and autophagy decides the fate and functionality of specific immune cells. The activation of mTOR is widely acknowledged in the pathogenesis of SLE, whereas, autophagy has been linked with antigen processing, presentation, and immunoregulation. In this study, we focused on Rab4A, an endosomal GTPase and Transaldolase, a rate limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Rab4A is over expressed in SLE T cells and facilitates lysosomal degradation of CD4 and CD3. Transaldolase is also overexpressed in T cells from SLE patients and SLE prone mice. First, we examined the role of Rab4A in a pristane-induced mouse model of SLE. Since Rab4A protects from pristane-induced alveolar lung hemorrhage, we tested the hypothesis that Rab4A will also protect from pristane-induced lupus nephritis. We found that overexpression of a constitutively active form of Rab4A limits antinuclear antibody production. Further, we found that Rab4A protects from pristane-induced renal injury by restricting immune complex depositions in the kidney. In additions, we found that Rab4A abrogates kidney-infiltration by lymphocytes and protects from podocyte injury. Furthermore, Rab4A facilitates the lysosomal mediated activation of mTOR. Possibly, the Rab4A mediated activation of mTOR in regulatory T cells leads to suppression of pristane-induced pro-inflammation signaling. In the second part, we investigated if aldose reductase (AR) deficiency can protect from Transaldolase mediated pathogenesis of liver disease. We found a coordinated regulation between AR and TAL, leading to the disease progression.
    • DISCOVERY OF A ROLE OF FMRP IN R-LOOP REGULATION AND GENOME MAINTENANCE THROUGH BREAK-SEQ ANALYSIS OF THE FRAGILE X GENOME

      Chakraborty, Arijita (2020)
      Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the FMRP translation regulator 1 (FMR1) gene and deficiency of its product, FMRP. FMRP is known as a translation repressor whose nuclear function is poorly understood. We investigated the global impact on genome stability due to FMRP loss. We applied Break-seq to a human cell line-based model for FXS and mapped genome-wide spontaneous and replication stress-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) for the first time. We report that the genomes of FXS patient-derived cells are inherently unstable and accumulate more than twice as many DSBs as those fromnormal cells. The DSBs in FXS cells are enriched in neuron projection and synapse organization pathways. We further demonstrate that replication stress-induced DSBs in FXS cells correlate with R-loop forming sequences. FMRP, and not an RNA-binding mutant FMRP-I304N, abates R-loop-induced DSBs during programmed replication-transcription conflict.Moreover, exogenously expressed FMRP in FXS patient-derived cells reduces the replication stress-induced DSB formation. We conclude that the FXS cells are more susceptible to DNA replication stress. Furthermore, we identified chromatin binding sites of FMRP for the first time in human lymphoblastoid cells.Through mapping FMRP-bound chromatin loci in normal cells and correlating with FX-specific chromosome breaks, we identified novel FXS-susceptible genes. We show that FX cells have reduced expression of the uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase 1 family enzymes, suggesting defective xenobioticmetabolism. In addition, using transcriptome analysis, we show that DNA repair genes are downregulated in FX cells under replication stress. Finally, we report a direct binding interaction between FMRP and R-loop and that the C-terminal domain is important for this interaction. Therefore, we proposethat FMRP is a novel genome maintenance protein required for preventing R-loop formation during replication stress. Our study provides newinsights into the etiological basis for FXS.
    • A STRING OF LIGHTS: MATURIN EXPRESSION AND POTENTIAL ROLE DURING MOUSE RETINOGENESIS

      Ly, Christine (2020)
      During retinal development, a pool of progenitor cells divides to generate daughter cells that eventually differentiate into the seven retinal cell types, including horizontal cells (HCs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Much about how cells exit the cell cycle and maintain a differentiated state remain unknown. Dysregulation of this process can alter the cellular composition and function of the retina.Thus, by studying this developmental process, we can better understand the mechanisms by which progenitor cells become functional, differentiated cells. Our previous work determined that Maturin (Mturn)is highly conserved in its expression pattern and protein sequence across various vertebrate species. Furthermore, we concluded that it is required for differentiation of primary neurons in Xenopuslaevis. Preliminary work in mice revealed that in the absence of Mturn, extensive folds occur in the retina. I used this model to characterize the expression of Mturnin the mouse retina and ask if Mturn is required for normal mice retinogenesis. By immunostaining retinal sections with various cell type-specific antibodies, I found that Mturn is expressed in differentiating cells and not in proliferating cells. In addition to determining that its expression is maintained in mature HCs, I concluded that Mturn is not required for generating the proper number HCs. Our results from studies on Mturn in both frogs and mice have led us to hypothesize that Mturn may function to maintain HCs in differentiated state and prevent their reentry into the cell cycle. Although preliminary experiments testing this hypothesis were inconclusive, future work should continue to investigate the role of Mturn in retinogenesis.
    • JUNCTIONAL ARMADILLO (β-CATENIN) MAINTAINS PROPER TISSUE ARCHITECTURE DURINGDROSOPHILAEYE DEVELOPMENT

      Pignoni, Francesca; DeSantis, Dana F (2020)
      Formation of thecompoundeye of Drosophilarequires carefully orchestrated developmental events that occur in its progenitor epithelium, the eye imaginal disc.This tissue is composed of two continuous, apposed epithelia: the disc proper epithelium (DpE), which forms the retina, and the peripodial epithelium (PE), which ultimately forms head cuticle. In this work, I describe an armadillo (b-catenin)loss-of-function condition in which the developing DpEis disrupted and displays a phenotype that I call“retinalshift”. This developmental phenotype ultimately results in abnormal fly eye morphology that is incompatible with compound eye vision.I uncover a role for the PE in maintaining proper retinal epithelium morphology during eye formation and trace the molecular mechanism to the regulation of Hippo-Yki pathway in PE cells by the function of Armadillo at the adherens junctions.
    • DIRECTING DENDRITOGENESIS: DEFINING THE ROLE OF REELIN AND CSPGS IN THE CONTROL OF CORTICAL DENDRITE FORMATION

      Olson, Eric; Zluhan, Eric (2020)
      Appropriate dendritic development is essential for normal neuronal function throughout life. Disruptions in neuronal dendrite structure alter brain circuitry and are associated with debilitating neurological disorders.The Reelin signaling pathway is critical for proper cortical dendrite orientation and outgrowth. In Reelin null cortices (reeler), dendrites are unstable, retracting from and avoiding their normal target region called the marginal zone (MZ). This observation raises the possible existenceof a dendritic destabilizing cue in the MZ that can be counteracted by Reelin-signaling.The MZis cell sparse but highly enriched in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). While CSPGs are known to inhibit axonal outgrowth, their impact on dendritic growth is unclear.Here, we demonstrate that the growth of the apical dendrite is also inhibited by CSPGs. Soluble CSPGs and CSPG-patterned stripes are inhibitory to dendrite growth, butthis inhibitory effect can be reversed by CSPG ablation via chondroitinase treatment and by activation of the Reelin signaling pathway. In reeler explants, chondroitinase treatment rescues dendrite growth into MZ. Prior studies have shown that the serine threonine kinase Akt is essential for Reelin-dependent dendritic growthand also functions in CSPG-dependent neurite retraction. We find that CSPGs induce Akt dephosphorylation which isreversed by Reelin addition. CSPG presence had no effect on the cytoplasmic adaptor Dab1, which is rapidly phosphorylated in response to Reelin. Dab1-deficient neurons were sensitive to CSPG stimulation, but Reelin-dependent phosphorylation was blunted. This suggests that the extracellular signals imparted on dendrites by Reelin and CSPGs at the MZ converge intracellularly downstream of Dab1 atthe level of Akt to regulate dendritogenesis in the MZ.Disruptions in Reelin signaling cause intellectual disability and have been linked to autism. Thus, these findings identify a context in which Reelin signaling operates and provide insight into the underlying mechanism of neurodevelopmental disorders.
    • Ethanol-Induced Effects of the Microtranscriptome on Natural Gene Expression

      Middleton, Frank; Ignacio, Cherry Mae Gonzalez
      Reliable, minimally invasive biomarkers that predict the extent of alcoholism-induced CNS damage are currently lacking. This limits the selection of rational interventions and hampers the ability to gauge therapeutic effects. Developing biomarkers that indicate early CNS damage may prove useful in deterring the emergence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) can be informative molecular indicators of neuronal gene expression alterations. They repress large fractions of protein-coding genes and are highly-involved in intercellular signaling between both proximal and distal neurons. This work has focused on (1) examining whether extracellular miRNAs in the serum of individuals diagnosed with AUDs can be used as biomarkers of alcohol-induced brain damage, (2) determining in vivo the ethanol-inducedeffects imparted by miRNAs and their targets in the brain, (3) evaluating their role ininterventions that can reverse behavioral impairment and (4) testing the ability of extracellular miRNAs to transfer ethanol-induced pathologies to ethanol-naive cells. There are five major findings from this work. First, two independent quantification technologies demonstrated comparable differences in miRNA expression levels betweenAUDs and controls and revealed significant correlations between candidate miRNA biomarkers and medical, neuroimaging and drinking parameters. Second, in rats manymiRNAs significantly altered by ethanol in the hippocampus following maternal or postnatal exposure were also changed in the serum. Moreover, postnatal consumption activated cell-cycle pathways in the hippocampus while maternal exposure affected unfolded protein response pathways in adolescent offspring. Third, the lack of social motivation seen following fetal exposure was reversed as a result of social enrichment. Analysis of the integrated data in the amygdala and ventral striatum revealed several functional gene networks whose activation patterns following fetal ethanol exposure were reversed by social enrichment. Fourth, transfer of purified exosomes from ethanol-exposed to ethanol-naive cells conferred many gene expression changes consistent with ethanol exposure. Lastly, examination of all the data revealed consistent changes in miRNAs that independently converged on cell death, cell proliferation and cell cycle regulatory processes, regardless of the species, paradigm and source. The findings in this work illustrate the utility of miRNAs as peripheral biomarkers of AUDs and suggest novel epigenetic mechanisms affected by alcohol.
    • Rab4acontrol over metabolism and mTOR drives disease progression in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

      Perl, Andras; Huang, Nick (2020-05-15)
      Endosomal trafficking is key to intercellular communication and metabolic regulation of immunological development. Rab4a, an endosomal trafficker, is elevated in lupus T cells and polymorphisms of the Rab4a gene have been linked to disease susceptibility. Here, we report the constitutive activation of Rab4a increases susceptibility and severity to lupus nephritis in the genetic SLE1.2.3. model of lupus and is corrected by the deletion of Rab4a in T cells. Alternatively, in a pristane model of induced autoimmunity, the deletion of Rab4a in T cells magnifies the pulmonary manifestations of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage that is otherwise protected by the constitutive activation of Rab4a. Rab4a mediates these changes through control over mTOR, mitochondrial function and homeostasis, and immunological development. In particular, inactivation of Rab4a in T cells reduces expression of activation signals, mitochondrial mass and electrochemical potential. Alterations to Rab4a activity drives the aberrant development and function of anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells and pro-inflammatory double-negative T cells. These data provide new insights into the regulation of metabolism and immunological development through endosomal trafficking. As such, the targeting of Rab4a is a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as lupus, which has lacked new targeted therapeutics for more than half a century.