• Secure Routing in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

      Jadhav, Sumedh; Hash, Larry; Adviser (2016-05-01)
      The detailed study investigates the various problems faced by Mobile Ad hoc Networks because of their inherent characteristics. The characteristics make these networks vulnerable to various attacks. The attack known to be performed on MANETs were researched in order to gain better understanding and insight on how they can be defended against. The focus of this project was to secure the routing protocols, since routing plays a vital role in the operation of network and is the target of most attacks. Various research papers were referenced for collecting the information needed. The existing routing protocols were systematically categorized and compared. Additionally, advanced routing protocols that integrate cryptographic methods into them were studied to come to a conclusion that they are the most robust protocols that effectively protect the Mobile Ad hoc Networks against some dangerous attacks. Securing the routing protocols is indeed the most important aspect for securing MANETs. However, there are other techniques that can be used as extensions for strengthening these networks, in addition to using a robust routing protocol. Recommendations have been made for the same.
    • SECURITY CHALLENGES IN SDN IMPLEMENTATION

      Patil, Pradnya; Hash, Larry; Advisor; White, Joshua; Reviewer; Tekeoglu, Ali, Reviewer (2018-05)
      This study analyzes how security challenges caused by data and control layer separation in the SDN, such as Denial of Service attacks and unauthorized access attacks, limit SDN deployment. This study also offers network engineers’ views on preventing those security issues and whether implementing SDN is a good idea in the first place. This study was conducted in order to answer three questions: 1. How does data and control layer separation in SDN cause DoS and unauthorized access attacks? 2. What are the best practices and measures to minimize such security threats from the engineer’s point of view? 3. Do security threats at the lower layer affect the decision to implement SDN? These questions were answered by reviewing research papers and interviewing engineers from the telecommunication field. DoS and unauthorized access attacks are due to vulnerabilities in OpenFlow, SDN switches and SDN controllers. Table 6 presents solutions for preventing DoS and unauthorized access attacks. Most of the network engineers said SDN should be implemented based on cost, limited risk, customers’ positive views, and company projects, despite the current security challenges.
    • Selective constraint and adaptive potential of West Nile virus within and among naturally infected avian hosts and mosquito vectors

      Nelson, Chase W; Sibley, Samuel D; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Hamer, Gabriel L; Newman, Christina M; Anderson, Tavis K; Walker, Edward D; Kitron, Uriel D; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Ruiz, Marilyn O; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2018-06-12)
      Arthropod-borne viruses are among the most genetically constrained RNA viruses, yet they have a remarkable propensity to adapt and emerge. We studied wild birds and mosquitoes naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) in a 'hot spot' of virus transmission in Chicago, IL, USA. We generated full coding WNV genome sequences from spatiotemporally matched bird and mosquito samples using high-throughput sequencing, allowing a molecular evolutionary assessment with deep coverage. Mean FST among samples was 0.66 (±0.02 SE) and was bimodal, with mean nucleotide diversity being higher between samples (interhost πN = 0.001; πS = 0.024) than within them (intrahost πN < 0.0001; πS < 0.001). Eight genomic sites with FST > 1.01 (in the PrM, NS2a, NS3, NS4b, and 5'-noncoding genomic regions) showed bird versus mosquito variant frequency differences of >30 per cent and/or polymorphisms fixed in ≥5 host or vector individuals, suggesting host tropism for these variants. However, phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a lack of grouping by bird or mosquito, most inter-sample differences were synonymous (mean interhost πN/πS = 0.04), and there was no significant difference between hosts and vectors in either their nucleotide diversities or levels of purifying selection (mean intrahost πN/πS = 0.28 in birds and πN/πS = 0.21 in mosquitoes). This finding contrasts with the 'trade-off' and 'selective sieve' hypotheses that have been proposed and tested in the laboratory, which predict strong host versus vector effects on WNV genetic variation, with heightened selective constraint in birds alternating with heightened viral diversity in mosquitoes. Overall, our data show WNV to be highly selectively constrained within and between both hosts and vectors but still able to vary at a limited number of sites across the genome. Such site-specific plasticity in the face of overall selective constraint may offer a mechanism whereby highly constrained viruses such as WNV and its relatives can still adapt and emerge.
    • SELF-ASSOCIATION IS A COMMON PROPERTY IN BOVINE, MOUSE AND XENOPUSARRESTIN

      Calvert, Peter; Qiu, Shuang (2014)
      The light-driven translocation of arrestin from rod inner segment to outer segment was indicated to involve free diffusion with binding affinityto light-activated phosphorhodopsin, however, it is still debatable how arrestin is excluded from the dark-adapted outer segment. Previousstudies demonstrated that bovine visual arrestin had the property of self-association. The self-association propertyof both wild-type and mutated purified visual arrestin of several species (bovine, mouse and Xenopus laevis) was studiedby performing analytical ultracentrifugation experimentswhich providedthe oligomer formation information and association constants.Theself-association parameters of purified bovine and mousevisual arrestinwere investigated and compared with other studies. Results showed that arrestin of both species could self-associate, forming dimersin a concentration-dependent manner, but tetramerswere not detected at the highest concentrations examined.Xenopus arrestin was shown to self-associateas well, existing in a monomer-dimer equilibrium with the dimer dissociation constantKD,dim=80.8μM, which suggestedthat self-association was also a feature of Xenopus visual arrestin. Interestingly, homologous mutations (F78A/Y84A/F193A)of Xenopusarrestin, which were supposed to beconstitutive monomers, failed to completely disrupt the oligomerizationof Xenopusarrestinwith the dimer dissociation constantKD,dim=200.7μM , indicating that these regions were not conserved in amphibian visual arrestin, includingXenopuslaevis. The percentage of the dimer was higher than that of monomer at physiological concentrations in all species of arrestins tested.
    • Sense Making Methodology: A Study of the Impact of a New Technology on Banking Culture

      Smith, Daniel J. (2012-12-01)
      The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility that Remote Deposit Capture technology has enhanced productivity and culture at ABC Credit Union. This study used relevant literature as well as qualitative research methodology to investigate how this new technology has changed relationships between financial institution employees and members of the financial institution. More specifically, this qualitative study used a grounded theory concept developed by Glaser and Strauss (Merriam, 2009, pp. 199) to “constantly compare” employees and their productivity and workflow at ABC Credit Union in Upstate, NY. Using interviews, field notes and documents from employees has determined if ABC Credit Union has benefited from the implementation of Remote Deposit Capture. I also performed a coding analysis defined by Corbin & Strauss (Merriam, 2009, pp. 180) as “coding that comes from interpreting and reflection on meaning” to evaluate the responses provided to me by my participants regarding the implementation of Remote Deposit Capture at ABC Credit Union. Remote Deposit Capture technology is the ability to deposit checks directly into your ABC Credit Union account via mobile devices such as an iPhone or Android device. Based on the interviews I have been able to answer the research question: Does the implementation of Remote Deposit Capture enhance the culture at Financial Institutions? If so, how?
    • Separating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disabilities in Girls: A Familial Risk Analysis

      Doyle, Alysa E.; Faraone, Stephen V.; DuPre, Emily P.; Biederman, Joseph (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2001-10)
      Objective: Familial risk analysis was used to clarify the relationship in girls between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities in either mathematics or reading. Method: The authors assessed the presence of ADHD and learning disabilities in 679 first-degree relatives of three groups of index children: girls with ADHD and a comorbid learning disability, girls with ADHD but no learning disabilities, and a comparison group of girls without ADHD. Results: The risk for ADHD was similarly higher in families of ADHD probands with and without learning disabilities; both groups had significantly higher rates of ADHD than did families of the comparison girls. In contrast, only among relatives of ADHD probands with a learning disability was there a higher risk for learning disabilities. A strong (although statistically nonsignificant) difference emerged that suggested at least some degree of cosegregation of ADHD and learning disabilities in family members. There was no evidence of nonrandom mating between spouses with ADHD and learning disabilities. Conclusions: These results extend previously reported findings regarding the relationship of ADHD and learning disabilities to female subjects and raise the possibility that, in girls, the relationship between ADHD and learning disabilities is due to shared familial risk factors.
    • A seq2seq model to forecast the COVID-19 cases, deaths and reproductive R numbers in US counties

      Zhang-James, Yanli; Hess, Jonathan; Salekin, Asif; Wang, Dongliang; Chen, Samuel; Winkelstein, Peter; Morley, Christopher P; Faraone, Stephen V. (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2021-04-20)
      The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has killed almost two million people worldwide and over 400 thousand in the United States (US). As the pandemic evolves, informed policy-making and strategic resource allocation relies on accurate forecasts. To predict the spread of the virus within US counties, we curated an array of county-level demographic and COVID-19-relevant health risk factors. In combination with the county-level case and death numbers curated by John Hopkins university, we developed a forecasting model using deep learning (DL). We implemented an autoencoder-based Seq2Seq model with gated recurrent units (GRUs) in the deep recurrent layers. We trained the model to predict future incident cases, deaths and the reproductive number, R. For most counties, it makes accurate predictions of new incident cases, deaths and R values, up to 30 days in the future. Our framework can also be used to predict other targets that are useful indices for policymaking, for example hospitalization or the occupancy of intensive care units. Our DL framework is publicly available on GitHub and can be adapted for other indices of the COVID-19 spread. We hope that our forecasts and model can help local governments in the continued fight against COVID-19.
    • Shared polygenic risk for ADHD, executive dysfunction and other psychiatric disorders

      Chang, Suhua; Yang, Li; Wang, Yufeng; Faraone, Stephen V. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-06-09)
      Many psychiatric disorders are associated with impaired executive functioning (EF). The associated EF component varies by psychiatric disorders, and this variation might be due to genetic liability. We explored the genetic association between five psychiatric disorders and EF in clinically-recruited attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children using polygenic risk score (PRS) methodology. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data for ADHD, major depressive disorder (MDD), schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BIP) and autism were used to calculate the PRSs. EF was evaluated by the Stroop test for inhibitory control, the trail-making test for cognitive flexibility, and the digital span test for working memory in a Chinese ADHD cohort (n = 1147). Exploratory factor analysis of the three measures identified one principal component for EF (EF-PC). Linear regression models were used to analyze the association between each PRS and the EF measures. The role of EF measures in mediating the effects of the PRSs on ADHD symptoms was also analyzed. The result showed the PRSs for MDD, ADHD and BIP were all significantly associated with the EF-PC. For each EF component, the association results were different for the PRSs of the five psychiatric disorders: the PRSs for ADHD and MDD were associated with inhibitory control (adjusted P = 0.0183 and 0.0313, respectively), the PRS for BIP was associated with working memory (adjusted P = 0.0416), and the PRS for SZ was associated with cognitive flexibility (adjusted P = 0.0335). All three EF measures were significantly correlated with ADHD symptoms. In mediation analyses, the ADHD and MDD PRSs, which were associated with inhibitory control, had significant indirect effects on ADHD symptoms through the mediation of inhibitory control. These findings indicate that the polygenic risks for several psychiatric disorders influence specific executive dysfunction in children with ADHD. The results helped to clarify the relationship between risk genes of each mental disorder and the intermediate cognitive domain, which may further help elucidate the risk genes and motivate efforts to develop EF measures as a diagnostic marker and future treatment target.
    • Short-term binge drinking, marijuana, and recreational drug use trajectories in a prospective cohort of people living with HIV at the start of COVID-19 mitigation efforts in the United States.

      Meanley, Steven; Choi, Seul Ki; Thompson, Azure B; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Adimora, Adaora A; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Cohen, Mardge H; et al. (2021-12-25)
      Background: At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, HIV experts suggested that an increase in mental health diagnoses and substance use among people living with HIV (PLHIV) may be an unintended consequence of COVID-19 mitigation efforts (e.g., limiting social contact). We evaluated short-term trajectories in binge drinking, marijuana, and recreational drug use in a prospective cohort of PLHIV. Methods: Data (N = 2121 PLHIV) consist of survey responses on substance use behaviors from two pre-COVID-19 (October 2018-September 2019) and one COVID-19-era (April 2020-September 2020) timepoints within the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS). We conducted group-based trajectory models, triangulated with generalized linear mixed models, to assess changes in binge drinking, daily marijuana use, and recreational drug use at the start of the pandemic. Controlling for age and race/ethnicity, we tested whether trajectories differed by sex and early-pandemic depressive symptoms, loneliness, and social support. Results: Group-based trajectory models yielded two trajectory groups for binge drinking (none vs. any), marijuana (none/infrequent vs. daily), and recreational drug use (none vs. any). Binge drinking and recreational drug use decreased at the beginning of the pandemic. Generalized linear mixed model supported these trends. Consistent with prior research, male sex and having depressive symptoms early pandemic were positively associated with each substance use outcomes. Social support was inversely associated with recreational drug use. Conclusions: Contrary to hypotheses, problematic substance use behaviors decreased from pre-pandemic to the post-pandemic follow-up in our sample of PLHIV. Ongoing surveillance is needed to assess whether this pattern persists as the pandemic continues.
    • SHP-1-dependent macrophage responses mediate virus-induced myositis and demyelinating disease.

      Massa, Paul; Watson, Neva (2015)
      Regulation of inflammatory immune responses to pathogenic microbial infections is critical for protecting against extensive tissue damage and chronic inflammation. Correspondingly, genes associated with inflammatory immune responses have been identified as potential genetic risk factors for chronic inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). This dissertation will focus on characterizing how the key immune regulator, Src-homology 2 containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), controls virus-induced inflammatory diseases in the central nervous system (CNS) and skeletal muscle. We previously reported that SHP-1 inhibits proinflammatory macrophage-mediated CNS demyelinating disease during Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis (TMEV) infection in mice. Presently, we describe that SHP-1 controls TMEV-induced dystrophic calcification of skeletal muscle. Muscle-infiltrating macrophages displayed a proinflammatory M1-like phenotype and promoted muscle calcification in WT mice, whereas an increased infiltration of macrophages with a reduced M1 signature corresponded with absence of muscle disease in SHP-1-/-mice. These studies reveal SHP-1 as a key regulatory gene mediating CNS and skeletal muscle disease in response to a virus trigger.Proinflammatory macrophages promoted tissue damage in either skeletal muscle of WT mice or CNS of SHP-1-deficient mice following TMEV infection. We thus attempted to determine if SHP-1 activity within macrophages was sufficient to control the outcome of TMEV infection using multiple genetic approaches. However, since these cells have a high turnover rate, and SHP-1 was strongly induced in macrophages by TMEV infection, these approaches were not sufficient to address whether SHP-1 activity specifically within macrophages mediates tissue-specific disease outcomes following TMEV infection. The studies described here suggest that SHP-1 affects macrophage maturation in peripheral (muscle) and immune-privileged (CNS) tissues in opposite ways. However, SHP-1 inhibited inflammatory monocyte CCR2 expression and subsequent infiltration into both of these major sites of infection, indicating that additional environmental cues mediated by SHP-1 are needed to drive tissue-specific maturation of pathogenic M1-like macrophages in either the CNS or muscle, to explain tissue-specific disease outcomes in SHP-1-deficient mice. Thus, this dissertation characterized unique mechanisms by which SHP-1 mediates inflammatory responses to virus infections, and has revealed SHP-1 and proinflammatory M1-like macrophages as essential mediators of myositis and demyelinating CNS disease.
    • Simplified technique for lateral canthal tendon canthopexy.

      Qureshi, Zain; Bernard, Alec; Grisolia, Ana Beatriz D; Jaru-Ampornpan, Pimkwan; Ozgonul, Cem; Demirci, Hakan
      Purpose: Different techniques for lateral canthal suspension have been used in the management of various eyelid malpositions. We describe a simplified technique for lateral canthal suspension and review its outcome along with a review of existing variations. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 28 eyelids in 22 patients who underwent simplified lateral canthal suspension. Demographics, symptoms at presentation, and associated eyelid malposition were noted. We evaluated the palpebral fissure and margin-reflex distance 2 (MRD2) on the preoperative and final postoperative photographs by using MEEI FACE-gram software. We also reviewed existing literature on different surgical management options for comparison. Results: At three-month postoperative follow-up, presenting symptoms resolved in all cases. The average postoperative decease in palpebral fissure was 0.73 mm (P = 0.018) and the average decrease of the MRD2 was 1.02 mm (P = 0.0003). Recurrence occurred by three months in one eyelid (4%) with ectropion due to moderate eyelid laxity, and this case was managed with tarsal strip procedure. One patient (5%) who had bilateral surgery had asymmetric lower eyelid position and one patient (5%) had persistent edema of the operated eyelid for six months. Conclusion: This simplified canthal suspension is a simple and effective technique that tightens the lateral canthal tendon and improves the lower eyelid position. It can be used in various mild-to-moderate eyelid laxities and has favorable operative characteristics compared with many existing techniques.
    • Single-cell profiling of environmental enteropathy reveals signatures of epithelial remodeling and immune activation.

      Kummerlowe, Conner; Mwakamui, Simutanyi; Hughes, Travis K; Mulugeta, Nolawit; Mudenda, Victor; Besa, Ellen; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Shay, Jessica E S; Fleming, Ira; Vukovic, Marko; et al. (2022-08-31)
      Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical condition of the small intestine that is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. It is thought to be a key contributing factor to childhood malnutrition, growth stunting, and diminished oral vaccine responses. Although EE has been shown to be the by-product of a recurrent enteric infection, its full pathophysiology remains unclear. Here, we mapped the cellular and molecular correlates of EE by performing high-throughput, single-cell RNA-sequencing on 33 small intestinal biopsies from 11 adults with EE in Lusaka, Zambia (eight HIV-negative and three HIV-positive), six adults without EE in Boston, United States, and two adults in Durban, South Africa, which we complemented with published data from three additional individuals from the same clinical site. We analyzed previously defined bulk-transcriptomic signatures of reduced villus height and decreased microbial translocation in EE and showed that these signatures may be driven by an increased abundance of surface mucosal cells-a gastric-like subset previously implicated in epithelial repair in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, we determined cell subsets whose fractional abundances associate with EE severity, small intestinal region, and HIV infection. Furthermore, by comparing duodenal EE samples with those from three control cohorts, we identified dysregulated WNT and MAPK signaling in the EE epithelium and increased proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in a T cell subset highly expressing a transcriptional signature of tissue-resident memory cells in the EE cohort. Together, our work elucidates epithelial and immune correlates of EE and nominates cellular and molecular targets for intervention.
    • SipNrate: Mobile Application for New York State Wines

      Choquette, Rebecca E (2015-12)
      It is estimated that 893 million gallons of wine were consumed in 2014, according www.wineinstitute.org, which is an increase of 228 million gallons from ten years ago. In addition mobile phone usage has soared with 90% of American adults owning a cell phone and 50% of those cell phone users, use their phones to download mobile applications, according to the Pew Research Center. Due to increases in both wine consumption and cell phone usage/mobile downloads it showed a clear need for a mobile application to assist consumers in making an informed decision prior to purchasing wine. The prototype was created using mokeupphone.com, a free online tool. Cooley’s theory of Human Centered Design was used during the creation of this mock up to insure that it would be all around user friendly. The mock ups created aide in the understanding of why this mobile application is needed, furthermore this paper explores the need for this mobile application through research in wine consumption, wine marketing and cell phone usage. The protoypes created for this project are embedded as images throughout the paper with clearly labeled image numbers to coincide with the labeling in the paper.
    • Six-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of desipramine for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

      Wilen, T E; Biederman, J; Prince, J; spencer, T J; Faraone, Stephen V.; Warburton, R; Schleifer, D; Harding, M; Linehan, C; Geller, D (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 1996-09)
      O bjective: The factor structures of individual positive and negative symptoms as well as global ratings were examined in a diagnostically heterogeneous group of subjects. Method: Subjects were identified through a clinical and family study of patients with major psychoses at a VA medical center and evaluated with the Scale for the Assessment of N egative Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms. For the examination of global-level factor structures (N =630), both principal-component analysis and factor analysis with orthogonal rotation were used. Factor analysis was used for the examination of item-level factor structures as well (N =549). Results: The principal-component analysis of global ratings revealed three factors: negative symptoms, positive symptoms, and disorganization. The factor analysis of global ratings revealed a negative symptom factor and a positive symptom factor. The itemlevel factor analysis revealed two negative symptom factors (diminished expression and disordered relating), two positive symptom factors (bizarre delusions and auditory hallucinations), and a disorganization factor. Conclusions: The generation of additional meaningful factors at the item level suggests that important information about symptoms is lost when only global ratings are viewed. Future work should explore clinical and pathological correlates of the more differentiated item-level symptom dimensions
    • Smart Technologies in a Technology Classroom: Integration Investigation of Smart board and Smart Notebook into 7-12 Technology Education Classroom

      Owens, Travis H. (2012-04-01)
      The project explores how the different uses of Smart technologies (Smart Board and Smart Notebook) can aide in teaching technology education and address New York State and ITEEA (International Technology and Engineering Educators Association) Standards for Technical Literacy during instruction by the creation of three Smart Notebook documents to be used in a 9-12 grade technology education classroom of 8-14 students. The lengths of the three presentations vary from 10-40 minutes. One presentation is used as a teacher presentation(and student note-taking) tool and demonstrates some of the affordances that Smart Notebook has over using a traditional whiteboard and markers or Microsoft Office Power Point. The second presentation explores interactivity and demonstrates how the interactive whiteboard can be used to increase student participation and motivation in the through the use of games, activities, and interactive websites. Lastly, Smart Notebook is utilized as an assessment tool; allowing the teacher to create questions from multiple resources. The project also covers a review of literature that attempts to explain why Smart Technologies have become so popular and are often credited to improve student learning. The literature review covers a few basic theories of student learning and informational technology and design that explain how content should best be created and structured so it is learner-friendly and effective.
    • Smoking cessation advantage among adult initiators: does it apply to black women?

      Thompson, Azure B; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Messeri, Peter A (2010-11-15)
      Introduction: Smokers who initiate as adults are more likely to quit than those who initiate as adolescents. Black women are more likely than White women to initiate smoking in adulthood and are less likely to quit. There is a paucity of research examining whether the smoking cessation advantage among adult initiators applies to Black women. The study objective is to examine race differences in the effect of developmental stage of smoking initiation on number of years until cessation among Black and White women. Methods: Data were extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a national cohort of women between the ages of 49 and 61 years in 2003. The analytic sample comprised 1,008 White women and 271 Black women with a history of smoking. Survival analysis procedures were utilized to address the study objective. Results: Racial disparities in smoking cessation were most evident among women who initiated smoking as adults. White young adult initiators had a 31% increased hazard of smoking cessation advantage (adjusted hazards ratio [HR]: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04-1.65) over adolescent initiators, whereas Black young adult initiators had no smoking cessation advantage (adjusted HR: 0.85, CI: 95% 0.55-1.30) over adolescent initiators. Conclusions: Prior observations that smoking initiation in adulthood is associated with high rates of cessation do not apply to black women. To contribute to the reduction of disparities in women's cessation efforts to prevent initiation should target young adult women, particularly Black young adult women.
    • Social Media Emoji Analysis, Correlations and Trust Modeling

      Preisendorfer, Matthew; Sengupta, Sam; Adviser; White, Joshua; Adviser; Tekeoglu, Ali; Adviser (2018-01-18)
      Twitter is an ever-growing social-media platform where users post tweets, or small messages, for all of their followers to see and react to. This is old news of course, as the platform first launched over ten years ago. Currently, Twitter handles approximately six thousand new tweets every second, so there is plenty of data to be analyzed. With a character limit of 140 per tweet, emojis are commonly used to express feelings in a tweet without using extra characters that more explaining might use. This is helpful in identifying the mood or state of mind that a person may have been in when writing their tweet. From a computing standpoint, this makes mood analysis much easier. Rather than analyzing a group of words and predicting moods from keywords, we can analyze single (or many) emoji(s), and then match those emojis to commonly expressed emotions and feelings. The objective of this research is to gather large amounts of Twitter data and analyze emojis used to find correlations in societal interactions, and how current events may drive social media interactions and behaviors. By creating topic models for each user and comparing it with the emoji distribution analysis, a trust ”fingerprint” can be created to measure authenticity or genuineness of a given user and/or group of users. The emoji distribution analysis also provides the possibility of demographic predictions. Analysis is not limited to Twitter of course but is used here because the API is free and generally easy to use. This paper aims to prove the validity of emoji analysis as a method of user identification and how their trust models can be used in conjunction with pre-existing models to improve success rates of these models.
    • Socio-psychological mediators of the relationship between behavioral health stigma and psychiatric symptoms.

      Hunter, Bronwyn A; Mohatt, Nathaniel Vincent; Prince, Dana M; Thompson, Azure B; Matlin, Samantha L; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer (2017-03-24)
      The stigma associated with mental illness or addiction is significantly and positively related to psychiatric symptoms. According to Modified Labeling Theory, several processes should mediate this relationship, including rejection experiences, stigma management (secrecy coping), and social support. In the first comprehensive test of this theory, we examined a serial mediation model on three waves of data from 138 adults receiving outpatient behavioral health treatment. Participants were recruited from outpatient behavioral health clinics in a large northeastern city in the United States and completed interviews that assessed stigma, rejection experiences, stigma management, social support, and psychiatric symptoms. There was a direct effect between stigma and psychiatric symptoms and an indirect effect in which perceived rejection, secrecy coping and social support sequentially and longitudinally intervened in the stigma and psychiatric symptom relationship. Higher perceptions of stigma predicted more rejection experiences, which marginally increased secrecy coping and decreased social support. In turn, decreased social support increased psychiatric symptoms. We provide support for Modified Labeling Theory and the clinical utility of specific mediators in the relationship between stigma and psychiatric symptoms among adults in behavioral health treatment living in urban settings.
    • Sociodemographic Characteristics of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Use and Reasons for Nonuse Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men from Three US Cities.

      Kota, Krishna Kiran; Mansergh, Gordon; Stephenson, Rob; Hirshfield, Sabina; Sullivan, Patrick (2021-04-23)
      HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a preventive medication that could reduce new infections among men who have sex with men (MSM). There are limited data on differing reasons for PrEP nonuse by condomless anal sex (CAS). We examined demographic and behavioral variables associated with PrEP use and reasons for PrEP nonuse by CAS. Data are from the M-cubed Study, collected in a 2018 baseline assessment of MSM (n = 798) in Atlanta, Detroit, and New York City. Participants reported current PrEP use (31%), previous use (8%), and never use (61%). MSM reporting CAS [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.60, confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.73-3.91], age 18-29 (aOR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.26-3.52), 30-39 (aOR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.25-3.59), with a college degree (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.20-3.21), or postgraduate education (aOR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.51-4.40) had greater odds of current (vs. never) use; uninsured (aOR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.16-0.57) men had lower odds of current (vs. never) use. For never use, more MSM who reported CAS (vs. did not) endorsed the following reasons (p's < 0.05): Insurance wouldn't cover PrEP (20% vs. 12%), Didn't know where to get it (33% vs. 24%) and fewer reported Didn't need PrEP (23% vs. 39%) and Started a committed relationship (7% vs. 25%). For discontinuation, more MSM who reported CAS (vs. did not) endorsed Worry about the safety of PrEP (19% vs. 3%). Efforts are needed to enhance PrEP as an option among older, less educated, and uninsured MSM. These findings may inform how providers can facilitate PrEP use by messaging on access and safety for MSM who reported CAS.
    • Sodium hydrogen exchanger 9 NHE9 ( SLC9A9 ) and its emerging roles in neuropsychiatric comorbidity

      Patak, Jameson; Faraone, Stephen V.; Zhang‐James, Yanli (Wiley, 2020-05-13)
      Variations in SLC9A9 gene expression and protein function are associated with multiple human diseases, which range from Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to glioblastoma multiforme. In an effort to determine the full spectrum of human disease associations with SLC9A9, we performed a systematic review of the literature. We also review SLC9A9's biochemistry, protein structure, and function, as well as its interacting partners with the goal of identifying mechanisms of disease and druggable targets. We report gaps in the literature regarding the genes function along with consistent trends in disease associations that can be used to further research into treating the respective diseases. We report that SLC9A9 has strong associations with neuropsychiatric diseases and various cancers. Interestingly, we find strong overlap in SLC9A9 disease associations and propose a novel role for SLC9A9 in neuropsychiatric comorbidity. In conclusion, SLC9A9 is a multifunctional protein that, through both its endosome regulatory function and its protein–protein interaction network, has the ability to modulate signaling axes, such as the PI3K pathway, among others.