• E-Learning Electricity A Web-Based Training System: Applied to Teaching the Fundamentals and Function of Electrical Theory as it relates to Direct Current Automotive Circuits

      Stam, Kathryn; Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Vair, William Scott (2019-08)
      The purpose of this thesis project is to create a proposal for a new e-learning program that would span the gap between the theoretical and real-world application of electrical theory as it relates to automotive direct current circuits. This proposed e-learning program will currently be focused on the subject of automotive direct current circuits, but is considered scalable for other subjects in the future. The application of this proposed e-learning program is to be used by learners as a resource to help deepen their knowledge through active learning and subject mastery. Active learning and subject mastery are be achieved by utilizing simulation and gamification as a means of engaging and motivating the learner. This will be accomplished within this proposed e-learning program by implementing the principles of Piaget’s Theory of Constructivism, Jerome Bruner’s Theory of Discovery Learning and Bloom & Carroll’s Theory of Mastery of Learning (Bates, 2016). This proposal also includes design mockups for the homepage, interactive activities, learning games and an assessment quiz. It is my intention to someday see this proposed e-learning program become a reality and be implemented for the future enhancement of education and the edification of learners.
    • E-Learning: How Constructivist Learning Theory Guides Module Learning

      Cannarelli, Gabriella; Kahn, Russell; Advisor; Schneider, Steven; Reviewer (2016-12-01)
      This paper will review the theory behind constructivism and how it connects to module based e-learning. Social and cognitive constructivism have similar views, but they are very different. Constructivism calls for a student to learn based off of previous experiences and building on that knowledge to make new assumptions. People argue the effectiveness of module learning, but many find it to be the up and coming way of learning. Technology usage is getting greater and greater all the time so why not shift how we do education? e-learning is the way of the future. Learning modules utilizing learning management systems offer a direct route to both successful learning, but also connects to the theory around constructivism.
    • E-Orientation for Clinton Community College

      Aubrey, Jessica (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 2019-05)
      Clinton Community College has faced continued declining enrollments for the last five years, resulting in the College’s active pursuit of proven student retention mechanisms to assist with enrollment stabilization. The College has decided to create an online orientation module in Moodle to improve the “new student experience” and support a smooth onboarding process that effectively provides students with information critical to their success as well as aids in their ability to better navigate the college experience. In addition, the college seeks to encourage student self-awareness, learning skills and familiarity with the online learning platform. These intentionally designed interactions delivered via an E-orientation model that employs scholarly proven information design, constructivist and social constructivist theories will ensure the College’s new E-Orientation will foster student success and retention.
    • Early administration of terbutaline in severe pediatric asthma may reduce incidence of acute respiratory failure.

      Doymaz, Sule; Schneider, James; Sagy, Mayer (2014-01-25)
      Background: Severe pediatric asthma, if not immediately and aggressively treated, may progress to acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Intravenous (IV) terbutaline, a β2 agonist, is dispensed when the initial treatment does not improve the clinical condition. Objective: To investigate the influence of early initiation of IV terbutaline on the incidence of acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in severe pediatric asthma. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 120 subjects (35 patients from an outside hospital emergency department [ED] with late start of terbutaline and 85 patients from the authors' hospital ED with early initiation of IV terbutaline) admitted to the PICU with severe asthma treated with continuous IV terbutaline. Responses to terbutaline treatment and outcomes were evaluated. Results: Patients transported from outlying hospital EDs had shorter pre-PICU mean durations of IV terbutaline than those transferred from the authors' ED (0.69 ± 1.38 and 2.91 ± 2.47 hours, respectively, P = .001). Twenty-one of 35 patients (60%) from outlying EDs required mechanical ventilation compared with 14 of 85 patients (16%) from the authors' ED (P = .001). Durations of pre-PICU terbutaline infusion for patients requiring mechanical ventilation were significantly shorter than those with no such requirement (P = .015). Conclusion: The results of the present study, conducted in the largest number of subjects to date, suggest that early administration of continuous terbutaline in the ED may decrease acute respiratory failure and the need for mechanical respiratory (invasive and noninvasive) support in severe pediatric asthma.
    • Early patient satisfaction following orthopaedic surgery.

      Howard, Bailey; Aneizi, Ali; Nadarajah, Vidushan; Sajak, Patrick M J; Ventimiglia, Dominic J; Burt, Cameran I; Zhan, Min; Akabudike, Ngozi M; Henn, R Frank (2020-06-27)
      Background: The healthcare industry is shifting its focus from traditional clinical outcome measures to patient satisfaction metrics. This change has caused orthopaedic surgeons to become increasingly interested in factors influencing patient satisfaction, which would allow them to potentially modify these factors in an effort to increase postoperative satisfaction. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with patient satisfaction two weeks following extremity orthopaedic surgery. Methods: Patients completed questionnaires preoperatively to assess demographics, activity, pain, expectations, and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) computer adaptive testing for Physical Function, Pain Interference, Social Satisfaction, Depression, Anxiety, and Fatigue. Two weeks after their operation, patients completed the same questionnaires in addition to an Improvement Survey and Met Expectations. Satisfaction was assessed with the Surgical Satisfaction Questionnaire. Results: Greater surgical satisfaction two weeks following orthopaedic surgery was associated with higher education, alcohol use, better scores on all PROMIS domains at baseline and two weeks, greater activity levels at baseline and two weeks, less bodily pain at baseline and two weeks, less pain in the surgical site at two weeks, greater met expectations, and greater improvement (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study provides important information about patient satisfaction two weeks after orthopaedic surgery.
    • Early Sexual Experiences, Mental Health, and Risk Behavior among Black Non-Hispanic and Hispanic / Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM).

      Downing, Martin J; Benoit, Ellen; Brown, Dominique; Coe, Lauren; Hirshfield, Sabina; Pansulla, Louis; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex (2019-11-07)
      Black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Investigating these histories is often confounded by underreporting and varied definitions of abuse. Unrecognized abuse may manifest in unhealthy ways, specifically psychological distress, substance use, and high-risk sexual behaviors. Black and Hispanic/Latino MSM in New York City discussed formative sexual experiences in in-person interviews. Eligible men reported a sexual experience occurring before age 16 with a man or woman 18 or older at the time. Among interviewees (n = 61), men living with HIV were significantly younger at the time of their first sexual experience with a male partner compared to HIV-negative men. Approximately half of interviewees (47.5%) scored at or above the diagnostic cutoff for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Hispanic/Latino men had increased odds of scoring at or above the diagnostic cutoff for PTSD compared to Black non-Hispanic men. Further, nearly half of interviewees (46%) scored at or above the diagnostic cutoff for harmful drug use or possible drug dependence. Study findings have implications for future research using an indirect approach to uncovering potential sexual abuse during childhood, and associations with adult health outcomes.
    • Ecommerce for a Mid-Sized Medical Device Company: A Consultant's Report Approach

      Hamilton, Dan (2017-12)
      The medical device industry generates hundreds of billions of dollars in revenue every year. While the supply chain of some healthcare institutions runs with optimum efficiency through supply chain management (SCM) systems such an Infor Lawson, others are not always managed in such a fashion. These less efficient supply chains tend to be those of smaller facilities and standalone doctor offices that do not participate in the larger Group Purchasing Organizations (GPOs) that offer the supply chain efficiency, discounts, and economies of scale enjoyed by larger institutions (Jayaraman et al., 2014). Many companies, except for the largest players in the field such as Bard, Cook, and Boston Scientific to name a few, are still operating their medical device sales to these smaller practices with phone calls, fax machines, and email. This practice of manual salesmanship can be time consuming, expensive, and labor intensive. But it doesn’t have to be. For this project, I will focus on an actual mid-sized company in the medical device industry (referred to in this report as “Med Dev Company”) that pulls in roughly $400 million in annual revenue. The company is positioned to increase revenue over the coming years, but could use a process that streamlines orders for some of its products, especially those for its smaller customers. Med Dev Company sells a variety of medical devices, from simple disposable syringes and suture retention devices, to implantable catheters, to large surgical machines that require a high level of proficiency to operate. While not all of these products are able to be sold online through an ecommerce portal, many that are considered to be disposable, near the end of their product life-cycle, or tried and true “commodity” items, could certainly be sold via an ecommerce portal with ease. In a healthcare environment where device purchasing costs are often the difference between a clinic staying open or closing its doors for good, efficient and cost-effective management of device procurement is vital (Jayaraman, et al. 2014). My goal for this project is to identify how the current sales process works at the Med Dev Company and the medical device industry in general, identify some key players in the medical device industry who operate in an ecommerce marketplace efficiently, assess the benefit and risks of ecommerce, and propose whether or not Med Dev Company should develop its own ecommerce environment for the appropriate products and customers. I will not be creating an actual ecommerce site for this project, however. The final output will instead take the shape of a consultant’s report to Med Dev Company, as well as an accompanying slide deck.
    • An Educational Website on Copyright Law and Remix Art

      Bugyi, John P (2013-12-01)
      Technological developments have led to various types of information (i.e., art, music, ideas, etc) that can be spread widely throughout the web for people to view, use, and share. The growth of technology and its capabilities has led to the popularity of remix art. Legal debate, however, has also increased as copyright law and the fair use doctrine has not grown at the same rate as technology. In this thesis paper and web design project, I present my research on remix art, copyright law, the fair use doctrine, and the effects of each. In the paper, I provide an overview of each topic. I also discuss how a website can be used as an engaging learning tool, how information architecture can create a responsive and accessible website, how the human-centered design theory promotes learning, and how the effectiveness of a website as a learning tool can be measured. I designed my website to be an online learning tool for undergraduate students so that they may better understand how to use and create legal remix art. The research used in this paper and website have been limited to examples of remix art, basic guidelines for legal remix art, court case examples, and the creative commons. My website is based on a human-centered design approach and other multimedia design methods that parallel the topic of remix art through the use of wikis, polls, and quizzes. A list of references was also included to guide and promote further study on the topic, as this paper and website was designed to give an overview of the topics rather than to provide legal advice. I prepared this thesis paper and website project by considering the content, target population, and design theories individually and as interacting factors.
    • Effectiveness and Tolerability of Tomoxetine in Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

      Spencer, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Wilens, Timothy; Prince, Jeffry; Hatch, Mary; Jones, Janice; Harding, Margaret; Faraone, Stephen V.; Seidman, Larry (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 1998-05)
      Objective: The authors assessed the experimental noradrenergic compound tomoxetine as an alternative treatment for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: They conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of tomoxetine in 22 adults with well-characterized ADHD. Results: Treatment with tomoxetine at an average oral dose of 76 mg/day was well tolerated. Drug-specific improvement in ADHD symptoms was highly significant overall and sufficiently robust to be detectable in a parallel-groups comparison restricted to the first 3 weeks of the protocol. Eleven of 21 patients showed improvement after receiving tomoxetine, compared with only two of 21 patients who improved after receiving placebo. Significant tomoxetine-associated improvement was noted on neuropsychological measures of inhibitory capacity from Stroop tests. Conclusions: This preliminary study showed that tomoxetine was effective in treating adult ADHD and was well tolerated. These promising results provide support for further studies of tomoxetine over an extended period of treatment.
    • Effectiveness of Disseminating the Migrant Clinician’s Reference Manual Online

      Hawkes, Lynae (2009-05-01)
      Migrant and seasonal farmwokers are a socially disadvantaged population, working in the Nation’s most dangerous industry. Due to social isolation, cultural and linguistic barriers, coupled with a hazardous work environment, this population is thought to be at increased risk for work-related health problems. The primary sources of healthcare for farmworkers are federally funded migrant health programs located in highly agricultural areas throughout the United States. However, studies show that healthcare providers are ill-equipped to properly diagnosis and treat this patient population. A clinic resource was developed to meet the needs of those serving farmworkers in the Northeast. This case study evaluates the effectiveness of disseminating this resource on the World Wide Web. The migrant health center environment and prior Internet usage were of particular interest. Application of the Sense Making theory suggests critical gaps exist in the health literacy of migrant and seasonal farmworkers, wherein the migrant health reference manual serves as a bridge between provider and patient. Findings further suggest that the manual has a positive impact on patient care by addressing six focus areas of the Health People 2010 Health Literacy Initiative (USDHHS, 2000, p29): 1) Access to Quality Health Services 2) Arthritis, Osteoporosis, and Chronic Back Conditions 3) Environmental Health 4) Health Communication 5) Occupational Safety and Health 6) Public Health Infrastructure
    • Effects Of Correcting Fixation Disparity On Digital Eye Strain

      Saksena, Sanjana (2022-04-20)
      Digital Eye Strain (DES) is a widespread and highly prevalent condition whose incidence appears to be rising during the present pandemic. It comprises a range of visual and ocular symptoms which occur after viewing a digital screen for an extended period of time. Previous work from our laboratory has shown the magnitude of fixation disparity to be the only clinical parameter that is significantly correlated with DES symptoms. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether correcting the underlying fixation disparity will significantly reduce DES symptoms. Thirty young, visually-normal students were required to read randomly generated words from a digital tablet device for 20 minutes. Three different trials were performed, with the subject wearing either: (i) the prism that corrected their fixation disparity, (ii) the same magnitude of prism as for condition (i) but with the opposite base direction or (iii) a near addition lens that corrected the fixation disparity. Immediately after the reading task, subjects rated their ocular and visual symptoms on a questionnaire. There was no significant difference between the mean symptom scores for the three conditions. However, this may be due, in part, to the small number of subjects encountered with large values of fixation disparity. Future studies should further examine the range of oculomotor responses associated with DES in order to provide appropriate treatment options.
    • The Effects of Facebook Images on Women’s Self-Esteem and Body Image

      PladoCostante, MaryMargaret (2013-05-01)
      This project looked at the effects Facebook images have on women’s self-esteem and body image. Previous studies have shown how women are negatively effected by the images they are presented with in the media by way of magazines and television. Therefore, with this study my goal was to see if the same was held true through social media such as Facebook. For this project I analyzed Elle, Glamour and Vogue’s Facebook pages. In particular I analyzed 40 images of women on each of their Facebook pages. From there I wanted to find if the number of likes the images received were related to how sexualized the women were in each of the images. Through this study I found that highly sexualized images do receive more likes than images that were less sexualized. This conclusion supported by hypothesis. In addition, the following study shows how marketing and advertising has not changed as technology has advanced. Even through social media, women are constantly being exposed to images that can have a negative impact on them in a variety of ways.
    • EFFECTS OF FOCAL SEGMENTAL GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS-ASSOCIATED MUTATIONS ON MYOSIN 1E LOCALIZATION AND ACTIVITY

      Krendel, Mira; Karchin, Jing Bi (2015)
      Our lab has discovered that an actin-dependent molecular motor called Myosin 1e (Myo1e) is required for maintaining normal morphology and function in vivo of podocytes, a specialized epithelial cell in the kidney. We have found that Myo1e-null mice develop proteinuria, and mutations in the MYO1E gene, including missense mutations A159P and T119I, and nonsense mutation Y695X, have been identified in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), a primary kidney disease that often leads to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Based on these findings, we have proposed that Myo1e and especially its motor domain, plays a key role in regulating actin cytoskeleton organization in kidney podocytes. To study Myo1e activity at the junctions, we have used cell culture systems. We confirmed that Myo1e is a component of the podocyte slit diaphragm using glomerular fractionation assay and immune-gold labeling electron microscopy. Disruption of Myo1e motor activity by point mutation (A159P) completely disrupted Myo1e cellular localization and led to defective actin assembly at nascent cell-cell contacts. Domain mapping experiments in MDCK cells have suggested that the Myo1e TH2 domain is necessary, but not sufficient for its localization, but addition of the TH1 domain restores its localization to junctions. We have also found that the Myo1e SH3 domain interacts with ZO-1, a slit diaphragm and tight junction protein, in invitro pulldown assays, which might contribute to ZO-1 exchange activity at the junctions. Another FSGS-associated Myo1e motor domain mutation (T119I) also caused mis-localization of Myo1e in the cultured mouse podocytes, suggesting loss-of-function of the motor domain mutants. We have also shown that ZO-1 is not recruited to the nascent cell-cell contacts at the same time with the Myo1e T119I mutants. Finally, by using fission yeast as a model system, we have demonstrated that human kidney disease-associated mutations in fission yeast caused defects in yeast growth and endocytosis processes. Interestingly, after analyzing the colocalization patterns between the FSGS-associated Myo1 mutants and Chaperone Rng3, we have proposed that these two kidney disease-associated mutants likely possess different disease-causing mechanisms.Above all, we have concluded that Myo1e motor domain plays an important role in its localization and activity in podocyte actin cytoskeleton, which might be the link to the disease mechanism of FSGS at the molecular level.
    • Effects of Rab4A Mutations on Mouse Behavior, mTORC1 Activity,and Surface 8Receptor/TransporterRecycling

      Perl, Andras; Winans, Thomas C (2020-10-03)
      Through studying endosomal regulation, I found that a single amino acid 47mutation (Q72L) in the Rab4A gene leads to neurological disorders in two separate 48mouse strains. In the C57Bl/6 (SLE(WT)) background,I found thatknock-in the 49Rab4A gene leads to hyperactivity, which resembles both autism spectrum 50disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). On a lupus-51prone background (SLE(1.2.3)) I found thatthe same mutation led to hypoactivity, 52which indicates a more severe neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus 53(NPSLE) than SLE(1.2.3)mice with wild type Rab4A.54The same mice were studied in chapter two, where mTORC1 activity was 55confirmed to be elevated in CD4+ T cells when Rab4A was knocked-in (Rab4A(KI))56compared to Rab4A(WT) cells.In young mouse brains prior to disease onset, I found57increases of mTORC1 and oxidative stress in Rab4A(KI) brains relative to 58Rab4A(WT) brains. In the same brains, there was also a depletion of GLUT1 and 59IFNGR1.Many of these changes were absent in the adult mice, after disease had 60developed.61SLE(1.2.3) mice with the three Rab4A alleleswere treated withrapamycin or 62NAC,and brains were collected.In these brains, there wasevidence that the 63hypoactive Rab4A(KI) SLE(1.2.3) had lower mTORC1 activity than Rab4A(WT) and 64Rab4A(KO) mice.This finding indicatesdepression, which is a pattern seen in major 65depressive disorder(MDD). Depression is also a symptoms of NPSLE. Interestingly, 66rapamycin increased mTORC1 activity in theRab4A(KI)brains compared Rab4A(KI) 67mice treated with vehicle, indicating a positive effect from the drug.
    • THE EFFECTS OF VARYING ACTIN AND CAPPING PROTEIN CONCENTRATIONS ON ACTIN PATCH DYNAMICS IN FISSION YEAST

      Sirotkin; Plante, Kyle (2015)
      Actin assembly into structures called endocytic actin patches is directly responsible for driving endocytic invagination and internalization. We tested the predictions made from the mathematical modeling of the Dendritic Nucleation Model of actin assembly at sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in fission yeast (Berro et al.; Sirotkin et al., 2010). The model predicts that increasing the concentration of cytoplasmic actin or deleting capping protein will cause an increase in the extent and the rate of actin assembly in actin patches. Conversely, the model predicts that increasing the concentration of capping protein or decreasing the actin concentration will cause a decrease in the extent and the rate of actin assembly in actin patches. To test these predictions, we used the actin cross-linking protein, fimbrin Fim1 tagged with a fluorescent protein to measure actin patch dynamics in strains that over- or under-express actin, over-express capping protein, or have deletions of the two capping protein genes. In contrast to model predictions, we found that manipulating capping protein concentrations did not have a significant effect on the extent of actin patch assembly and affected the rates of assembly to a lesser degree than expected from the model, suggesting that capping protein is not the only factor that limits actin patch assembly. Surprisingly, changes in the concentration of actin resulted in changes in the number of patches in a cell, suggesting that the concentration of actin is more important in controlling the initiation of new patches rather than in patch assembly. Through studying the biochemical pathway of actin assembly directly in living cells, we were able to gain insights into previously under-appreciated aspects of the mechanism of actin assembly at the sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
    • Efficacy of MyPEEPS Mobile, an HIV Prevention Intervention Using Mobile Technology, on Reducing Sexual Risk Among Same-Sex Attracted Adolescent Males: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

      Schnall, Rebecca; Kuhns, Lisa M; Pearson, Cynthia; Batey, D Scott; Bruce, Josh; Hidalgo, Marco A; Hirshfield, Sabina; Janulis, Patrick; Jia, Haomiao; Radix, Asa; et al. (2022-09-01)
      Importance: HIV transmission rates in the United States have increased among men who have sex with men. However, there are no published randomized trials examining interventions to reduce sexual risk for HIV acquisition in males younger than 18 years. Objective: To determine the efficacy of MyPEEPS Mobile, a mobile-delivered HIV prevention intervention, to reduce sexual risk behavior in same-sex attracted young males. Design, setting, and participants: This was a national randomized clinical trial of the efficacy MyPEEPS Mobile vs a delayed intervention among males aged 13 to 18 years to prevent or reduce sexual risk for HIV acquisition. Study activities were completed through 4 study sites in Birmingham, Alabama; New York, New York; Seattle, Washington; and Chicago, Illinois. Study staff at each site met with participants in person or via video conferencing. Data were collected from June 1, 2018, to April 7, 2020, and analyzed from July to October 2021. Interventions: The MyPEEPS Mobile intervention contains 21 online psychoeducational and skill-building modules, which participants completed over a 3-month period. Participants randomized to the intervention group received access to MyPEEPS Mobile for the first 3 months, while those randomized to the delayed intervention group received access at their 9-month visit after data for the primary efficacy analysis had been collected. Main outcomes and measures: The self-reported primary outcome was change in the number of condomless anal sex acts between study conditions. Secondary outcomes were change in the number of sex partners, number of condomless anal sex partners, the number of sex acts while under the influence of substances, preexposure prophylactic uptake, nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis use, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection testing. Results: In the analytic sample of 763 racially and ethnically diverse study participants, the mean (SD) age was 16.2 (1.4) years; 736 participants (97%) were male, 13 (2%) nonbinary; and 6 (1%) genderqueer; 158 (21%) were Black or African American, 311 (41%) were Hispanic or Latino, and 284 (37%) were White. Overall, 382 were randomized to the intervention group and 381 to the delayed intervention group. At 3-month follow-up, there was a significant reduction in the number of condomless anal sex acts in the intervention group compared with the delayed intervention group (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.56; 95% CI, 0.32-0.99); however, there was no significant difference between groups at 6 or 9 months. In subgroup analyses, the intervention effect was pronounced among Black non-Hispanic participants at 3-month follow-up (IRR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.94) and 6-month follow-up (IRR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.78) compared with the delayed intervention group. There were no significant differences in the change in the number of sex partners, number of condomless anal sex partners, the number of sex acts while under the influence of substances, preexposure prophylactic uptake, nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis use, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection testing between the intervention and delayed intervention groups. Conclusions and relevance: In this study, the MyPEEPS Mobile intervention demonstrated a 44% overall reduction in condomless anal sex at 3-month follow-up compared with the delayed intervention group, but not at 6 or 9 months. To our knowledge, MyPEEPS Mobile is the first intervention to demonstrate evidence of short-term efficacy for reducing sexual risk among same-sex attracted young males.
    • The Efficacy of Screencasting Technology in the Classroom.

      Fancett-Stooks, Daniel J. (2012-05-01)
      A study that investigates the efficacy of screencasts. As a tool used for instruction, screencasting can be significant in reaching out to broader ranges of learners in the classroom. Through the utilization of the screencast, the teacher can work towards compartmentalizing instruction and create a repository of lessons. This repository of screencasts can assist in present and future curriculum and lesson development. By having these screencasts available to the student, the teacher can provide a more one-toone instructional setting that will help raise the comprehension and understanding of the content that is being demonstrated.
    • Electronic Text Displays: Reading Rehabilitation of Low Vision Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Aquilante, K. (SUNY College of Optometry, 2003-03-23)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate whether reading performance, measured in words per minute, improved during an hour of within-session practice. The reading methods were three computer-generated presentations including (1) MNREAD, a modified page format, (2) RSVP, which presents one word at a time, and (3) SCROLL, where text pans from right to left across a screen. Forty-five young readers with normal vision, forty-five elder readers with normal vision, and forty-five readers with low vision due to age-related macular degeneration read by one of these methods. None of the participants had previous experience reading with MNREAD, RSVP of SCROLL. There was little evidence that within-session practice improved performance. Only 10 of 135 participants had modest reading rate gains, and there was no statistical difference between reading method or subject group for this small subset of readers.
    • Elevated substitution rates estimated from ancient DNA sequences.

      Ho, Simon Y W; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Allaby, Robin G
      Ancient DNA sequences are able to offer valuable insights into molecular evolutionary processes, which are not directly accessible via modern DNA. They are particularly suitable for the estimation of substitution rates because their ages provide calibrating information in phylogenetic analyses, circumventing the difficult task of choosing independent calibration points. The substitution rates obtained from such datasets have typically been high, falling between the rates estimated from pedigrees and species phylogenies. Many of these estimates have been made using a Bayesian phylogenetic method that explicitly accommodates heterochronous data. Stimulated by recent criticism of this method, we present a comprehensive simulation study that validates its performance. For datasets of moderate size, it produces accurate estimates of rates, while appearing robust to assumptions about demographic history. We then analyse a large collection of 749 ancient and 727 modern DNA sequences from 19 species of animals, plants and bacteria. Our new estimates confirm that the substitution rates estimated from ancient DNA sequences are elevated above long-term phylogenetic levels.
    • Emergence of the Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain USA300 Coincides with Horizontal Transfer of the Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element and speG-mediated Adaptations for Survival on Skin

      Planet, Paul J.; LaRussa, Samuel J.; Dana, Ali; Smith, Hannah; Xu, Amy; Ryan, Chanelle; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Boundy, Sam; Goldberg, Julia; Narechania, Apurva; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2013-12-31)
      The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is the largest genomic region distinguishing epidemic USA300 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from other S. aureus strains. However, the functional relevance of ACME to infection and disease has remained unclear. Using phylogenetic analysis, we have shown that the modular segments of ACME were assembled into a single genetic locus in Staphylococcus epidermidis and then horizontally transferred to the common ancestor of USA300 strains in an extremely recent event. Acquisition of one ACME gene, speG, allowed USA300 strains to withstand levels of polyamines (e.g., spermidine) produced in skin that are toxic to other closely related S. aureus strains. speG-mediated polyamine tolerance also enhanced biofilm formation, adherence to fibrinogen/fibronectin, and resistance to antibiotic and keratinocyte-mediated killing. We suggest that these properties gave USA300 a major selective advantage during skin infection and colonization, contributing to the extraordinary evolutionary success of this clone. Importance: Over the past 15 years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major public health problem. It is likely that adaptations in specific MRSA lineages (e.g., USA300) drove the spread of MRSA across the United States and allowed it to replace other, less-virulent S. aureus strains. We suggest that one major factor in the evolutionary success of MRSA may have been the acquisition of a gene (speG) that allows S. aureus to evade the toxicity of polyamines (e.g., spermidine and spermine) that are produced in human skin. Polyamine tolerance likely gave MRSA multiple fitness advantages, including the formation of more-robust biofilms, increased adherence to host tissues, and resistance to antibiotics and killing by human skin cells.