Krendel, Mira; Karchin, Jing Bi (2015)
      Our lab has discovered that an actin-dependent molecular motor called Myosin 1e (Myo1e) is required for maintaining normal morphology and function in vivo of podocytes, a specialized epithelial cell in the kidney. We have found that Myo1e-null mice develop proteinuria, and mutations in the MYO1E gene, including missense mutations A159P and T119I, and nonsense mutation Y695X, have been identified in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), a primary kidney disease that often leads to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Based on these findings, we have proposed that Myo1e and especially its motor domain, plays a key role in regulating actin cytoskeleton organization in kidney podocytes. To study Myo1e activity at the junctions, we have used cell culture systems. We confirmed that Myo1e is a component of the podocyte slit diaphragm using glomerular fractionation assay and immune-gold labeling electron microscopy. Disruption of Myo1e motor activity by point mutation (A159P) completely disrupted Myo1e cellular localization and led to defective actin assembly at nascent cell-cell contacts. Domain mapping experiments in MDCK cells have suggested that the Myo1e TH2 domain is necessary, but not sufficient for its localization, but addition of the TH1 domain restores its localization to junctions. We have also found that the Myo1e SH3 domain interacts with ZO-1, a slit diaphragm and tight junction protein, in invitro pulldown assays, which might contribute to ZO-1 exchange activity at the junctions. Another FSGS-associated Myo1e motor domain mutation (T119I) also caused mis-localization of Myo1e in the cultured mouse podocytes, suggesting loss-of-function of the motor domain mutants. We have also shown that ZO-1 is not recruited to the nascent cell-cell contacts at the same time with the Myo1e T119I mutants. Finally, by using fission yeast as a model system, we have demonstrated that human kidney disease-associated mutations in fission yeast caused defects in yeast growth and endocytosis processes. Interestingly, after analyzing the colocalization patterns between the FSGS-associated Myo1 mutants and Chaperone Rng3, we have proposed that these two kidney disease-associated mutants likely possess different disease-causing mechanisms.Above all, we have concluded that Myo1e motor domain plays an important role in its localization and activity in podocyte actin cytoskeleton, which might be the link to the disease mechanism of FSGS at the molecular level.
    • Effects of Rab4A Mutations on Mouse Behavior, mTORC1 Activity,and Surface 8Receptor/TransporterRecycling

      Perl, Andras; Winans, Thomas C (2020-10-03)
      Through studying endosomal regulation, I found that a single amino acid 47mutation (Q72L) in the Rab4A gene leads to neurological disorders in two separate 48mouse strains. In the C57Bl/6 (SLE(WT)) background,I found thatknock-in the 49Rab4A gene leads to hyperactivity, which resembles both autism spectrum 50disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). On a lupus-51prone background (SLE(1.2.3)) I found thatthe same mutation led to hypoactivity, 52which indicates a more severe neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus 53(NPSLE) than SLE(1.2.3)mice with wild type Rab4A.54The same mice were studied in chapter two, where mTORC1 activity was 55confirmed to be elevated in CD4+ T cells when Rab4A was knocked-in (Rab4A(KI))56compared to Rab4A(WT) cells.In young mouse brains prior to disease onset, I found57increases of mTORC1 and oxidative stress in Rab4A(KI) brains relative to 58Rab4A(WT) brains. In the same brains, there was also a depletion of GLUT1 and 59IFNGR1.Many of these changes were absent in the adult mice, after disease had 60developed.61SLE(1.2.3) mice with the three Rab4A alleleswere treated withrapamycin or 62NAC,and brains were collected.In these brains, there wasevidence that the 63hypoactive Rab4A(KI) SLE(1.2.3) had lower mTORC1 activity than Rab4A(WT) and 64Rab4A(KO) mice.This finding indicatesdepression, which is a pattern seen in major 65depressive disorder(MDD). Depression is also a symptoms of NPSLE. Interestingly, 66rapamycin increased mTORC1 activity in theRab4A(KI)brains compared Rab4A(KI) 67mice treated with vehicle, indicating a positive effect from the drug.

      Sirotkin; Plante, Kyle (2015)
      Actin assembly into structures called endocytic actin patches is directly responsible for driving endocytic invagination and internalization. We tested the predictions made from the mathematical modeling of the Dendritic Nucleation Model of actin assembly at sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in fission yeast (Berro et al.; Sirotkin et al., 2010). The model predicts that increasing the concentration of cytoplasmic actin or deleting capping protein will cause an increase in the extent and the rate of actin assembly in actin patches. Conversely, the model predicts that increasing the concentration of capping protein or decreasing the actin concentration will cause a decrease in the extent and the rate of actin assembly in actin patches. To test these predictions, we used the actin cross-linking protein, fimbrin Fim1 tagged with a fluorescent protein to measure actin patch dynamics in strains that over- or under-express actin, over-express capping protein, or have deletions of the two capping protein genes. In contrast to model predictions, we found that manipulating capping protein concentrations did not have a significant effect on the extent of actin patch assembly and affected the rates of assembly to a lesser degree than expected from the model, suggesting that capping protein is not the only factor that limits actin patch assembly. Surprisingly, changes in the concentration of actin resulted in changes in the number of patches in a cell, suggesting that the concentration of actin is more important in controlling the initiation of new patches rather than in patch assembly. Through studying the biochemical pathway of actin assembly directly in living cells, we were able to gain insights into previously under-appreciated aspects of the mechanism of actin assembly at the sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
    • The Efficacy of Screencasting Technology in the Classroom.

      Fancett-Stooks, Daniel J. (2012-05-01)
      A study that investigates the efficacy of screencasts. As a tool used for instruction, screencasting can be significant in reaching out to broader ranges of learners in the classroom. Through the utilization of the screencast, the teacher can work towards compartmentalizing instruction and create a repository of lessons. This repository of screencasts can assist in present and future curriculum and lesson development. By having these screencasts available to the student, the teacher can provide a more one-toone instructional setting that will help raise the comprehension and understanding of the content that is being demonstrated.
    • Electronic Text Displays: Reading Rehabilitation of Low Vision Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Aquilante, K. (SUNY College of Optometry, 2003-03-23)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate whether reading performance, measured in words per minute, improved during an hour of within-session practice. The reading methods were three computer-generated presentations including (1) MNREAD, a modified page format, (2) RSVP, which presents one word at a time, and (3) SCROLL, where text pans from right to left across a screen. Forty-five young readers with normal vision, forty-five elder readers with normal vision, and forty-five readers with low vision due to age-related macular degeneration read by one of these methods. None of the participants had previous experience reading with MNREAD, RSVP of SCROLL. There was little evidence that within-session practice improved performance. Only 10 of 135 participants had modest reading rate gains, and there was no statistical difference between reading method or subject group for this small subset of readers.
    • Elevated substitution rates estimated from ancient DNA sequences.

      Ho, Simon Y W; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Allaby, Robin G
      Ancient DNA sequences are able to offer valuable insights into molecular evolutionary processes, which are not directly accessible via modern DNA. They are particularly suitable for the estimation of substitution rates because their ages provide calibrating information in phylogenetic analyses, circumventing the difficult task of choosing independent calibration points. The substitution rates obtained from such datasets have typically been high, falling between the rates estimated from pedigrees and species phylogenies. Many of these estimates have been made using a Bayesian phylogenetic method that explicitly accommodates heterochronous data. Stimulated by recent criticism of this method, we present a comprehensive simulation study that validates its performance. For datasets of moderate size, it produces accurate estimates of rates, while appearing robust to assumptions about demographic history. We then analyse a large collection of 749 ancient and 727 modern DNA sequences from 19 species of animals, plants and bacteria. Our new estimates confirm that the substitution rates estimated from ancient DNA sequences are elevated above long-term phylogenetic levels.
    • Emergence of the Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain USA300 Coincides with Horizontal Transfer of the Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element and speG-mediated Adaptations for Survival on Skin

      Planet, Paul J.; LaRussa, Samuel J.; Dana, Ali; Smith, Hannah; Xu, Amy; Ryan, Chanelle; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Boundy, Sam; Goldberg, Julia; Narechania, Apurva; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2013-12-31)
      The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is the largest genomic region distinguishing epidemic USA300 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from other S. aureus strains. However, the functional relevance of ACME to infection and disease has remained unclear. Using phylogenetic analysis, we have shown that the modular segments of ACME were assembled into a single genetic locus in Staphylococcus epidermidis and then horizontally transferred to the common ancestor of USA300 strains in an extremely recent event. Acquisition of one ACME gene, speG, allowed USA300 strains to withstand levels of polyamines (e.g., spermidine) produced in skin that are toxic to other closely related S. aureus strains. speG-mediated polyamine tolerance also enhanced biofilm formation, adherence to fibrinogen/fibronectin, and resistance to antibiotic and keratinocyte-mediated killing. We suggest that these properties gave USA300 a major selective advantage during skin infection and colonization, contributing to the extraordinary evolutionary success of this clone. Importance: Over the past 15 years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major public health problem. It is likely that adaptations in specific MRSA lineages (e.g., USA300) drove the spread of MRSA across the United States and allowed it to replace other, less-virulent S. aureus strains. We suggest that one major factor in the evolutionary success of MRSA may have been the acquisition of a gene (speG) that allows S. aureus to evade the toxicity of polyamines (e.g., spermidine and spermine) that are produced in human skin. Polyamine tolerance likely gave MRSA multiple fitness advantages, including the formation of more-robust biofilms, increased adherence to host tissues, and resistance to antibiotics and killing by human skin cells.
    • Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Utilization in Zimbabwe: Retrospective Review of Harare Ambulance System Reports

      Muchatuta, Monalisa; Mudariki, Soman; Matheson, Loretta; Rice, Brian; Chidzonga, Midion; Walker, Rebecca; Strehlow, Matthew; Newberry, Jennifer (Ubiquity Press, Ltd., 2022)
      Background: Emergency medical services (EMS) are a critical but often overlooked component of essential public health care delivery in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Few countries in Africa have established EMS and there is scant literature to provide guidance for EMS growth. Objective: This study aimed to characterize EMS utilization in Harare, Zimbabwe in order to guide system strengthening efforts. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patient care reports (PCR) generated by the City of Harare ambulance system for patients transported and/or treated in the prehospital setting over a 14-month period (February 2018 – March 2019). Findings: A total of 875 PCRs were reviewed representing approximately 8% of the calls to EMS. The majority of patients were age 15 to 49 (76%) and 61% were female patients. In general, trauma and pregnancy were the most common chief complaints, comprising 56% of all transports. More than half (51%) of transports were for inter-facility transfers (IFTs) and 52% of these IFTs were maternity-related. Transports for trauma were mostly for male patients (63%), and 75% of the trauma patients were age 15–49. EMTs assessed and documented pulse and blood pressure for 72% of patients. Conclusion: In this study, EMS cared primarily for obstetric and trauma emergencies, which mirrors the leading causes of premature death in LMICs. The predominance of requests for maternity-related IFTs emphasizes the role for EMS as an integral player in peripartum maternal health care. Targeted public health efforts and chief complaint-specific training for EMTs in these priority areas could improve quality of care and patient outcomes. Moreover, a focus on strengthening prehospital data collection and research is critical to advancing EMS development in Zimbabwe and the region through quality improvement and epidemiologic surveillance.
    • An Empirical Wi-Fi Intrusion Detection System

      Kholidy, Hisham A.; Basnet, Diwash Bikram; Kholidy, Hisham A.; Advisor (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 2020-05)
      Today, the wireless network devices are growing rapidly, and it is of utmost importance for securing those devices. Attackers or hackers use new methods and techniques to trick the system and steal the most important data. Intrusion Detection Systems detect the attacks by inspecting the network traffics or logs. The work demonstrated the effectiveness of detecting the attacks using machine learning techniques on the AWID dataset, which is produced from real wireless network logging. The author of the AWID dataset may have used several supervised learning models to successfully detect the intrusions. In this paper, we propose a newer approach for intrusion detection model based on dense neural networks, and long short-term memory networks (LSTM) and evaluate the model against the AWID-CLS-R subset. To get the best results from the model, we applied feature selection by replacing the unknown data with the value of “none”, getting rid of all repeated values, and kept only the important features. We did preprocess and feature scaling of both training and testing dataset, additional we also change the 2-dimensional to the 3- dimensional array because LSTM takes an input of 3-dimensional array, and later we used flatten layers to change into a 2-dimensional array for output. A comprehensive evaluation of DNN and LSTM networks are used to classify and predict the attacks and compute the precision, recall, and F1 score. We perform binary classification and multiclass classification on the dataset using neural networks and achieve accuracy ranging from 86.70 % to 96.01%.
    • Employee Collaboration in Sharepoint

      Vempati, Sai Sandeep Soumithri; Chiang, Chen-Fu; Adviser; Novillo, Jorge; Reviewer; Rezk, Mohamed; Reviewer (2016-12-01)
      This project aims at developing a portal for a company’s internal needs that include leave portal, a pre-sales dashboard and a document sharing list for the employees in SharePoint Online. SharePoint Online is web based Content Management System (CMS) provided by Microsoft. Microsoft introduced SharePoint in 2001 which was an instant winner. It had all the features that are needed for storage and collaboration. SharePoint later on evolved into two major versions, namely, On-premise and Cloud version. SharePoint the cloud version proved to be a feasible CMS for start-ups and small companies. As the usage of SharePoint Online has minimised the burden maintenance of servers and administration more companies started using SharePoint. The utility of SharePoint has caught the attention of many companies lately. It has scaled up to, 75000 organisations saving 160 million users [8]. The usage of SharePoint made companies develop portals that are interactive and act as platforms for collaboration and exchange of information. The workflow automation provided by SharePoint helps in simplifying the business process management. Web technologies can be used to develop the portal in a user friendly and responsive manner. In this project, a portal is developed that mainly has three functionalities – a leave application platform, a dashboard for Presales and a list that helps sharing of information. The leave application feature is based on the workflow automation service provided by SharePoint in which the user can request concerned manager for a leave approval. The whole process of approval is automated in the portal. The Presales dashboard option helps in viewing data related to projects that can be used to develop reports by the Presales team of a company. The data is shown in various forms suitable for easy understanding using web parts in the dashboard. A list that demonstrates file approval is included in the portal.
    • Employing User-Centered Design to Accelerate the Construction of a Business Intelligence Dashboard

      Obermaier, Joseph F.; Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader (2018)
      Providing real-time data to decision makers has become a key component in the management of complex systems. The most common visualization for this type of data is the electronic dashboard, which, like the instrument panel on an airplane, displays critical data in a well-designed, easily understood, manner. The challenge for designers of such systems today is not just to find a way to effectively communicate information to decision makers, but to do so in an environment that demands an ever more rapid development cycle. The intent of this paper is to review several studies and present a hypothetical project with an eye toward uncovering just how user-centered design can afford a designer an opportunity to develop such an intranet dashboard at an accelerated pace.
    • Enhancing Community and Creating Unity Using a Mobile Application

      Ellis, Kayla; Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 2019-05)
      This project involves the creation of a prototype mobile application for a multi-cultural community center in Utica, NY, the Midtown Utica Community Center (MUCC). It is an inclusive multicultural and refugee-friendly space for members to come and join in on different programs, activities, and services that the center offers. Hundreds of families utilize the open and welcoming space on a weekly basis and it serves as a place for them to congregate and come together. It is a place filled with heritage and members who are friends, but see themselves as family. This is where the idea for a mobile application stemmed from. This mobile application would be used by both members and nonmembers of the community center, as well as the staff, executive board, and volunteers. The goal of the application is to enhance the sense of community and bring a feeling of unity to the members of the organization. In this unique scenario, since the application is being built for a community center, the sense of “community” is already present—the utilization of technology such as a mobile application will only enhance, build upon, and create a sense of unity for the current and soon-to-be members of this organization. For the most part, members of this center are made up of various youth age groups. In this paper, I will explore research that has been conducted on the use of mobile technology and applications by youth as well as ways to keep them engaged and interacting with an application on a daily basis. Another area for exploration is the idea of using the application to an application on a daily basis. Another area for exploration is the idea of using the application to be in two places at once, to communicate with peers even though they may not physically be present at the center.
    • Enhancing the Effectiveness of Software Test Automation

      Jansing, David; Novillo, Jorge; Adviser; Cavallo, Roger; Reviewer; Spetka, Scott; Reviewer (2015-12-01)
      Effective software testing can save money and effort by catching problems before they make it very far through the software development process. It is known that the longer a defect remains undetected, the more expensive it is to fix. Testing is, therefore a critical part of the development process. It can also be expensive and labor intensive, particularly when done by hand. It is estimated that the total effort testing software consumes at least half of a project’s overall labor. Automation can make much of the testing an organization does more accurate and cheaper than merely putting several people in a room and having them run tests from a paper script. It also frees the testing staff to do more specific and in-­‐depth testing than would otherwise be possible. This paper focuses mainly on software test automation techniques and how automation can enhance the efficiency of a software team as well as the quality of the final product.
    • Environmental risk factors for attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder

      Banerjee, Tania Das; Middleton, Frank; Faraone, Stephen V. (Wiley, 2007-06-15)
      Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common cognitive and behavioural disorder diagnosed among school children. It is characterized by deficient attention and problem solving, along with hyperactivity and difficulty withholding incorrect responses. This highly prevalent disorder is estimated to affect 5–10% of children and in many cases, persists into adulthood, leading to 4% prevalence among adults. Converging evidence from epidemiologic, neuropsychology, neuroimaging, genetic and treatment studies shows that ADHD is a valid medical disorder. The majority of studies performed to assess genetic risk factors in ADHD have supported a strong familial nature of this disorder. Family studies have identified a 2- to 8-fold increase in the risk for ADHD in parents and siblings of children with ADHD. Various twin and adoption studies have also highlighted the highly genetic nature of ADHD. In fact the mean heritability of ADHD was shown to be 0.77, which is comparable to other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, several biological and environmental factors have also been proposed as risk factors for ADHD, including food additives/diet, lead contamination, cigarette and alcohol exposure, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and low birth weight. Many recent studies have specifically examined the relationships between ADHD and these extraneous factors. This review describes some of these possible risk factors.
    • Episodic Diversifying Selection Shaped the Genomes of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus and Related Gammaretroviruses

      Alfano, Niccolò; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Roca, Alfred L.; Xu, Wenqin; Eiden, Maribeth V.; Greenwood, Alex D. (American Society for Microbiology, 2016-02-15)
      Gibbon ape leukemia viruses (GALVs) are part of a larger group of pathogenic gammaretroviruses present across phylogenetically diverse host species of Australasian mammals. Despite the biomedical utility of GALVs as viral vectors and in cancer gene therapy, full genome sequences have not been determined for all of the five identified GALV strains, nor has a comprehensive evolutionary analysis been performed. We therefore generated complete genomic sequences for each GALV strain using hybridization capture and high-throughput sequencing. The four strains of GALV isolated from gibbons formed a monophyletic clade that was closely related to the woolly monkey virus (WMV), which is a GALV strain that likely originated in a gibbon host. The GALV-WMV clade in turn formed a sister group to the koala retroviruses (KoRVs). Genomic signatures of episodic diversifying selection were detected among the gammaretroviruses with concentration in the env gene across the GALV strains that were particularly oncogenic and KoRV strains that were potentially exogenous, likely reflecting their adaptation to the host immune system. In vitro studies involving vectors chimeric between GALV and KoRV-B established that variable regions A and B of the surface unit of the envelope determine which receptor is used by a viral strain to enter host cells. Importance: The gibbon ape leukemia viruses (GALVs) are among the most medically relevant retroviruses due to their use as viral vectors for gene transfer and in cancer gene therapy. Despite their importance, full genome sequences have not been determined for the majority of primate isolates, nor has comprehensive evolutionary analysis been performed, despite evidence that the viruses are facing complex selective pressures associated with cross-species transmission. Using hybridization capture and high-throughput sequencing, we report here the full genome sequences of all the GALV strains and demonstrate that diversifying selection is acting on them, particularly in the envelope gene in functionally important domains, suggesting that host immune pressure is shaping GALV evolution.
    • Ethanol-Induced Effects of the Microtranscriptome on Natural Gene Expression

      Middleton, Frank; Ignacio, Cherry Mae Gonzalez
      Reliable, minimally invasive biomarkers that predict the extent of alcoholism-induced CNS damage are currently lacking. This limits the selection of rational interventions and hampers the ability to gauge therapeutic effects. Developing biomarkers that indicate early CNS damage may prove useful in deterring the emergence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) can be informative molecular indicators of neuronal gene expression alterations. They repress large fractions of protein-coding genes and are highly-involved in intercellular signaling between both proximal and distal neurons. This work has focused on (1) examining whether extracellular miRNAs in the serum of individuals diagnosed with AUDs can be used as biomarkers of alcohol-induced brain damage, (2) determining in vivo the ethanol-inducedeffects imparted by miRNAs and their targets in the brain, (3) evaluating their role ininterventions that can reverse behavioral impairment and (4) testing the ability of extracellular miRNAs to transfer ethanol-induced pathologies to ethanol-naive cells. There are five major findings from this work. First, two independent quantification technologies demonstrated comparable differences in miRNA expression levels betweenAUDs and controls and revealed significant correlations between candidate miRNA biomarkers and medical, neuroimaging and drinking parameters. Second, in rats manymiRNAs significantly altered by ethanol in the hippocampus following maternal or postnatal exposure were also changed in the serum. Moreover, postnatal consumption activated cell-cycle pathways in the hippocampus while maternal exposure affected unfolded protein response pathways in adolescent offspring. Third, the lack of social motivation seen following fetal exposure was reversed as a result of social enrichment. Analysis of the integrated data in the amygdala and ventral striatum revealed several functional gene networks whose activation patterns following fetal ethanol exposure were reversed by social enrichment. Fourth, transfer of purified exosomes from ethanol-exposed to ethanol-naive cells conferred many gene expression changes consistent with ethanol exposure. Lastly, examination of all the data revealed consistent changes in miRNAs that independently converged on cell death, cell proliferation and cell cycle regulatory processes, regardless of the species, paradigm and source. The findings in this work illustrate the utility of miRNAs as peripheral biomarkers of AUDs and suggest novel epigenetic mechanisms affected by alcohol.
    • Evaluating Cloud-Based Gaming Solutions

      Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Yucel, Ibrahim; Second reader; Truong, Daniel (2021-05)
      Recently, tech companies such as Google and Microsoft have invested resources into offering cloud-based delivery of video games. Delivery of games over such a medium negates the need of requiring dedicated video game consoles or computers with robust 3D graphics hardware. Tangible hardware requirements for traditional video game playing are currently undergoing a supply shortage due to a multitude of factors, particularly related to the COVID-19 pandemic. This project evaluates the cost of using cloud services vs. using a physical video game console. Also, this article evaluates whether players can come up with a custom solution utilizing VPS (virtual private server) providers such as Amazon Web Services. By utilizing the diffusion of innovations theory, we evaluate how the common actors of the video game industry try to replicate the traditional video game playing experience, but in a cloud setting. Results confirm that those wishing to use cloud-based services should only need a consumer-level personal computing device (such as a laptop or smartphone) to access them. Consumers must also take heed of their networking infrastructure, as well as the supported library of games that each service carries if they intend to maximize their value for each cloud service.
    • Evaluating Equiluminant Chromatic Stimuli as Stimuli for Assessing Glaucomatous Damage

      Ly-Schroeder, Emily (2008-01-10)
      Purpose: To examine the potential clinical utility of equiluminant chromatic stimuli for assessing glaucomatous damage. Pan et al. (2006) found that equiluminant red-green chromatic stimuli could have good ability to detect defects as well as low test-retest variability, but clinical utility was limited due to the small dynamic ranges for their stimuli. The current study increased the dynamic range by using larger stimuli and including tritan stimuli. Methods: Luminance, red-green (R-G), and tritan stimuli were created by modulating a large square (3 degrees per side) from an equal energy white (20 cd/m2) along three cardinal directions in color space. Contrast sensitivity was measured at four locations with an eccentricity of 12 deg. along the 45, 135, 225, and 315 degree meridia. Twenty-five patients with glaucoma and twenty-six control subjects free of eye disease were tested monocularly at two separate sessions within a two-week time period. Sensitivities were reported in decibel (dB) units, where 1 dB=-1 (log contrast threshold) x 10. Results: The dynamic ranges were 11 and 13 dB for the tritan and red-green stimuli. Test-retest variability was dependent on depth of defect for the two chromatic stimuli (r>0.2, p<0.25) but not for the achromatic stimuli (r=0.01, p=0.46). Matched t-tests found that, on average, defect depths were similar for the red-green and luminance stimuli (t=0.5, p=0.30), and were slightly deeper for the luminance stimulus than for the tritan stimulus (t=4.2, p<0.0001). The relationship between defect depths for the luminance and tritan stimuli was dependent on mean defect (r=-0.42, p<0.0001). Discussion: The effort to increase the dynamic range for the chromatic stimuli by increasing the size of the stimulus and using tritan modulation were successful. However, this came at the cost of increased test-retest variability and decreased ability to detect glaucomatous defects. Conclusion: Equiluminant chromatic stimuli in CRT-based tests may not be clinically useful as perimetric stimuli, since increased dynamic range comes at the expense of increased test-retest variability and decreased ability to detect visual loss. Those findings further support the works of Hart (1988) and Sample et al. (2006).
    • Evaluating the Appropriateness of Using Web Technologies to Promote Farm Safety to New York Farmers

      Park, Samantha (2014-05-01)
      In the past, internet and smart-phone use was not common among the farm community. With advances in technology, the average number of cell phone owners has increased, as well as access to high speed internet. More farms are looking to social media for promotion for their farms, and this study aimed to determined if the farm population also uses web 2.0 technologies to find information related to safety practices. Surveys with the farming community were administered at trade show events, and targeted small dairy and livestock farmers. These surveys collected information about access to technology, technology use, and information gathering practices. The study reveled that farmers do indeed have access to mobile devices and internet connections, and they commonly go to the internet as a source for their farm questions. This allows us to believe that if used in conjunction with the other two main information gathering practices (reading publications, and talking to peers), we could successfully reach our target with a web 1.0 and web 2.0 campaign.
    • Evaluating The Effective Design Of Web-Based Learning Environments For Promotional Marketing Team Directives

      Swistak, Lydia (2014-05-01)
      This project seeks to evaluate the use of proper design choices in the development of Web based learning tools, specifically instructional videos for developing successful promotional marketing campaigns, and asks can the use of proper design choices capture the learner’s attention, while being relevant to their needs, increase their confidence and provide overall satisfaction? For the project, I created a series of instructional videos using Microsoft PowerPoint and Camtasia II for Mac, a screen recording software product and created a Google Site to organize and host the videos. The website URL is: https://sites.google.com/site/powerofpromotion/. The videos detail the step-by-step process of developing an effective promotional marketing campaign utilizing Progressive Disclosure techniques from of the Universal Principles of Design, as described by Lidwell, Holden and Butler (2003). The videos are comprised of strong visuals and narrations that combine with to-the-point dialogue and information to conclude that the use of strong design elements when combined with will lead to a successful instructional web-based learning tool.