• Long-term outcome of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis and qualitative review of the literature

      Stewart, S. E.; Geller, D. A.; Jenike, M.; Pauls, D.; Shaw, D.; Mullin, B.; Faraone, Stephen V. (Wiley, 2004-07)
      Objective: To review the extant literature on the long-term outcome of child/adolescent-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Medline and Psychlit databases were systematically searched for articles regarding long-term outcomes of child/adolescent-onset OCD. Meta-analysis regression was applied to evaluate predictors and persistence of OCD. Results: Sixteen study samples (n ¼ 6–132; total ¼ 521 participants) in 22 studies had follow-up periods ranging between 1 and 15.6 years. Pooled mean persistence rates were 41% for full OCD and 60% for full or subthreshold OCD. Earlier age of OCD onset (z ¼ )3.26, P ¼ 0.001), increased OCD duration (z ¼ 2.22, P ¼ 0.027) and inpatient vs. out-patient status (z ¼ 2.94, P ¼ 0.003) predicted greater persistence. Comorbid psychiatric illness and poor initial treatment response were poor prognostic factors. Although psychosocial function was frequently compromised, most studies lacked comprehensive outcome measures. Conclusion: Long-term persistence of pediatric OCD may be lower than believed. Future studies should include broader measures of outcome including symptomatic persistence and functional impairment in multiple domains.