• CAG-Repeat length in exon 1 of KCNN3 does not influence risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis of association studies

      Glatt, Stephen J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T. (Wiley, 2003-07-30)
      Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder both showsomeevidence for genetic anticipation. In addition, significant expansion of anonymous CAG repeats throughout the genome has been detected in both of these disorders. The gene KCNN3, which codes for a small/ intermediate conductance, calcium-regulated potassium channel, contains a highly polymorphic CAG-repeat array in exon 1. Initial evidence for association of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with increased CAG-repeat length of KCNN3 has not been consistently replicated. In the present study, we performed several metaanalyses to evaluate the pooled evidence for association with CAG-repeat length of KCNN3 derived from case-control and family-based studies of both disorders. Each group of studies was analyzed under two models, including a test for direct association with repeat length, and a test for association with dichotomized repeat-length groups. No evidence for a linear relationship between disease risk and repeat length was observed, as all pooled odds ratios approximated 1.0. Results of dichotomized allelegroup analyses were more variable, especially for schizophrenia, where case-control studies found a significant association with longer repeats but family-based studies implicated shorter alleles. The results of these meta-analyses demonstrate that the risks for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are largely, if not entirely, independent of CAG-repeat length in exon 1 of KCNN3. This study cannot exclude the possibility that some aspect of this polymorphism, such as repeat-length disparity in heterozygotes, influences risk for these disorders. Further, it remains unknown if this polymorphism, or one in linkage disequilibrium with it, contributes to some distinct feature of the disorder, such as symptom severity or anticipation.
    • Can sodium/hydrogen exchange inhibitors be repositioned for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? An in silico approach

      Faraone, Stephen V.; Zhang-James, Yanli (Wiley, 2013-10-17)
      Medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are only partially effective. Ideally, new treatment targets would derive from a known pathophysiology. Such data are not available for ADHD. We combine evidence for new etiologic pathways with bioinformatics data to assess the possibility that existing drugs might be repositioning for treating ADHD. We use this approach to determine if prior data implicating the sodium/hydrogen exchanger 9 gene (SLC9A9) in ADHD implicate sodium/hydrogen exchange (NHE) inhibitors as potential treatments. We assessed the potential for repositioning by assessing the similarity of drug–protein binding profiles between NHE inhibitors and drugs known to treat ADHD using the Drug Repositioning and Adverse Reaction via Chemical–Protein Interactome server. NHE9 shows a high degree of amino acid similarity between NHE inhibitor sensitive NHEs in the region of the NHE inhibitor recognition site defined for NHE1. We found high correlations in drug–protein binding profiles among most ADHD drugs. The drug–protein binding profiles of some NHE inhibitors were highly correlated with ADHD drugs whereas the profiles for a control set of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were not. Further experimental work should evaluate if NHE inhibitors are suitable for treating ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • A Case Study on Apache HBase

      Nalla, Rohit Reddy; Sengupta, Sam; Adviser; Novillo, Jorge; Reviewer; Rezk, Mohamed; Reviewer (2015-05-16)
      Apache HBase is an open-source, non-relational and a distributed data base system built on top of HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File system). HBase was designed post Google’s Big table and it is written in Java. It was developed as a part of Apache’s Hadoop Project. It provides a kind of fault – tolerant mechanism to store minor amounts of non-zero items caught within large amounts of empty items. HBase is used when we require real-time read/write access to huge data bases. HBase project was started by the end of 2006 by Chad Walters and Jim Kellerman at Powerset.[2] The main purpose of HBase is to process large amounts of data. Mike Cafarella worked on code of the working system initially and later Jim Kellerman carried it to the next stage. HBase was first released as a part of Hadoop 0.15.0 in October 2007[2]. The project goal was holding of very large tables like billions of rows X millions of columns. In May 2010, HBase advanced to a major project and it became an Apache Top Level Project. Several applications like Adobe, Twitter, Yahoo, Trend Micro etc. use this data base. Social networking sites like Facebook have implemented its messenger application using HBase. This document helps us to understand how HBase works and how is it different from other data bases. This document highlights about the current challenges in data security and a couple of models have been proposed towards the security and levels of data access to overcome the challenges. This document also discusses the workload challenges and techniques to overcome. Also an overview has been given on how HBase has been implemented in real time application Facebook messenger app.
    • CD11C+ T-BET+ B CELLS IN INFECTION AND AUTOIMMUNITY

      Winslow, Gary; Levack, Russell (2020)
      CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells serve crucial roles in both protective immunity and autoimmunity.However, the ontogeny of these cells remains unclear, and strategies to target them in vivo have yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate that developing CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells received help in the form of IL-21, IFN-γ, and CD40L from a population ofT follicular helper 1(TFH1)cells outside of formal germinal centers (GC). These TFH1cells provided help to developing CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells in two distinct phases: IFN-gwas provided early following infection, and CD40L was provided later. Unlike the TFH1cells, CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells required the GC-associated transcription factor Bcl-6 for their development, but not T-bet. While the CD11c+ B cells that arose in the absence of T-bet appeared nearly identical to their T-bet-competent counterparts,they did not switch to IgG2c. These data support a model where, in the absence of formal GCs, TFH1cells provide GC-like help to developing CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells and while T-bet is not required for the development of these T-bet+ B cells,it is required for appropriate class-switch recombination (CSR). Our work also demonstrates that mature CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells, which arise in both immunity and autoimmunity,wereeliminated following treatment with the adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR) agonist CGS-21680. Depletion of these CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells occurred in a B cell-intrinsic manner and was corelated with improved disease outcome in a mouse model of lupus. Preliminary data indicated that human CD11c+ B cells expressed the A2aR,and these cells were depleted following CGS-21680 treatment in vitro, suggesting that A2aR-agonistadministrationmay also be effective in the treatment of human autoimmune diseaseswhere CD11c+ Bcell play a role. Overall, this work provides novel insight into the development of T-bet+ B cells and identifies the first pharmacological approach to target these cells in vivo.
    • Centralized Information Site for IDT Imternational Students

      Sathiaseelan, Akila (2008-12-01)
      This qualitative research study analyzes the outcomes of a centralized information site created for prospective and current international students for Information Design and Technology department. Information specific to International students’ needs were gathered and categorized into major groups. A Flash site was constructed based upon those needs by applying ease of use, maintainability, search-ability and Human Centered Design (HCD) principles. Qualitative researches, namely, Participatory Action Research and Qualitative interviewing were applied for data collection and data analysis to yield the results.
    • Characteristics of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Plus Substance Use Disorder: The Role of Psychiatric Comorbidity

      Wilens, Timothy E.; Kwon, Anne; Tanguay, Sarah; Chase, Rhea; Moore, Hadley; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph (Wiley, 2005-01)
      The objective of the study was to investigate the characteristics of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or substance use disorder (SUD), especially in the context of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Subjects were adults (n ¼ 78) participating in a controlled family study of ADHD and SUD. Four groups were identified based on a diagnosis of ADHD or SUD: ADHD, SUD, ADHDþSUD, and neither ADHD nor SUD. All diagnoses were determined by structured clinical interview for DSM IV. Rates of psychiatric comorbidity were lowest in the controls, intermediate in the ADHD and SUD groups, and highest in the ADHDþSUD group. Relative to controls, the ADHD, SUD, and ADHDþSUD groups had higher rates of major depression (z ¼ 1.98, p ¼ 0.05), conduct disorder (z ¼ 2.0, p ¼ 0.04), antisocial personality disorder (z ¼ 2.6, p ¼ 0.009), agoraphobia (z ¼ 2.5, p ¼ 0.01) and social phobia (z ¼ 2.7, p ¼ 0.007). Higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity, especially mood and anxiety disorders, exist in subjects with SUDþADHD relative to subjects with SUD, ADHD, or controls. Clinicians need to be attentive to other psychiatric disorders that may occur in the large group of adults with ADHDþSUD.
    • Characterization and Control of the Surface of the Topological Insulator Bi2Se3

      Green, Avery James; Diebold, Alain; Advisor (2017-12)
      The field of topological insulator (TI) materials is new. The ideal TI contains surface states in helical Dirac cones that can be used for spintronics or interconnect applications. Of the TI class, Bi2Se3 is the most promising for applications due to its stoichiometric composition, its relatively large band gap (0.3 eV), and the central (??-point) position of the Dirac cone in its 2D surface band structure. Although the theoretical solid-state models that the TI field has produced are powerful and unique, their novel emergent physical properties are not universally observed in every sample. These materials are difficult to grow and maintain under ambient conditions. Growths tend to either not be applicable to wafer-scale production or produce high polycrystallinity, and all samples experience natural oxidation, band bending, and intrinsic n-doping, which generates spin-degenerate or bulk conduction. This thesis contains a primer on topologically non-trivial materials, and two studies aimed at understanding and minimizing defects at the surface of Bi2Se3. In the first, the aging process of Bi2Se3 when exposed to air at room temperature is investigated. The time scale and topographic changes of the oxidation process at micromechanically exfoliated surfaces are measured, and an optical model of the bulk and oxide layers are developed. The surface appears to oxidize starting at 2 hours after exfoliation, and continuing through 1.5 weeks, by which time, the oxide layer growth has reached an asymptote of 1.9 nm. New optical characterization methods are developed to monitor the orientation of the crystal (via second harmonic generation) and to measure the oxide growth at the surface (using spectroscopic ellipsometry and the derived dielectric functions of the bulk and oxide layers). The goal of the second study is to assess the use of Se capping and subsequent thermal decapping to preserve a pristine surface and maintain a constant Fermi level. This was measured by annealing samples in a UHV environment to successively higher temperatures until the Bi2Se3 film decomposed, and measuring the surface crystallinity, topography, surface chemistry, and Fermi level between each anneal. Thermally decapping samples has no measurable effect on crystallinity, minimal effect on surface topography, reveals the expected Bi-Se surface bonds, and retains a mid-gap Fermi level. This may serve as a reference to improve the fabrication process of devices that include Bi2Se3.
    • Characterization of Hic-5 in Cancer Associated Fibroblasts: A Role in Extracellular Matrix Deposition and Remodeling

      Turner, Christopher; Goreczny, Gregory (2017)
      Hic-5 (TGFβ1i1) is a focal adhesion scaffold protein that has previously been implicated in many cancer-related processes. However, the contribution of Hic-5 during tumor progression has never been evaluated, in vivo. In Chapter 2 of this thesis, I crossed our Hic-5 knockout mouse with the MMTV-PyMT breast tumor mouse model to assess the role of Hic-5 in breast tumorigenesis. Tumors from the Hic-5 -/-;PyMT mouse exhibited an increased latency and reduced tumor growth. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Hic-5 -/-;PyMT tumors revealed that the tumor cells were less proliferative. However isolated tumor cells exhibit no difference in growth rate. Surprisingly, Hic-5 expression was restricted to the tumor stroma. Further analysis showed that Hic-5 regulates Cancer Associated Fibroblast (CAF) contractility and differentiation which resulted in a reduced ability to deposit and reorganize the extracellular matrix (ECM) in two-and three-dimensions. Furthermore, Hic-5 dependent ECM remodeling supported the ability of tumor cells to metastasize and colonize the lungs.The molecular mechanisms by which CAFs mediate ECM remodeling remains incompletely understood. In Chapter 3 of this thesis, I show that Hic-5 is required to generate fibrillar adhesions, which are specialized structures that are critical for the assembly of fibronectin fibers. Hic-5 was found to promote fibrillar adhesion formation through a newly characterized interaction with tensin1, a scaffold protein that binds to β1 integrin and actin. Furthermore, this interaction was mediated by Src-dependent phosphorylation of Hic-5 in two and three-dimensional matrix environments to prevent β1 integrin internalization and subsequent degradation in the lysosome. This work highlights the importance of the focal adhesion protein, Hic-5 during breast tumorigenesis and provides insight into the molecular machinery driving CAF-mediated ECM remodeling.
    • Characterizing the Role of the Epsilon Subunit in Regulation of the Escherichia coli ATP Synthase.

      Duncan, Thomas; Shah, Naman (2015)
      The F-type ATP synthase is a rotary nanomotor central to cellular energy metabolism in almost all living organisms. In bacteria, the enzyme also plays a role in nutrient uptake and pH regulation underlining its importance. All ATP synthases can be inhibited by ADP, whereas in bacteria, the enzyme is alsoautoinhibitedbyits ε subunit. The inhibition involves a drastic conformationa l change of the C-terminal domain of the ε subunit (εCTD)thatblockscatalytic turnover. Thisregulation by ε is believed to play an important role in maintaining viability of the cell. Recent development in the field of antibiotics has validated ATP synthase as a drug target against pathogenic bacteria. Thus, there is a renewed interest in studying the role of the ε subunit in regulation of the enzyme and exploiting it to develop antimicrobials that can kill pathogenic bacteria. The present work describes advances in our understanding of the regulatory interactions of εCTD in E. coli ATP synthase.In the first approach, we used an optical binding assay to understand the transitions of εCTD between its active and inhibitory conformations.Using different ligands we revealedthe relationship between ADP inhibition and ε inhibition. In the second novel approach, the terminal five amino acids of εCTD were deleted to observe the effects on in vivo and in vitro functions of ATP synthase. The results obtained from these studies advance our understanding of εinhibition inbacteria and also provide a noveltarget within bacterial ATP synthase to obtain antibacterial drugs.
    • The Chemosensory-­Related Consequences of Fetal Ethanol or Fetal Nicotine Exposure: Their Contribution to Postnatal Nicotine Acceptance

      Youngentob, Steven; MANTELLA, NICOLE (2015)
      Human studies demonstrate a predictive association between gestational exposure to alcohol or nicotine and the probabilityoflater nicotine dependence.The flavor qualitiesof both drugsare known to influencetheir earlyacceptance and they share the perceptual attributesof an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation.This dissertationexamined whether there are chemosensory-­‐related consequences offetal: (1) alcohol exposurethat contribute toenhanced nicotine acceptance; or (2)nicotine exposure that also enhances acceptance. The study rationale was drivenby overlappingliteraturesrelated to: (1) the relationship between gestational exposurewith chemosensory stimuli and their postnatal acceptance; (2) lessons learned from prenatal alcohol exposure and its postnatal consequences; and (3) perceptual commonalities between the flavor of alcohol and nicotine.Alcohol studies: rats were alcohol-­‐exposed during gestationvia the dams’ liquid diet. Control damsreceived ad libaccessto an iso-­‐caloric, iso-­‐nutritive diet. Nicotine studies: dams’ were implanted with a mini-­‐osmotic pump containing nicotine.Control animals received either vehicle only or no pump. Behaviorally, we found that fetal alcohol exposed adolescent rats showed anenhanced nicotine odor
    • Climate Change: Restaurant and Employee Awareness Through the Use of Tutorials

      Rowe, Amy (2015-12)
      Restaurants have a profound affect on climate change because of the large amounts of water and food that is discarded by the food industry on a daily basis. Most restaurant employers are not educated enough about food waste and its affect on climate change; so, these employers do not educate their employees on the best practices to avoid food waste. However, many companies use multimedia learning to train employees on menu offerings, company policies, payroll or other pertinent information, but do not use the opportunity to educate employees and customers about the food industry’s affects on climate change. Tutorials with infographics are a large part of multimedia learning because it offers a way for learners to do things, such as, selfinteract, read, solve problems, and answer questions. With distance learning becoming more and more popular, tutorial style teaching is as well. Multimedia learning aids are costeffective for restaurants because it accommodates multiple learning styles while covering a lot of material at once. As demonstrated by this project’s website, tutorials and infographics, when used in a multimedia setting, can motivate restaurant employees to learn about important issues, like climate change. This paper seeks to find, and to discuss, what restaurants are doing to educate employees about climate change, what the significance of climate change means to a restaurant’s best practices, and how multimedia learning can educate and influence restaurant employees to move toward best practices which will then help reverse the effects of climate change.
    • Cloud-SCADA Penetrate: Practical Implementation for Hacking Cloud Computing and Critical SCADA Systems

      Kholidy, Hisham A. (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 2020)
      In this report, we discuss some of our hacking and security solutions that we developed at our Advanced Cybersecurity Research Lab (ACRL). This report consists of the following five main experimental packages: 1) Exploiting the cloud computing system using a DDoS attack and developing a distributed deployment of a cloud based Intrusion Detection System (IDS) solution. 2) Hacking SCADA systems components. 3) Hacking Metasploitable machines. 4) Hacking Windows 7 system. 5) Windows Post Exploitation.
    • Comic Books as American Propaganda During World War II

      Dellecese, David; Stam, Kathryn; Thesis Advisor; Lizardi, Ryan; Second Reader; Kahn, Russell; Instructor (2018-05)
      American comic books were a relatively, but quite popular form of media during the years of World War II. Amid a limited media landscape that otherwise consisted of radio, film, newspaper, and magazines, comics served as a useful tool in engaging readers of all ages to get behind the war effort. The aims of this research was to examine a sampling of messages put forth by comic book publishers before and after American involvement in World War II in the form of fictional comic book stories. In this research, it is found that comic book storytelling/messaging reflected a theme of American isolation prior to U.S. involvement in the war, but changed its tone to become a strong proponent for American involvement post-the bombing of Pearl Harbor. This came in numerous forms, from vilification of America’s enemies in the stories of super heroics, the use of scrap, rubber, paper, or bond drives back on the homefront to provide resources on the frontlines, to a general sense of patriotism. This research looks to the motivations behind such storytelling in the background of comic book writers and artists as well as involvement from government agencies such as the War Writer’s Board. It’s also important to note that while comics often vilified the enemies of America through the use of terrible stereotypes and caricature, within those same pages were messages promoting solidarity among religion, race, and background for the purpose of winning the war. These mixed messages often make for very contradictory presentations, especially when looked at retroactively and allow comic books from this time period to be looked at as media artifacts, providing insight into cultural and societal ways of thinking during this period, with appropriate historical context. I have created a website supplement to this thesis where many examples of the types of images discussed have been collected and organized for viewing: https://comicsgotowar.weebly.com/
    • A Community Approach to Discovering the September 11 LOC Web Archive

      Bingley, Matthew (2012-05-01)
      The Library of Congress September 11 Web Archive contains more websites than is reasonably analyzable by a single researcher. This project demonstrates the design of a site, titled “Source September 11,” which would enlist volunteers to analyze the Archive‟s contents. Moreover, the proposed site would allow volunteers to produce original, curated WebStories about themes in the September 11 Web Archive. The proposed site would thus have a dual function as a research and civic site, and one in which volunteers participate in its maintenance and functioning. This thesis is intended to be read in conjunction with a video overview which demonstrates the site. It can be found at http://people.sunyit.edu/~binglem/Thesis2/Thesis2.html.
    • Comorbidity of ADHD and adult bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Schiweck, Carmen; Arteaga-Henriquez, Gara; Aichholzer, Mareike; Edwin Thanarajah, Sharmili; Vargas-Cáceres, Sebastian; Matura, Silke; Grimm, Oliver; Haavik, Jan; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-05)
      Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) are common mental disorders with a high degree of comorbidity. However, no systematic review with meta-analysis has aimed to quantify the degree of comorbidity between both disorders. To this end we performed a systematic search of the literature in October 2020. In a meta-analysis of 71 studies with 646,766 participants from 18 countries, it was found that about one in thirteen adults with ADHD was also diagnosed with BD (7.95 %; 95 % CI: 5.31-11.06), and nearly one in six adults with BD had ADHD (17.11 %; 95 % CI: 13.05-21.59 %). Substantial heterogeneity of comorbidity rates was present, highlighting the importance of contextual factors: Heterogeneity could partially be explained by diagnostic system, sample size and geographical location. Age of BD onset occurred earlier in patients with comorbid ADHD (3.96 years; 95 % CI: 2.65-5.26, p < 0.001). Cultural and methodological differences deserve attention for evaluating diagnostic criteria and clinicians should be aware of the high comorbidity rates to prevent misdiagnosis and provide optimal care for both disorders.
    • Comparison of Network Switch Architectures by CISCO

      Vemula, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana; Hash, Larry; Advisor (2016-02-01)
      This project is targeted to compare two major switching architectures provided by CISCO. CISCO is a network device manufacturer who has contributed to networking world by inventing many networking protocols which are used to improve the network performance and network health. In this document the switching architectures CATALYST and NEXUS are compared. All the available features in each architectures are listed and working of the supported protocols is explained in detail. The document also considers three network scenarios and explains which architecture is best suited and explains why in detail.
    • The concept of target features in schizophrenia research

      Tsuang, M. T.; Faraone, Stephen V. (Wiley, 1999-05)
      Target features are clinical or neurobiological characteristics that arc expressions of the underlying predisposition to an illness. They comprise a wide range of phenomena, from thc classic signs and symptoms of psychopathology to sophisticated measures of brain structure and function. For schizophrenia, many target features have been identified. These include eye tracking dysfunction, attentional impairment, allusive thinking, neurological signs, thought disorder, characteristic auditory evoked potentials, neuropsychological impairment, structural brain abnormalities and functional brain abnormalities. In their most pathological forms, thcse features are present among many schizophrenic patients, yet it is their presence among their non-psychotic relatives that shows them to be target features. We discuss the theoretical background for target features, present examples and describe how the discovery of target features has implications I for schizophrenia research.
    • Connexin43 and immunity : macrophage phagocytosis, cardiac calcinosis and autoimmune myocarditis

      Steven Taffet; Aaron Glass (2013)
      Connexin43 (Cx43) is a gap junction protein best known for coupling the cytoplasms of cardiac myocytes and allowing the efficient conduction of action potentials throughout the heart. In addition to the heart, Cx43 is also highly expressed in many immune cells and it has been attributed numerous roles in immunity. One such reported role was in macrophage phagocytosis. The first chapter in this dissertation explored the phagocytic activity of cultured and primary murine macrophages from wild type (WT) and Cx43-deleted (Cx43-/-) macrophages. No difference in phagocytic uptake was observed between the two groups using a series of target particles, indicating that Cx43 is dispensable for phagocytosis in macrophages. Given the spectrum of immune functions in which Cx43 has been ascribed a role, we set out to characterize its effect on a model of autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Using the area of cardiac inflammatory infiltrate as a correlate of disease severity, we observed the progression of the disease to be independent of Cx43 status utilizing WT and Cx43-heterozygous (Cx43+/-) animals as well as radiation chimeric mice reconstituted with cells from donor WT, Cx43+/- and Cx43-/- mice. Although the severity of EAM did not measurably change when induced in animals with differing levels of Cx43 expression, substantial changes to ventricular Cx43 were noted in diseased hearts. Large foci were observed that completely lacked Cx43 immunofluorescence signal. Areas surrounding these foci exhibited disrupted Cx43 patterns such as internalization and lateralization. Similar alterations to Cx43 were also observed in the BALB/cByJ strain of laboratory mice that develop a spontaneous myocarditic disease. To investigate the electrophysiological ramifications of EAM, especially in the context of Cx43+/- mice, ECGs were recorded from animals over the course of EAM. Significant changes to the QRS interval were noted, including prolongation that was only observed in Cx43+/- animals.