• IDENTIFICATION OF p53-MEDIATED NEUROGENOMIC RESPONSES TO ETHANOL USING IN VIVO AND IN VITRO MODELS OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDER

      Camargo, Maria (2016)
      Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a serious public health concern affecting 3.6% of the US population. One avenue to achieve a decrease in the prevalence of FASD is for scientific research to identify cellular mechanisms of action of imbibed alcohol and propose solutions to treat or prevent the damage done. Here we present our investigation into the molecular consequences of ethanol exposure in mouse brain cells and mouse neural stem cell cultures. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that p53 mediates the neurogenomic response to ethanol exposure in brain cells in the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus and neural stem cells. p53 is a versatile transcription factor well known for inducing cell death in cancer cells. We identified the apoptosis pathway as being changed in a p53-related manner only in the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus, based on expression changes in Casp2, Cdk1, and Stat1. Overall, the regions interrogated revealed that p53’s cellular response is heterogeneous. In the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus a subset of gene expression changes occurred depending on both ethanol exposure and the presence of p53: Ephb1in layer 2/3; Ctgf in layer 5; Camk1 in layer 6; Cdk1, Casp2, Cdk1, and Stat1 in the CA1; and Camk1 in the DG. In regards to the specific mRNAs that changed, they differed in the brain regions and cell cultures, but we did observe that neuronal and developmental genes were the most significantly changed upon ethanol exposure. In addition, we also identified that the category of genes whose methylation pattern was changed after ethanol exposure are related to basic neuronal functions. Neural cells also appeared to be engaged in a challenging response to ethanol because DNA repair proteins Ercc1, Hus1, and Rad51 alter their DNA binding after ethanol exposure. In addition, we identified that p53 transcription factor changes its DNA binding in response to ethanol exposure. In conclusion, we identified that neural p53 signaling is measurably perturbed by ethanol exposure.
    • Identification of TIMP2 as the first secretory co-chaperone of eHSP90

      Dimitra Bourboulia; Baker-Williams, Alexander J. (2021)
      Heat Shock Protein- 90 (HSP90) is an essential molecular chaperone. HSP90 relies on its intrinsic ATPase activity as well as interactions with co-chaperone proteins to chaperone its clients. HSP90 is also an extracellular protein, performing both a signaling and chaperoning role. Extracellular client, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) relies on HSP90 for its stability. MMP2 mediates extracellular matrix remodeling through its gelatinolytic activity. MMP2 activity is also tightly regulated by its endogenous inhibitor, the Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2). At present how HSP90 performs its chaperoning role in the extracellular matrix is uncertain. In this thesis, I describe that TIMP2 acts as the first bona fide extracellular co-chaperone of eHSP90, and show that TIMP2 is a stress inducible protein. I describe how TIMP2 directly interacts with HSP90, and how TIMP2 decelerates the HSP90 ATPase cycle. TIMP2 also sensitizes HSP90 to both ATP and N-terminal pharmaceuticals. Overall, TIMP2 acts as both a scaffold and a disruptor of the client/chaperone relationship between MMP2 and HSP90, performing both a HSP90 co-chaperone and MMP2 inhibitor role, non-mutually exclusively. The activatory co-chaperone AHA1 competes with TIMP2 for HSP90 binding. TIMP2 and AHA1 are able to form two independent ternary complexes with MMP2 and HSP90; as a result, the TIMP2 complex is MMP2 proteolytically inactive and the AHA1, active. This competition is further described in vivo where it can be inhibited by both _AHA1 antibodies and TIMP2 AHA1 antibodies and TIMP2 exogenous protein treatments, whilst induced following AHA1 protein and _AHA1 antibodies and TIMP2 TIMP2 antibody treatments. Finally, the role of phos-Y-TIMP2 was examined in relation to its interaction with HSP90. To address this, a novel methodology to purify hTIMP2 from E.Coli without previously necessary refolding strategies in a scale-able manner suitable for therapeutic TIMP2 treatments, was developed. Wild type recombinant human TIMP2 and phospho-mutants Y90E, Y90F, and TE (Y62E, Y90E, Y165E) were purified, were inhibitory towards MMP2, and modulated TIMP2 interaction with HSP90. Taken together, I demonstrate how extracellular HSP90 is regulated by co-chaperones to facilitate the chaperoning of pro-invasive client, MMP2. It further shows ways in which we can manipulate this system to promote an inactive MMP2 protease, a key strategy in cancer therapeutics.
    • Image Processing In F#

      Odoi, Kaia; Andriamanalimanana, Bruno; Advisor; Novillo, Jorge; Reviewer; Sengupta, Sam; Reviewer (2017-05-01)
      Image searching is an essential feature of many software applications. Histograms can be used to represent the pixel color intensities of images. Measuring the similarities between images by comparing the histograms can be performed through the use of information-theoretic measures, such as the Kullback-Leibler divergence and cross-entropy. In this project, a query image is selected from a collection of images and it is compared to the other images to determine which image is most similar to the query image. This process is carried out by creating histograms of each image, and then using measures such as the Kullback-Leibler divergence and cross-entropy to compare the histograms. The .NET functional language, F#, is used in the implementation of this project. The C# language, another .NET language, was also used for coding the graphical user interface.
    • The impact of mosquito salivary factors on Chikungunya virus transmission

      Thangamani, Saravanan; Esterly, Allen (2022-08-12)
      Vector-borne diseases affect an estimated 3.9 billion people in over 128 countries annually (WHO, 2017b). Mosquito-borne viruses, such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are transmitted to human hosts through the saliva of female blood-feeding mosquitoes. During blood-feeding, salivary molecules enhance blood-feeding efficiency, dampen specific inflammatory signals, and enhance virus infection and dissemination. Skin is the interface where mosquito salivary molecules and viruses interact with the human immune system. Our long-term goal is to understand the impact of mosquito saliva on the skin and the role of salivary molecules in potentiating virus infection. This thesis aims to model the human skin bite site, identify mosquito salivary molecules present during virus infection, and investigate their impact on virus replication. We developed a human skin arbovirus infection model that was viable for four days ex vivo (Esterly et al., 2022a). Arbovirus infection in human skin ex vivo allowed flavivirus and alphavirus replication and dissemination. Using this model, we will investigate mosquito salivary factors and their impact on virus transmission. Next, we identified mosquito salivary factors highly expressed in Ae. aegypti salivary glands during CHIKV infection. We hypothesize that salivary proteins that contain secretion signals and are found to be highly expressed during CHIKV infection are delivered to the bite site during mosquito feeding. Through a combination of RNA-seq and miRNA-seq analysis, we identified several salivary factors, protein and small non-coding RNAs, which warrant further investigation. Lastly, we assessed the impact of identified and recombinantly expressed proteins or specific small RNA inhibitors on CHIKV replication in vitro relative to Ae. aegypti salivary gland extract (SGE). We found that both protein and small RNAs can influence CHIKV replication in a significant manner; however, the effect observed by mosquito saliva is a combination of multiple factors and will require more investigation to characterize fully. In summary, mosquito salivary factors work in concert to enhance virus replication and dissemination. Although individual factors may not recapitulate the total effect of SGE, the discovery and isolation of these factors further our understanding of arbovirus transmission. These studies highlight the complexity of mosquito salivary secretion and further our knowledge of mosquito-borne virus transmission. The following thesis will describe our most recent findings and contribution to understanding mosquito saliva's role during arbovirus transmission.
    • The impact of outgroup choice and missing data on major seed plant phylogenetics using genome-wide EST data.

      de la Torre-Bárcena, Jose Eduardo; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Lee, Ernest K; Stevenson, Dennis Wm; Brenner, Eric D; Katari, Manpreet S; Coruzzi, Gloria M; DeSalle, Rob (2009-06-02)
      Background: Genome level analyses have enhanced our view of phylogenetics in many areas of the tree of life. With the production of whole genome DNA sequences of hundreds of organisms and large-scale EST databases a large number of candidate genes for inclusion into phylogenetic analysis have become available. In this work, we exploit the burgeoning genomic data being generated for plant genomes to address one of the more important plant phylogenetic questions concerning the hierarchical relationships of the several major seed plant lineages (angiosperms, Cycadales, Gingkoales, Gnetales, and Coniferales), which continues to be a work in progress, despite numerous studies using single, few or several genes and morphology datasets. Although most recent studies support the notion that gymnosperms and angiosperms are monophyletic and sister groups, they differ on the topological arrangements within each major group. Methodology: We exploited the EST database to construct a supermatrix of DNA sequences (over 1,200 concatenated orthologous gene partitions for 17 taxa) to examine non-flowering seed plant relationships. This analysis employed programs that offer rapid and robust orthology determination of novel, short sequences from plant ESTs based on reference seed plant genomes. Our phylogenetic analysis retrieved an unbiased (with respect to gene choice), well-resolved and highly supported phylogenetic hypothesis that was robust to various outgroup combinations. Conclusions: We evaluated character support and the relative contribution of numerous variables (e.g. gene number, missing data, partitioning schemes, taxon sampling and outgroup choice) on tree topology, stability and support metrics. Our results indicate that while missing characters and order of addition of genes to an analysis do not influence branch support, inadequate taxon sampling and limited choice of outgroup(s) can lead to spurious inference of phylogeny when dealing with phylogenomic scale data sets. As expected, support and resolution increases significantly as more informative characters are added, until reaching a threshold, beyond which support metrics stabilize, and the effect of adding conflicting characters is minimized.
    • Impact of Psychometrically Defined Deficits of Executive Functioning in Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

      Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter; Fried, Ronna; Fontanella, Jessie; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Faraone, Stephen V. (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2006-10)
      Objective: The association between deficits in executive functioning and functional outcomes was examined among adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Subjects were adults who did (N=213) and did not (N=145) meet DSMIV criteria for ADHD. The authors defined having deficits in executive functioning as having at least two measures of executive functioning with scores 1.5 standard deviations below those of matched comparison subjects. Results: Significantly more adults with ADHD had deficits of executive functioning than comparison subjects. Deficits of executive functioning were associated with lower academic achievement, irrespective of ADHD status. Subjects with ADHD with deficits of executive functioning had a significantly lower socioeconomic status and a significant functional morbidity beyond the diagnosis of ADHD alone. Conclusions: Psychometrically defined deficits of executive functioning may help identify a subgroup of adults with ADHD at high risk for occupational and academic underachievement. More efforts are needed to identify cost-effective approaches to screen individuals with ADHD for deficits of executive functioning.
    • The Impact of Staff Development on Middle School Technology Integration

      Scalisi, Regina (2005-05-01)
      This case study describes the impact of technology staff development in two Central New York Middle Schools. The staff development program was implemented under the federally funded Enhancing Education Through Technology grant. Teachers and students were studied during a seven-month period as they learned to effectively use computers, Internet resources and available software with their curricula and instruction. The conditions of Change Theory were applied to the study as they relate to the adoption of technology integration.
    • Impact of Tic Disorders on ADHD Outcome Across the Life Cycle: Findings From a Large Group of Adults With and Without ADHD

      Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Mick, Eric; Coffey, Barbara; Geller, Daniel; Kagan, Jake; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Wilens, Timothy (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2001-04)
      Objective: The impact of tic disorders on the outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains a subject of high scientific and clinical interest. To evaluate the impact of comorbid ADHD and tic disorders from a lifespan perspective, the authors systematically examined data from adults with and without ADHD. Method: They comprehensively evaluated 312 consecutively referred adults with ADHD and 252 comparison subjects without ADHD. Tic disorders were characterized along with a wide range of neuropsychiatric correlates, including other comorbid disorders as well as indexes of function in the domains of school, cognition, and interpersonal functioning. Results: A significantly greater proportion of adults with ADHD (12%) than those without ADHD (4%) had tic disorders. Tic disorders followed a mostly remitting course and had little impact on functional capacities. In addition, tic disorders were not associated with stimulant use. Conclusions: These findings in adults with ADHD confirm and extend previous findings in young subjects with ADHD, documenting that although individuals with ADHD are at greater risk for tic disorders, the presence of tic disorders has a limited impact on ADHD outcome.
    • Improving the Performance of Residents in Pediatric Resuscitation with Frequent Simulated Codes.

      Doymaz, Sule; Rizvi, Munaza; Giambruno, Clara (2020-10-30)
      Aim. Exposure to real codes during pediatric residency training is scarce. Consequently, experiencing mock codes scenarios can provide an opportunity to increase residents' confidence and knowledge in managing pediatric emergencies. Hypothesis. Pediatric senior residents perform better as code team leaders if they are exposed to frequent mock codes. Material and Methods. Forty-three pediatric senior residents (postgraduate year [PGY] two and three) participated in the study. Team leader performance was assessed utilizing the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) scoring. Residents' team leadership performance was assessed before and 6 months after the implementation of weekly mock codes. Results. Pediatric residents' team leadership performance in mock codes improved after exposure to weekly practice mock code sessions (71.93 ± 18.50 vs 81.44 ± 11.84, P = 0.01). Conclusion. Increasing the frequency of mock code sessions during residency training led to an improvement in code team leadership performance in pediatric senior residents.
    • An in silico-in vitro pipeline for drug cardiotoxicity screening identifies ionic pro-arrhythmia mechanisms.

      Clark, Alexander P; Wei, Siyu; Kalola, Darshan; Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J (2022-07-24)
      Significant AP prolongation (a pro-arrhythmia marker) was seen in response to quinidine and quinine. The VC protocol identified block of IKr (a source of arrhythmias) by all strong IKr blockers, including cisapride, quinidine and quinine. The protocol also detected block of ICaL by verapamil and Ito by quinidine. Further demonstrating the power of the approach, the VC data uncovered a previously unidentified If block by quinine, which was confirmed with experiments using a HEK-293 expression system and automated patch-clamp.
    • In the Wake of Invasion: Tracing the Historical Biogeography of the South American Cricetid Radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae)

      Leite, Rafael N.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Almeida, Francisca C.; Werneck, Fernanda P.; Rogers, Duke S.; Weksler, Marcelo (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2014-06-25)
      The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) was greatly influenced by the completion of the Isthmus of Panama and impacted the composition of modern faunal assemblages in the Americas. However, the contribution of preceding events has been comparatively less explored, even though early immigrants in the fossil records are evidence for waif dispersals. The cricetid rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae are a classic example of a species-rich South American radiation resulting from an early episode of North American invasion. Here, we provide a temporal and spatial framework to address key aspects of the historical biogeography and diversification of this diverse mammal group by using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA datasets coupled with methods of divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction and comparative phylogenetics. Relaxed-clock time estimates indicate that divergence of the Sigmodontinae began in the middle-late Miocene (ca. 12-9 Ma). Dispersal-vicariance analyses point to the arrival of a single lineage of northern invaders with a widespread ancestral distribution and imply that the initial differentiation between Central and South America gave rise to the most basal groups within the subfamily. These two major clades diversified in the late Miocene followed by the radiation of main tribes until the early Pliocene. Within the Oryzomyalia, tribes diverged initially in eastern South America whereas multiple dispersals into the Andes promoted further diversification of the majority of modern genera. A comparatively uniform background tempo of diversification explains the species richness of sigmodontines across most nodes, except for two akodontine genera with recent increases in diversification rates. The bridging of the Central American seaway and episodes of low sea levels likely facilitated the invasion of South America long before the onset of the post-Isthmian phase of the GABI.
    • In vivo tumor immune microenvironment phenotypes correlate with inflammation and vasculature to predict immunotherapy response.

      Sahu, Aditi; Kose, Kivanc; Kraehenbuehl, Lukas; Byers, Candice; Holland, Aliya; Tembo, Teguru; Santella, Anthony; Alfonso, Anabel; Li, Madison; Cordova, Miguel; et al. (2022-09-09)
      Response to immunotherapies can be variable and unpredictable. Pathology-based phenotyping of tumors into 'hot' and 'cold' is static, relying solely on T-cell infiltration in single-time single-site biopsies, resulting in suboptimal treatment response prediction. Dynamic vascular events (tumor angiogenesis, leukocyte trafficking) within tumor immune microenvironment (TiME) also influence anti-tumor immunity and treatment response. Here, we report dynamic cellular-level TiME phenotyping in vivo that combines inflammation profiles with vascular features through non-invasive reflectance confocal microscopic imaging. In skin cancer patients, we demonstrate three main TiME phenotypes that correlate with gene and protein expression, and response to toll-like receptor agonist immune-therapy. Notably, phenotypes with high inflammation associate with immunostimulatory signatures and those with high vasculature with angiogenic and endothelial anergy signatures. Moreover, phenotypes with high inflammation and low vasculature demonstrate the best treatment response. This non-invasive in vivo phenotyping approach integrating dynamic vasculature with inflammation serves as a reliable predictor of response to topical immune-therapy in patients.
    • Increasing HIV Testing and Viral Suppression via Stigma Reduction in a Social Networking Mobile Health Intervention Among Black and Latinx Young Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex With Men (HealthMpowerment): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

      Muessig, Kathryn Elizabeth; Golinkoff, Jesse M; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Rochelle, Aimee E; Mulawa, Marta I; Hirshfield, Sabina; Rosengren, A Lina; Aryal, Subhash; Buckner, Nickie; Wilson, M Skye; et al. (2020-12-16)
      Background: Stigma and discrimination related to sexuality, race, ethnicity, and HIV status negatively impact HIV testing, engagement in care, and consistent viral suppression (VS) among young Black and Latinx men who have sex with men and transgender women who have sex with men (YBLMT). Few interventions address the effects of intersectional stigma among youth living with HIV and those at risk for HIV within the same virtual space. Objective: Building on the success of the HealthMpowerment (HMP) mobile health (mHealth) intervention (HMP 1.0) and with the input of a youth advisory board, HMP 2.0 is an app-based intervention that promotes user-generated content and social support to reduce intersectional stigma and improve HIV-related outcomes among YBLMT. The primary objective of this study is to test whether participants randomized to HMP 2.0 report improvement in HIV prevention and care continuum outcomes compared with an information-only control arm. We will also explore whether participant engagement, as measured by paradata (data collected as users interact with an mHealth intervention, eg, time spent using the intervention), mediates stigma- and HIV care-related outcomes. Finally, we will assess whether changes in intersectional stigma and improvements in HIV care continuum outcomes vary across different types of social networks formed within the intervention study arms. Methods: We will enroll 1050 YBLMT aged 15 to 29 years affected by HIV across the United States. Using an HIV-status stratified, randomized trial design, participants will be randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 app-based conditions (information-only app-based control arm, a researcher-created network arm of HMP 2.0, or a peer-referred network arm of HMP 2.0). Behavioral assessments will occur at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. For participants living with HIV, self-collected biomarkers (viral load) are scheduled for baseline, 6, and 12 months. For HIV-negative participants, up to 3 HIV self-testing kits will be available during the study period. Results: Research activities began in September 2018 and are ongoing. The University of Pennsylvania is the central institutional review board for this study (protocol #829805) with institutional reliance agreements with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Duke University, and SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University. Study recruitment began on July 20, 2020. A total of 205 participants have been enrolled as of November 20, 2020. Conclusions: Among a large sample of US-based YBLMT, this study will assess whether HMP 2.0, an app-based intervention designed to ameliorate stigma and its negative sequelae, can increase routine HIV testing among HIV-negative participants and consistent VS among participants living with HIV. If efficacious and brought to scale, this intervention has the potential to significantly impact the disproportionate burden of HIV among YBLMT in the United States. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03678181; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT03678181. International registered report identifier (irrid): DERR1-10.2196/24043.
    • The Influence of College Web Sites on the College Selection Process

      Basi Raab, Maryrose (2005-12-01)
      This case study examines the use and influence of college web sites by high school seniors as they move through the college selection process through interviews, directed observations, and focus groups. It discovers and describes the different ways that web sites are used by this bounded group. As a part of the study, the re-designed web site at SUNY Institute of Technology is critiqued and analyzed by respondents. Enhancements are proposed based on the research to increase the effectiveness of the site in its appeal to prospective high school students. The theories of Human-Centered Design and Contextual Design are described and applied to this case study.
    • Influence of Gender on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Referred to a Psychiatric Clinic

      Biederman, Joseph; Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Braaten, Ellen; Doyle, Alysa; Spencer, Thomas; Wilens, Timothy E.; Frazier, Elizabeth; Johnson, Mary Ann (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2002-01)
      Objective: The substantial discrepancy in the male-to-female ratio between clinic-referred (10 to 1) and community (3 to 1) samples of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests that gender differences may be operant in the phenotypic expression of ADHD. In this study the authors systematically examined the impact of gender on the clinical features of ADHD in a group of children referred to a clinic. Method: The study included 140 boys and 140 girls with ADHD and 120 boys and 122 girls without ADHD as comparison subjects. All subjects were systematically assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and neuropsychological batteries for subtypes of ADHD as well as emotional, school, intellectual, interpersonal, and family functioning. Results: Girls with ADHD were more likely than boys to have the predominantly inattentive type of ADHD, less likely to have a learning disability, and less likely to manifest problems in school or in their spare time. In addition, girls with ADHD were at less risk for comorbid major depression, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder than boys with ADHD. A statistically significant gender-by-ADHD interaction was identified for comorbid substance use disorders as well. Conclusions: The lower likelihood for girls to manifest psychiatric, cognitive, and functional impairment than boys could result in gender-based referral bias unfavorable to girls with ADHD
    • The influence of genes on “positive valence systems” constructs: A systematic review

      Hess, Jonathan L.; Kawaguchi, Daniel M.; Wagner, Kayla E.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J. (Wiley, 2015-09-14)
      The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Influence of Parental SUD and ADHD on ADHD in their Offspring: Preliminary Results from a Pilot-controlled Family Study

      Wilens, Timothy E.; Hahesy, Amy L.; Biederman, Joseph; Bredin, Elizabeth; Tanguay, Sarah; Kwon, Anne; Faraone, Stephen V. (Wiley, 2005-03)
      As part of a pilot-controlled family-based study of the children of parents with and without substance use disorders (SUD), the influence of parental SUD and ADHD on the risk for ADHD in offspring was evaluated. Using structured psychiatric interviews, 96 families (183 youth; mean age 11.6 years) were assessed. To evaluate the effect of parental ADHD and SUD, the offspring were stratified into four groups based on parental status: children of parents with neither ADHD nor SUD, children of parents with SUD only, children of parents with ADHD only, and children of parents with both ADHD and SUD. Using generalized estimating equation models, parental SUD and ADHD were used to predict ADHD in the offspring. The rate of children with ADHD increased among children of parents with neither disorder (3%), children of parents with SUD (13%), children of parents with ADHD (25%), and children of parents with both ADHD and SUD (50%) (p ¼ :001). Children of parents with ADHD or ADHD plus SUD were more likely to have ADHD in comparison to children of parents with neither diagnosis (p < 0:05). Children of parents with ADHD plus SUD were at greater risk of ADHD in comparison to children of parents with SUD only (p ¼ 0:01). Despite the small sample size, the results of this study seem to suggest that the offspring of SUD or ADHD parents are at elevated risk for ADHD compared to controls. The offspring of parents with both ADHD and SUD appear to be at the highest risk for ADHD, highlighting the need for careful screening of this group of youth for ADHD. Replication studies clarifying the nature and strength of the association are necessary.
    • The Influence of the DVD format on the College Selection Process

      Lanagan, Douglas F (2011-01-01)
      This case study centers on the role of the DVD format in regards to the decision making process about selecting a college. This study centers on the possible role that a DVD could play in that selection process, and what features an effective DVD might include in order to play a role in that decision. A Pilot DVD was produced for recruitment purposes in the Radio-Television Broadcasting program at a small upstate New York community college. Qualitative interviews were conducted with administrators, Admissions staff, prospective, current, and future students.Surveys were also conducted, both in person and online. The production process and distribution of the DVD is described, and the role of the DVD in the decision making process for selecting a college was examined. The evolution of Web 2.0 technologies was also taken into account. The research indicates that the DVD format was useful to students in their decision making process regarding enrolling in the program. It was also determined in this case study that the impact of the DVD alone, when considered against all other media used in college recruitment and decision making, was difficult to ascertain.