• Pediatric mania: a developmental subtype of bipolar disorder?

      Biederman, Joseph; Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Wilens, Timothy E; Wozniak, Janet (Elsevier BV, 2000-09)
      Despite ongoing controversy, the view that pediatric mania is rare or nonexistent has been increasingly challenged not only by case reports, but also by systematic research. This research strongly suggests that pediatric mania may not be rare but that it may be difficult to diagnose. Since children with mania are likely to become adults with bipolar disorder, the recognition and characterization of childhood-onset mania may help identify a meaningful developmental subtype of bipolar disorder worthy of further investigation. The major difficulties that complicate the diagnosis of pediatric mania include: 1) its pattern of comorbidity may be unique by adult standards, especially its overlap with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, aggression, and conduct disorder; 2) its overlap with substance use disorders; 3) its association with trauma and adversity; and 4) its response to treatment is atypical by adult standards. Biol Psychiatry 2000;48: 458–466 © 2000 Society of Biological Psychiatry.
    • Pediatric mania: a developmental subtype of bipolar disorder?

      Biederman, Joseph; Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Wilens, Timothy E; Wozniak, Janet (Elsevier BV, 2000-09)
    • People’s Perception of Smart Home Devices in their Homes & the Factors which Influence this Perception

      Thakur, Versha; Hash, Larry; Adviser; Marsh, John; Reviewer; Tekeoglu, Ali; Reviewer (2016-12-01)
      This thesis is to determine people’s perception of Smart home devices and the factors which influence this perception. Smart Home devices are becoming more common as many companies are launching various such devices. Although many companies are pushing these devices with extensive marketing, do people feel a need for these devices in their home? This thesis tries to find the answer to this question and what factors are affecting these opinions. Focus group methodology is used for this thesis. It is commonly used to perform qualitative researches. Based on the analysis of the Focus Group discussions, it is found that most people (from the targeted population) will be interested in adopting these smart home devices. There are some concerns which will still need to be addressed by the company such as security, Privacy and some health concerns to make the consumers more comfortable in adopting these devices.
    • PEP Tutorials: Using Cognitive Learning Theory in Creating Online Library Instruction

      Covino, Laura (2013-05-01)
      This paper describes the creation of online tutorials that teach about the PEP (Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing) Archive, a full-text bibliographic database, for two small, graduate-level psychoanalytic institutes. ,QFUHDWLQJWKHWXWRULDOV WKHLQVWLWXWHV¶OLEUDULDQ used Camtasia Studio software and incorporated principles of cognitive learning theory. Research questions are, first, the practicality of creating and maintaining such online tutorials, and second, their effectiveness in providing PEP training. Methodology includes a literature review, pre-project survey, software choice and training, and preparation of recording scripts. The resulting tutorials do display features of cognitive learning theory, including learner control, encoding and individual differences, perception and attention, memory, and active learning. Conclusions are that for future projects, it would be best to create shorter tutorials along with additional, text-based training materials. The second research question is yet to be answered, and finding effective means of evaluation and assessment remains a challenge.
    • A Personal Web Portfolio: Creating an Online Presence from Conception to Implementation

      Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Jofre, Ana; Second Reader; Pierre, Marvin (2020-05)
      Approaching the end of my two-year journey through SUNY Poly’s online IDT program, I felt it was necessary for me to create an artifact showcasing my growth and progression as an Information Designer. Since I completed my degree entirely online (via distance learning), I decided to create a web portfolio representing my work in the program. This paper maps, from concept to execution, my process for creating a personal portfolio website. It includes research and analysis of existing portfolios websites, and it investigates how technology and selected design principles influence a website’s creation. The research presented here culminates with the creation and launch of my own personal portfolio website.

      Mollapour, Mehdi; Dushukyan, Natela (2018)
      Protein Phosphatase 5 (PP5) is a serine/threonine phosphatase known to regulate many essential cellular functions including steroid hormone signaling, stress response, proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. PP5 is a knownco-chaperone of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), and its regulation of Hsp90aidswiththe proper activation of Hsp90 clients and withsteroid hormone signaling.Hsp90 is also one of the strongest activators of PP5, as it releases the auto-inhibition of PP5 by interacting with the N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of PP5. Our lab has recently shown that PP5 is phosphorylated at T362, and that this phosphorylation acts as an “on switch” resultingin the hyperactivation of PP5. Misregulation of this key phosphatase has been shown to aid in the tumor progression of ER-dependent and independent breast cancer. Elevated PP5 levels have also been linked to colorectalcancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lymphoma, and prostate cancer. The work presented here reveals the pro-survival role that PP5 plays in kidney cancer. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) are most often driven by mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL). The data in this thesis shows that VHL binds and multi mono-ubiquitinates PP5 at two lysine residues K185 and K199. This post-translational modification negatively regulates PP5 likean “off switch” and ultimately leads to its degradation bythe proteasome. Mutations in the VHLgene that result in inactive mutants or a lack of VHL protein expression lead to ccRCC tumors. The data in this thesis shows that these VHL-nulltumors become dependent on elevated levels of PP5, and that both PP5 knockdown and inhibition lead to cancer cell death. The data further shows that the decrease in PP5 activity in VHL-null cells results in the induction of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway with a dramatic increase in the cleavage of PARP and caspases 3, 7, and 8.
    • Placebo and nocebo responses in randomised, controlled trials of medications for ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Faraone, Stephen V.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Cipriani, Andrea; Brandeis, Daniel; Kaiser, Anna; Hohmann, Sarah; Haege, Alexander; Cortese, Samuele (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-05-10)
      The nature and magnitude of placebo and nocebo responses to ADHD medications and the extent to which response to active medications and placebo are inter-correlated is unclear. To assess the magnitude of placebo and nocebo responses to ADHD and their association with active treatment response. We searched literature until June 26, 2019, for published/ unpublished double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of ADHD medication. Authors were contacted for additional data. We assessed placebo effects on efficacy and nocebo effects on tolerability using random effects metaanalysis. We assessed the association of study design and patient features with placebo/nocebo response. We analysed 128 RCTs (10,578 children/adolescents and 9175 adults) and found significant and heterogenous placebo effects for all efficacy outcomes, with no publication bias. The placebo effect was greatest for clinician compared with other raters. We found nocebo effects on tolerability outcomes. Efficacy outcomes from most raters showed significant positive correlations between the baseline to endpoint placebo effects and the baseline to endpoint drug effects. Placebo and nocebo effects did not differ among drugs. Baseline severity and type of rating scale influenced the findings. Shared non-specific factors influence response to both placebo and active medication. Although ADHD medications are superior to placebo, and placebo treatment in clinical practice is not feasible, clinicians should attempt to incorporate factors associated with placebo effects into clinical care. Future studies should explore how such effects influence response to medication treatment. Upon publication, data will be available in Mendeley Data: PROSPERO (CRD42019130292).
    • Podcast Creation for In-Home Use: An Overview of Podcast Creation Methodology Using Bloom’s Taxonomy

      Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Holmes, William (2021-05)
      Making an effective podcast is more complex than just using your laptop mic to record your thoughts to post on your favorite social media, there are methods or approaches with which to achieve the best results. My project was to overview the methods for making effective audio podcasts and making them available professionally and accessibly to an audience using a subject matter revolving around 3D printing. The resulting example podcasts and the framework used to create them was examined using Bloom’s Taxonomy to assess the formation and delivery of the content for maximum information retention and engagement of the listener. The final goal of this research was to examine and identify the most important characteristics in meaningful audio development for creating podcasts that will properly deliver subject matter and engage the listener. I did an audio-only podcast using a standard Windows computer to create a short series of 15–20-minute podcasts to exemplify the points I discuss in this research. The hope for this research was to outline and display this discipline in a meaningful overview, I particularly planned to use Bloom’s Taxonomy to review this subject matter in how it can be used as a framework for making effective podcasts.
    • Podcast in a Box: A low cost and effective tool to produce compelling educational videos.

      Ward, James (2018-05)
      The current generation is the media generation, devoting more than a fifty percent or more of each day to media. As media devices become increasingly portable, and as it spreads even further through young our environment, from their schools to their cars, media messages will become an even more ubiquitous presence in an already media-saturated world. Turning our attention as educators to this fact requires harnessing the power of educational video for teaching and learning. Video has become an important part of education. It is integrated as part of traditional courses, serves as a cornerstone of many courses, and is often the main information delivery mechanism in MOOCs. Several meta-analyses have shown that technology can enhance learning , and multiple studies have shown that video, specifically, can be a highly effective educational tool. In order for video to serve as a productive part of a learning experience, however, it is important that the instructor has the correct tools for video design and implementation. This tool must be cost effective, easy to use, and be able to produce interesting, high quality video. My Podcast in a Box fills in this void.
    • Podcasting: The Process of Creating a Digital Narrative

      Cannarelli, Vincent; Schneider, Steven; Advisor; Stam, Kathryn; Reviewer (2016-12-01)
      Podcasts are an emerging and quickly growing form of information design to deliver some sort of message to a listener. The purpose of that message may be to teach, inform, discuss social happenings, narrate their life, talk to guests, tell stories, and so much more. Being able to speak to people in an organic, stream of conscious format, allows for a feeling of comfort and ease of listening. There’s many steps in order to create this digital narrative from starting a blog to host a podcast, recording and editing an episode, uploading to iTunes, and more. This paper is a complete overview of a digital media package including a website, blog, and podcast. You will learn the process of creating the site, recording a podcast, editing, music production, uploading to the site and then iTunes, Apple approval, and experiences had. Also there is an in depth view of motives of creating a podcast, influences, things learned.

      Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Topping, Veronique (2020-05)
      For the past 40 years, the continued growth and engagement of women in the political process has created opportunities to increase the influence of the female electorate. Through grassroots political activism, community networks, and online advocacy, women voters have been galvanized to come together collectively to take action to address relevant political issues, but this rising political enthusiasm has not translated into an equal focus on women's issues or equal representation in Congress. This thesis examines the factors that have contributed to the growth and influence of women's political advocacy and explores women's political engagement/activism, traditional vs. online activism, the effectiveness of all-women online networks, and female voter demographics. Based on this research, I developed a virtual crowdsourcing community as a shared space for members to propose and discuss important and timely women's issues including domestic violence, reproductive health, and pay equity and to collaborate to suggest relevant legislation to political leaders. The purpose of this social network is provide a platform for women activists and constituents to connect with others who want to advance the political causes that are relevant to women and to increase the engagement of women in politics to achieve gender equality in local and national government.

      Glatt, Stephen J.; Hess, Jonathan (2017)
      In1899, psychiatrist Emil Krapaelin introduced a separation between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), formerly “dementia praecox” and“manic-depressive disorder”, which came to be known as the Krapaelinian dichotomy, and has prevailed over the past century (Kraepelin, 1904). Although Emil Krapaelin postulated that these are distinct entities, multiple converging lines of evidence suggest that SZ and BD have a shared etiology: (1) first-degree relatives of a SZ-affected individual are at higher risk for BD than the general population, and vice versa (Lichtenstein et al., 2009), (2) recent work from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and rare variant studies revealed that SZ and BD share common risk genes, suggesting that these disorders share a set of molecular substrates, and (3) second-generation antipsychotics exhibit effectiveness in ameliorating psychosis and mania (Buckley, 2008). SZ and BD are highly heritable mental illnesses with a lifetime prevalence near 1%. Onset typically occurs in late adolescence to early adulthood. Their etiology is complex and multi-factorial. SZ and BD are among the leading causes of disability around the globe(Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators, 2015). There isa constellation of symptoms related toSZ, including hallucinations (e.g., auditory, olfactory, visual), delusions (e.g., persecutions, grandiosity), thought disturbances, affective flattening, and anhedonia. SZ and BD have clinical resemblances like psychosis, though this is more widely recognized as a hallmark of SZ. The core feature of BD is extreme changes in mood ranging from periods of mania followed by severe depression, which is also referred to as “switching”. Drugs for treating SZ and BD have changed very little over the past 50 years, and those that are used today are not always effective and can elicit severe side effects. SZ and BD research is evolving rapidly but our understanding of these disorders is still in its infancy. One of the major advances in the field has been the “big data” revolution. Technological advances have been a critical driving force of this revolution, including emergence of DNA microarray chips for high-throughput genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling. These technologies became widely adopted in psychiatry and led to a proliferation of genome-and transcriptome-wide studies in psychiatry to aid in the discovery of novel genes and pathways related to mental illness. Despite SZ and BD having a strong genetic basis, identifying susceptibility genes was a significant challenge. Combining data across laboratories became a fundamental strategy to overcome inherent weaknesses with statistical power and methodological biases, which has proven be to a fruitful strategy for GWAS (Cross Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, 2013; Ripke et al., 2014; Ruderfer et al., 2013; Sklar et al., 2011). Yet, a robust methodological and statistical framework for analyzing combined collections of gene expression data has been lacking in psychiatry. Microarray studies of SZ and BD suffered from low statistical power and drawbacks that affected their reproducibility (Draghici, Khatri, Eklund, & Szallasi, 2006; Evans, Watson, & Akil, 2003). Combining gene expression data from numerous sources and addressing methodological issues may help to uncover reliable molecular associations. Even though the relevance of gene expression to physiology is not always clear, gene expression abnormalities in mental illness can provide fundamental insight into gene regulatory networks in brain and peripheral tissues, and provide a framework for interpreting genomics data. Integrating findings between GWAS and gene expression studies has the potential to elucidate the etiological overlap of SZ and BD. Moreover, gene expression signatures of mental illnesses may have biomarker utility and set up a foundation for identifying better drug targets. Data sharing is now a common place. Although microarrays are gradually being replaced by more sensitive and precise technologies such as next-generation sequencing, data harmonizing will be a pervasive issue unless dealt with now.In this dissertation, I present two review papers describing the current state of SZ and BD genetics research followed by three primary research studies that I performed to answer these prevailing questions: (1) what are the genes, pathways, and regulatory elements that relate to risk for SZ and BD, and are these similar or different across disorders? (2) what genes and pathways are abnormally expressed in SZ and BD, and might these differences converge with genomic evidence? (3) can differences between SZ and BD reflected in gene expression profiles offer biomarker utility and a basis for developing disorder-specific classifiers?My primary hypothesis for this work is SZ and BD exhibit overlapping abnormalities across pathways related to neurodevelopment, neurotransmission, and immunity/cellular response to stressors; furthermore, these abnormalities are relevant for pathophysiology. My dissertation work encapsulates the development of methodologies and computational tools to analyze large “poly-omics” data sets, i.e., jointly analyzing genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic data to identify abnormalities gene expression regulation and molecular substrates that are common between and unique to SZ and BD. My work uncovered convergent evidence of dysregulation among genes, pathways, and regulatory molecules associated with SZ and BD. Major outcomes of this thesis may help to lay the groundwork for causal inference of the effect of genetic variants on cellular phenotypes, biological sub-typing of mental illness through gene expression profiling, and rational drug design.

      Mollapour, Mehdi; Dunn, Diana (2017)
      Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone critical to thestability and activity of over 200 proteins known as “clients” including many oncogenes. Hsp90 chaperone function is linked to its ability to hydrolyze ATP and Hsp90 drugs inhibit its activity leading to the degradation of clients, thus making Hsp90 an attractive target for cancer therapy. The Hsp90 chaperone cycle is fine-tuned by another group of proteins called co-chaperones. They modifythe cycle, allowing Hsp90 to chaperone different pools of clients. Post-translational modifications (PTM) of Hsp90 and its co-chaperones can also regulate the chaperone cycle, and affect Hsp90 drug sensitivity. Here it is shownthat c-Abl kinase phosphorylates Y223in the co-chaperoneAha1, promotingits interaction with and stimulation of Hsp90 ATPase activity. Pharmacologic inhibition of c-Abl prevents the Aha1-Hsp90 interaction thereby, hypersensitizing cancer cells to Hsp90 inhibitors.Another co-chaperone of Hsp90, protein phosphatase-5 (PP5), mediates thede-phosphorylation of the co-chaperone Cdc37which is an essentialprocessfor the activation of kinase clients. The crystal structure of phospho-Cdc37 bound to the catalytic domain of PP5revealed elements of substrate specificity within the phosphatase cleft. Hyperactivityandhypoactivity of PP5 increasedHsp90 binding to its inhibitor, providing insight into increasingthe efficacy of Hsp90 inhibitors by regulation of PP5 activity in tumors.PP5 is autoinhibited by intramolecular interactions that can be activated by anumber of cellular factors, includingHsp90. Casein kinase-1δ (CK1δ)-mediated phosphorylation of T362-PP5, was identified as an integral step for PP5 activation, independent of binding to Hsp90. Additionally, the tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), the substrate recognition component of the VCB-E3-ubiquitin ligase, was found to interact with and multi-monoubiquitinate K185/K199-PP5 for proteasomal degradationin an oxygen-independent manner. Furthermore, VHL-deficient clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cell lines or patient tumors exhibit elevated PP5 levels. Down-regulation of PP5 caused apoptosis inccRCC cells, suggesting a prosurvival role for PP5 in ccRCC.Thisevidence suggests that inhibition of the enzymes that target and catalyze the PTM of Hsp90 and co-chaperones can act synergistically with Hsp90 inhibitors, providingnovel therapeutic strategiesto enhance the efficacy of Hsp90 inhibitors in cancer cells.
    • Postmodernism & Punk: Examining a Counterculture’s Significance: The Creation of a Digital Exhibit

      Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Jofre, Ana; Second Reader; Manley, Taylor (2020-05)
      As an IDT major, my focus is on graphic design and the visual arts. Examining where we have come in terms of graphic design aesthetics is important to continue to grow as creators. We take inspiration and develop something either similar to what we have learned or something completely new, which we would not know without learning about what past designers have done. Design is essential, it is used in every aspect of life, whether it be acknowledged or not. Without design, we cannot always communicate effectively. We incorporate design into advertising so that people will understand a product or just share information. Graphic Design is not just used for monetary profits though. Design is a way for artists to share their creativity with the world. Each designer has their own style that is unlike any others, just like significant design movements in the art world. The point of art is to establish yourself as different from the rest, so why were movements like postmodernism and punk dismissed when that is exactly what they sought to do? We must share in all forms of the visual arts and not decide what can or cannot be art.

      Youngentob, Steven; Harrison, Danielle (2016)
      Human studies illustrate that alcohol exposure while breastfeeding produces a memory of the alcohol scent and modifies behavioral responses to the odor of the drug. The memory and modified behavioral response to alcohol odor suggest that the addictive attributes of alcohol may contribute to patterns of use that increases the risk for alcohol abuse later in life. There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates prenatal alcohol exposure produces a memory and modified behavioral response to alcohol odor that persists into adolescence, and contributes to alcohol abuse. Given that both postnatal and prenatal alcohol exposure has lasting effects on infants, this study investigated whether rats exposed to alcohol while breastfeeding have a prolonged memory and modified behavioral response to alcohol odor. Long-Evans Hooded rat pups were exposed to alcohol during breastfeeding via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an isocaloric, iso-nutritive liquid diet after delivery of their litter up to weaning. To control for effects of malnutrition pair-fed animals were given a control liquid diet equivalent in quantity to the amount their matched animal provided with an alcohol diet consumed the day before. When litters reached adolescence, the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to alcohol odor in a male and female animal from each litter was examined. Relative to controls, animals exposed to alcohol postnatally displayed an altered breathing pattern response to alcohol odor specifically, and an altered breathing pattern and neurophysiological response to novel odorants. The findings of this study builds on the growing body of research that shows the consequences of postnatal alcohol exposure.
    • THE POWER OF BRAND DEVELOPMENT: Leveraging Branding to Effectively Engage Customers

      Jofre, Ana; Pondolfino, Amy; Jofre, Ana; First Reader; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 2020-12)
      This paper explores the relationship between brand development and customer engagement. Customer brand engagement and customer engagement theories and models are examined through existing literature. Concrete steps to advance customer engagement are identified. Artifacts are created as part of a comprehensive branding package to guide a children's museum, Oneonta World of Learning (OWL), through their branding process.
    • Preclinical Development of Anti-Cancer Drugs from Natural Products.

      Huang, Ying; Sun, Qing (2014)
      Cancer has been and will continue to be the common concern in the United States and worldwide. As a conventional treatment to fight cancer, new anti-cancer drugs with more efficiency and less toxicity are extremely required. In this study, we have identified two novel compounds with anti-cancer properties from two traditional Chinese medicinal plants. One is Lappaol F that was extracted from the seeds of the plant Actium Lapp L., which has been used in China for centuries as anti-viral and anti-bacterial medicine. Another is M-9 that was extracted from the stem of Marsdenia tenacissima,a plant that has been applied to treat inflammation and cancer in China. Our results showed that Lappaol F inhibited cancer cell growth by regulating a series of cell cycle related proteins and inducing cell cycle arrest at G1 and/or G2 phase. p21 played a critical role in Lappaol F-induced cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) suppression as well as G2arrest. Lappaol F also induced cell death in a number of cancer cells through caspases activation. Lappaol F-mediated cell growth inhibition was p53-independent. Notably, results from animal studies showed that Lappaol F effectively inhibited tumor growth in vivo, while being well tolerated by the mice. Thus, Lappaol F has a strong potential to be developed as a novel anti-cancer chemotherapeutic. Our studies showed that M-9 successfully sensitized several tumor cells but not non-tumorigenic cells to paclitaxel (Taxol) treatment. Additionally, M-9 reversed chemotherapeutic resistance in a number of multidrug resistant cells. Further results suggested that M-9 functioned, at least to a certain extent, via inhibiting drug efflux by competitively binding to P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a protein that accounts for multidrug resistance. Importantly, results from the in vivostudies demonstrated that M-9 strongly enhanced Taxol-induced growth suppression against xenografts derived from HeLa cells. Moreover, mice tolerated the treatment of Taxol and M-9 well. Therefore, M-9 is a novel chemosensitizer candidate to overcome P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance. Taken together, our studies provide a solid basis for further development of these two compounds as anti-cancer remedies.
    • Presentation of Self in MySpace.com an Online Social Networking Site

      Perretta, Heather (2007-05-01)
      This ethnographic study explores the presentation of self on MySpace.com, an online social networking website. One hundred MySpace.com profile pages were analyzed to discover how users complete and manipulate the MySpace template to create a virtual presentation of self. The one hundred profile pages represented fifty stated female users and fifty stated male users. Each page was archived and coded based on the elements present that were viewable by the public. All users were selected at random using the website search tool and a random number generator. The work of Erving Goffman in his 1959 book, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, is the theoretical foundation for the this study. Analysis of the profile pages sampled indicates that most users studied modify the default template and add various elements from textual information to pictures, music, and video clips to the profile pages and create a virtual presentation of self on MySpace.com.
    • Prezi v. PowerPoint: Finding the right tool for the job

      White, Nicloe L. (2011-08-01)
      The purpose of this project is to determine which presentation tool works best to deliver a clear, concise message to an audience. The tools being studied are PowerPoint, the standard, slidebased presentation tool, and Prezi, the newer, non-linear software tool. A presentation was created in Prezi using the same content and multi-media as the original PowerPoint presentation. The principles of Human Centered Design Theory were used as a guide to analyze each tool. Research was further triangulated by creating two groups and showing both presentations to each. Each group then had to answer survey questions about the presentations. Finally, using volunteers from both survey groups a focus group was formed to further discuss both presentations and their reactions to each one.