Now showing items 1-20 of 1367

    • Impact of Health Insurance, ADAP, and Income on HIV Viral Suppression Among US Women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, 2006-2009.

      Ludema, Christina; Cole, Stephen R; Eron, Joseph J; Edmonds, Andrew; Holmes, G Mark; Anastos, Kathryn; Cocohoba, Jennifer; Cohen, Mardge; Cooper, Hannah L F; Golub, Elizabeth T; et al. (2016-11)
      Background: Implementation of the Affordable Care Act motivates assessment of health insurance and supplementary programs, such as the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) on health outcomes of HIV-infected people in the United States. We assessed the effects of health insurance, ADAP, and income on HIV viral load suppression.
    • Positive affect and its association with viral control among women with HIV infection.

      Wilson, Tracey E; Weedon, Jeremy; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Cohen, Jennifer; Fredrickson, Barbara L (2016-09-29)
      Objective: We assessed the relationship between positive affect and viral suppression among women with HIV infection.
    • Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale to assess depression in women with HIV and women at risk for HIV: Are somatic items invariant?

      Adams, Leah M; Wilson, Tracey E; Merenstein, Daniel; Milam, Joel; Cohen, Jennifer; Golub, Elizabeth T; Adedimeji, Adebola; Cook, Judith A (2017-02-23)
      The prevalence of depression among women living with HIV/AIDS is elevated, compared with women in the general population and men diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Although symptoms of HIV may overlap with somatic symptoms of depression, little research has explored how well screening tools accurately assess depression rather than symptoms of HIV/AIDS among women. The present study examined the utility of a widely used tool for assessing depression symptoms among women living with HIV/AIDS. Data are from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a multisite, longitudinal cohort study of women living with HIV/AIDS (n = 1,329) and seronegative women (n = 541) matched on key risk factors for HIV/AIDS. Confirmatory factor analysis-based measurement invariance tests of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were conducted to determine whether women with HIV and those without HIV responded to the scale similarly. Results supported measurement invariance of CES-D scores. Findings suggest that the CES-D can be used to assess for burden of depression symptoms among women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. (PsycINFO Database Record
    • Health Insurance Type and Control of Hypertension Among US Women Living With and Without HIV Infection in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

      Ludema, Christina; Cole, Stephen R; Eron, Joseph J; Holmes, G Mark; Anastos, Kathryn; Cocohoba, Jennifer; Cohen, Marge H; Cooper, Hannah L F; Golub, Elizabeth T; Kassaye, Seble; et al. (2017-06)
      Background: Health care access is an important determinant of health. We assessed the effect of health insurance status and type on blood pressure control among US women living with (WLWH) and without HIV.
    • Effects of Health Insurance Interruption on Loss of Hypertension Control in Women With and Women Without HIV.

      Edmonds, Andrew; Ludema, Christina; Eron, Joseph J; Cole, Stephen R; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Cohen, Mardge H; Cooper, Hannah L; Fischl, Margaret; Johnson, Mallory O; Krause, Denise D; et al. (2017-07-06)
      Background: Among low-income women with and without HIV, it is a priority to reduce age-related comorbidities, including hypertension and its sequelae. Because consistent health insurance access has been identified as an important factor in controlling many chronic diseases, we estimated the effects of coverage interruption on loss of hypertension control in a cohort of women in the United States.
    • Food Insecurity is Associated with Poor HIV Outcomes Among Women in the United States.

      Spinelli, Matthew A; Frongillo, Edward A; Sheira, Lila A; Palar, Kartika; Tien, Phyllis C; Wilson, Tracey; Merenstein, Daniel; Cohen, Mardge; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wentz, Eryka; et al. (2017-12)
      Women in the general population experience more food insecurity than men. Few studies have examined food insecurity's impact on HIV treatment outcomes among women. We examined the association between food insecurity and HIV outcomes in a multi-site sample of HIV-infected women in the United States (n = 1154). Two-fifths (40%) of participants reported food insecurity. In an adjusted multivariable Tobit regression model, food insecurity was associated with 2.08 times higher viral load (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.15) and lower CD4+ counts (- 42.10, CI: - 81.16, - 3.03). Integration of food insecurity alleviation into HIV programs may improve HIV outcomes in women.
    • Association between Perceived Discrimination in Healthcare Settings and HIV Medication Adherence: Mediating Psychosocial Mechanisms.

      Turan, Bulent; Rogers, Anna Joy; Rice, Whitney S; Atkins, Ghislaine C; Cohen, Mardge H; Wilson, Tracey E; Adimora, Adaora A; Merenstein, Daniel; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wentz, Eryka L; et al. (2017-12)
      There is insufficient research on the impact of perceived discrimination in healthcare settings on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly among women living with HIV, and even less is known about psychosocial mechanisms that may mediate this association. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in a sample of 1356 diverse women living with HIV enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a multi-center cohort study. Indirect effects analysis with bootstrapping was used to examine the potential mediating roles of internalized stigma and depressive symptoms in the association between perceived discrimination in healthcare settings and ART adherence. Perceived discrimination in healthcare settings was negatively associated with optimal (95% or better) ART adherence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.81, p = 0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.68, 0.97]). Furthermore, internalization of stigma and depressive symptoms mediated the perceived discrimination-adherence association: Serial mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of perceived discrimination in healthcare settings on ART adherence, first through internalized HIV stigma, and then through depressive symptoms (B = - 0.08, SE = 0.02, 95% CI [- 0.12, - 0.04]). Perceiving discrimination in healthcare settings may contribute to internalization of HIV-related stigma, which in turn may lead to depressive symptoms, with downstream adverse effects on ART adherence among women. These findings can guide the design of interventions to reduce discrimination in healthcare settings, as well as interventions targeting psychosocial mechanisms that may impact the ability of women living with HIV to adhere to ART regimens.
    • Lessons Learned from the Implementation of a Shared Community-Academic HIV Prevention Intervention.

      Gousse, Yolene; McFarlane, Davin; Fraser, Marilyn; Joseph, Michael; Alli, Bibi; Council-George, Marion; Fraser, Hermione; Romeo, Desmond; Urraca, Nelson; Wellington, Patrick; et al. (2018)
      Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is used to guide the design and evaluation of programs aimed at addressing complex health issues. Effective administrative management of CBPR projects is essential to ensuring the success and fidelity of these programs.
    • Associations Between Medicare Part D and Out-of-Pocket Spending, HIV Viral Load, Adherence, and ADAP Use in Dual Eligibles With HIV.

      Belenky, Nadya; Pence, Brian W; Cole, Stephen R; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Edmonds, Andrew; Oberlander, Jonathan; Plankey, Michael W; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Jennifer; et al. (2018-01)
      Background: The implementation of Medicare part D on January 1, 2006 required all adults who were dually enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles) to transition prescription drug coverage from Medicaid to Medicare part D. Changes in payment systems and utilization management along with the loss of Medicaid protections had the potential to disrupt medication access, with uncertain consequences for dual eligibles with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who rely on consistent prescription coverage to suppress their HIV viral load (VL).
    • The Impact of Substance Use on Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Women in the United States.

      Zhang, Yuehan; Wilson, Tracey E; Adedimeji, Adebola; Merenstein, Daniel; Milam, Joel; Cohen, Jennifer; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T (2018-03)
      Research is scant regarding differential effects of specific types of recreational drugs use on antiretroviral therapy adherence among women, particularly to single-tablet regimens (STR). This is increasingly important in the context of marijuana legalization. We examined the effects of self-reported substance use on suboptimal (<95%) adherence in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, 2003-2014. Among 1799 HIV-infected women, the most prevalent substance used was marijuana. In multivariable Poisson GEE regression, substance use overall was significantly associated with suboptimal adherence (adjusted prevalence ratio, aPR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.10-1.32), adjusting for STR use, socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors. Among STR users, compared to no drug use, substance use overall remained detrimental to ART adherence (aPR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.24-2.09); specifically, both marijuana (aPR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.11-1.97) and other drug use (aPR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.29-2.70) predicted suboptimal adherence. These findings highlight the need to intervene with drug-using women taking antiretroviral therapy to maintain effective adherence.
    • Gaps Up To 9 Months Between HIV Primary Care Visits Do Not Worsen Viral Load.

      Gardner, Lytt I; Marks, Gary; Patel, Unnati; Cachay, Edward; Wilson, Tracey E; Stirratt, Michael; Rodriguez, Allan; Sullivan, Meg; Keruly, Jeanne C; Giordano, Thomas P (2018-04)
      Current guidelines specify that visit intervals with viral monitoring should not exceed 6 months for HIV patients. Yet, gaps in care exceeding 6 months are common. In an observational cohort using US patients, we examined the association between gap length and changes in viral load status and sought to determine the length of the gap at which significant increases in viral load occur. We identified patients with gaps in care greater than 6 months from 6399 patients from six US HIV clinics. Gap strata were >6 to <7, 7 to <8, 8 to <9, 9 to <12, and ≥12 months, with viral load measurements matched to the opening and closing dates for the gaps. We examined visit gap lengths in association with two viral load measurements: continuous (log viral load at gap opening and closing) and dichotomous (whether patients initially suppressed but lost viral suppression by close of the care gap). Viral load increases were nonsignificant or modest when gap length was <9 months, corresponding to 10% or fewer patients who lost viral suppression. For gaps ≥12 months, there was a significant increase in viral load as well as a much larger loss of viral suppression (in 23% of patients). Detrimental effects on viral load after a care gap were greater in young patients, black patients, and those without private health insurance. On average, shorter gaps in care were not detrimental to patient viral load status. HIV primary care visit intervals of 6 to 9 months for select patients may be appropriate.
    • Healthcare Empowerment and HIV Viral Control: Mediating Roles of Adherence and Retention in Care.

      Wilson, Tracey E; Kay, Emma Sophia; Turan, Bulent; Johnson, Mallory O; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Turan, Janet M; Cohen, Mardge H; Adimora, Adaora A; Pereyra, Margaret; Golub, Elizabeth T; et al. (2018-04-12)
      Introduction: This study assessed longitudinal relationships between patient healthcare empowerment, engagement in care, and viral control in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a prospective cohort study of U.S. women living with HIV.
    • Perceptions of intersectional stigma among diverse women living with HIV in the United States.

      Rice, Whitney S; Logie, Carmen H; Napoles, Tessa M; Walcott, Melonie; Batchelder, Abigail W; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Wingood, Gina M; Konkle-Parker, Deborah J; Turan, Bulent; Wilson, Tracey E; et al. (2018-05-04)
      Attitudes and behavior that devalue individuals based upon their HIV status (HIV-related stigma) are barriers to HIV prevention, treatment, and wellbeing among women living with HIV. Other coexisting forms of stigma (e.g., racism, sexism) may worsen the effects of HIV-related stigma, and may contribute to persistent racial and gendered disparities in HIV prevention and treatment. Few studies examine perceptions of intersectional stigma among women living with HIV. From June to December 2015, we conducted 76 qualitative interviews with diverse women living with HIV from varied socioeconomic backgrounds enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) in Birmingham, Alabama; Jackson, Mississippi; Atlanta, Georgia; and San Francisco, California. Interview guides facilitated discussions around stigma and discrimination involving multiple interrelated identities. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using thematic analysis. Interviewees shared perceptions of various forms of stigma and discrimination, most commonly related to their gender, race, and income level, but also incarceration histories and weight. Women perceived these interrelated forms of social marginalization as coming from multiple sources: their communities, interpersonal interactions, and within systems and structures. Our findings highlight the complexity of social processes of marginalization, which profoundly shape life experiences, opportunities, and healthcare access and uptake among women living with HIV. This study highlights the need for public health strategies to consider community, interpersonal, and structural dimensions across intersecting, interdependent identities to promote the wellbeing among women living with HIV and to reduce social structural and health disparities.
    • Comparing neighborhood and state contexts for women living with and without HIV: understanding the Southern HIV epidemic.

      Ludema, Christina; Edmonds, Andrew; Cole, Stephen R; Eron, Joseph J; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Cohen, Jennifer; Cohen, Mardge H; Kassaye, Seble; Konkle-Parker, Deborah J; Metsch, Lisa R; et al. (2018-07-01)
      In the South, people living with HIV experience worse health outcomes than in other geographic regions, likely due to regional political, structural, and socioeconomic factors. We describe the neighborhoods of women (n = 1,800) living with and without HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a cohort with Southern sites in Chapel Hill, NC; Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; Jackson, MS; and Miami, FL; and non-Southern sites in Brooklyn, NY; Bronx, NY; Washington, DC; San Francisco, CA; and Chicago, IL. In 2014, participants' addresses were geocoded and matched to several administrative data sources. There were a number of differences between the neighborhood contexts of Southern and non-Southern WIHS participants. Southern states had the lowest income eligibility thresholds for family Medicaid, and consequently higher proportions of uninsured individuals. Modeled proportions of income devoted to transportation were much higher in Southern neighborhoods (Location Affordability Index of 28-39% compared to 16-23% in non-Southern sites), and fewer participants lived in counties where hospitals reported providing HIV care (55% of GA, 63% of NC, and 76% of AL participants lived in a county with a hospital that provided HIV care, compared to >90% at all other sites). Finally, the states with the highest adult incarceration rates were all in the South (per 100,000 residents: AL 820, MS 788, GA 686, FL 644). Many Southern states opted not to expand Medicaid, invest little in transportation infrastructure, and have staggering rates of incarceration. Resolution of racial and geographic disparities in HIV health outcomes will require addressing these structural barriers.
    • Impact of Medicare Part D on mental health treatment and outcomes for dual eligible beneficiaries with HIV.

      Belenky, Nadya; Pence, Brian W; Cole, Stephen R; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Edmonds, Andrew; Oberlander, Jonathan; Plankey, Michael; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Jennifer; et al. (2018-09-06)
      Depression is common among women with HIV and untreated depression can result in poor quality of life and worsen HIV outcomes. Women with HIV who are dually enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare faced a potential disruption in medication access when Medicare Part D was implemented in 2006. The goal of this study was to estimate the effects of Medicare Part D implementation on antidepressant use, depressive symptoms, and hospitalization in Medicaid-Medicare dual eligible women with HIV. This study used 2003-2008 data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. The effects of Medicare Part D were estimated using a difference-in-differences approach, adjusting for temporal trends using a matched control group of Medicaid-only enrollees. Before Medicare Part D implementation, dual eligibles differed from Medicaid-only enrollees in antidepressant use and hospitalization, despite having identical prescription drug coverage through Medicaid. For dual enrollees, the transition to Medicare Part D was not associated with changes in antidepressant use, depressive symptoms, or hospitalization. We did not find disruptive effects on antidepressant use and related outcomes among dual eligibles in this study. Stable antidepressant use may be due to better access to medical care for dual eligibles through Medicare both before and after Medicare Part D implementation, which may have eclipsed any effects of the transition. It may also signal that classification of antidepressants as a protected drug class under Medicare Part D was effective in preventing psychiatric medication disruption.
    • Longitudinal associations between food insecurity and substance use in a cohort of women with or at risk for HIV in the United States

      Whittle, Henry J.; Sheira, Lila A.; Frongillo, Edward A.; Palar, Kartika; Cohen, Jennifer; Merenstein, Daniel; Wilson, Tracey E.; Adedimeji, Adebola; Cohen, Mardge H.; Adimora, Adaora A.; et al. (Wiley, 2018-09-25)
      Background and Aims—Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between food insecurity and substance use. We aimed to investigate this relationship using longitudinal data among women with or at risk for HIV in the United States. Design—Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a prospective cohort study. Setting—Nine sites across the United States. Participants—A total of 2553 women with or at risk for HIV. Measurements—Semi-annual structured interviews were conducted during April 2013-March 2016. Food security (FS) was the primary predictor, measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Outcomes were: any illicit substance use except cannabis; licit or illicit cannabis use; stimulant use (crack, cocaine, or methamphetamine); opioid use (heroin or methadone in a non-prescribed way); and prescription drug misuse (prescription narcotics, amphetamines, or tranquilizers in a non-prescribed way) since the last visit. We used multivariable logistic regression with random effects to examine longitudinal associations of current and previous FS with the outcomes simultaneously, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, HIV serostatus, physical health and health insurance. Findings—Average number of visits was 4.6. At baseline, 71% of participants were HIVseropositive, 44% reported marginal, low, or very low FS, and 13% were using illicit substances. In adjusted analyses, current low and very low FS were significantly associated with 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 2.46; P = 0.039] and 2.48 (95% CI = 1.52, 4.04; P < 0.001) higher odds of any illicit substance use, compared to high FS, and also with higher odds of cannabis, stimulant and opioid use, exhibiting a consistent dose-response relationship. Marginal, low, and very low FS at the previous visit were associated with 1.66 (95% CI = 1.08, 2.54; P = 0.020), 1.77 (95% CI = 1.14, 2.74; P = 0.011), and 2.28 (95% CI = 1.43, 3.64; P < 0.001) higher odds of current illicit substance use. Conclusions—Food insecurity appears to be longitudinally associated with substance use among US women with or at risk for HIV.
    • Food Insecurity, Internalized Stigma, and Depressive Symptoms Among Women Living with HIV in the United States.

      Palar, Kartika; Frongillo, Edward A; Escobar, Jessica; Sheira, Lila A; Wilson, Tracey E; Adedimeji, Adebola; Merenstein, Daniel; Cohen, Mardge H; Wentz, Eryka L; Adimora, Adaora A; et al. (2018-12)
      Food insecurity, internalized HIV stigma, and depressive symptoms are independently associated with poor HIV outcomes. Food insecurity, stigma, and depression may be interrelated among women living with HIV (WLHIV). We hypothesized that food insecurity would be independently associated with internalized stigma and depressive symptoms among WLHIV in the United States (US), and would partially account for associations between stigma and depressive symptoms. We tested hypotheses using regression models and partial correlation analysis with cross-sectional data among 1317 WLHIV from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. In adjusted models, greater food insecurity was associated with internalized HIV stigma and depressive symptoms (all p < 0.05), exhibiting dose-response relationships. Food insecurity accounted for 23.2% of the total shared variance between depressive symptoms and internalized stigma. Food insecurity is associated with depressive symptoms and internalized HIV stigma among US WLHIV, and may play a role in the negative cycle of depression and internalized stigma.
    • Internal Working Models of Attachment Relationships and HIV Outcomes Among Women Living With HIV.

      Turan, Bulent; Crockett, Kaylee B; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Wilson, Tracey E; Tien, Phyllis C; Wingood, Gina; Neilands, Torsten B; Johnson, Mallory O; Weiser, Sheri D; et al. (2019-01-01)
      Background: Treatment adherence and viral suppression remain suboptimal in the United States. Attachment insecurity may be one understudied factor affecting adherence. According to attachment theory, people develop generalized internal working models of interpersonal relationships, which shape their perceptions of the availability of others at times of stress and how they handle stressors as an individual. Two dimensions of attachment insecurity are attachment-related avoidance (avoidance of intimacy with others and avoidance of negative emotions) and attachment-related anxiety (feeling unable to deal with stressors without others' help). For people living with chronic stressful health conditions that require life-long self-management, attachment-related avoidance and attachment-related anxiety may diminish the ability to cope with stressors as an individual leading to negative health outcomes.
    • Adjournment in Community HIV Prevention: Exploring Transitions in Community-Academic Partnerships.

      Dill, LeConté J; Gousse, Yolene; Huggins, Kimberly; Fraser, Marilyn A; Browne, Ruth C; Stewart, Mark; Salifu, Moro; Joseph, Michael A; Wilson, Tracey E (2019-04-03)
      Barbershop-based interventions have been increasingly implemented as a means to support culturally relevant and community-accessible health promotion and disease prevention efforts. Specifically, in neighborhoods of Brooklyn, New York, with high HIV seroprevalence rates, barbers have volunteered to support an initiative to help reduce sexual risk behavior. After implementing the Barbershop Talk With Brothers program for 5 years, we explored how program participation has affected barbers' HIV prevention and counseling skills to promote their clients' health, and assessed their views of next stages of the community-academic partnership, once the specific project ended. Through employing rigorous qualitative research methods with personnel at participating barbershops, key results include that although barbers self-identify as community leaders and even as health educators, they want ongoing support in educating customers about other topics like nutrition and physical activity, including upstream social determinants of health, such as housing and employment. They are also concerned regarding how best to support continuity of efforts and maintenance of partnerships between projects. These findings provide insight toward adjourning community-based participatory research projects, which can inform other academic researchers, organizations, and businesses that partner with community members.
    • Loss of Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase Potentiates Autoimmunity in the C57BL/6J Mouse Strain

      Wyman, Brandon (2023-06)
      In Chapter I, we will discuss recent studies showing that mTOR pathway activation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The mTOR pathway is a central regulator of growth and survival signals, integrating environmental cues to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Activation of mTOR underlies inflammatory lineage specification, and mTOR blockade-based therapies show promising efficacy in several autoimmune diseases. In Chapter II, we will discuss nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, NNT, an enzyme localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane which contributes to mitochondrial NADPH production. In C57BL/6J mice, the spontaneous loss of NNT creates a natural model for researching oxidative stress and its ability to potentiate autoimmune disease via the mTOR/AKT pathway. We identify the loss of NNT as a driver of autoimmune pathogenesis, including in multiple sclerosis and ulcerative colitis models. In sum, we highlight the link between upstream pathways of mTOR activation, particularly oxidative stress, and the downstream pathological shift in autoimmune disease due to mTOR activation. We show the novel finding that loss of NNT in the C57BL/6J mouse potentiates autoimmune pathogenesis, and that restoration of wild-type NNT reduces disease burden in select autoimmune models via restoration of redox balance.