• Pediatric mania: a developmental subtype of bipolar disorder?

      Biederman, Joseph; Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Wilens, Timothy E; Wozniak, Janet (Elsevier BV, 2000-09)
      Despite ongoing controversy, the view that pediatric mania is rare or nonexistent has been increasingly challenged not only by case reports, but also by systematic research. This research strongly suggests that pediatric mania may not be rare but that it may be difficult to diagnose. Since children with mania are likely to become adults with bipolar disorder, the recognition and characterization of childhood-onset mania may help identify a meaningful developmental subtype of bipolar disorder worthy of further investigation. The major difficulties that complicate the diagnosis of pediatric mania include: 1) its pattern of comorbidity may be unique by adult standards, especially its overlap with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, aggression, and conduct disorder; 2) its overlap with substance use disorders; 3) its association with trauma and adversity; and 4) its response to treatment is atypical by adult standards. Biol Psychiatry 2000;48: 458–466 © 2000 Society of Biological Psychiatry.