• CAG-Repeat length in exon 1 of KCNN3 does not influence risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis of association studies

      Glatt, Stephen J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T. (Wiley, 2003-07-30)
      Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder both showsomeevidence for genetic anticipation. In addition, significant expansion of anonymous CAG repeats throughout the genome has been detected in both of these disorders. The gene KCNN3, which codes for a small/ intermediate conductance, calcium-regulated potassium channel, contains a highly polymorphic CAG-repeat array in exon 1. Initial evidence for association of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with increased CAG-repeat length of KCNN3 has not been consistently replicated. In the present study, we performed several metaanalyses to evaluate the pooled evidence for association with CAG-repeat length of KCNN3 derived from case-control and family-based studies of both disorders. Each group of studies was analyzed under two models, including a test for direct association with repeat length, and a test for association with dichotomized repeat-length groups. No evidence for a linear relationship between disease risk and repeat length was observed, as all pooled odds ratios approximated 1.0. Results of dichotomized allelegroup analyses were more variable, especially for schizophrenia, where case-control studies found a significant association with longer repeats but family-based studies implicated shorter alleles. The results of these meta-analyses demonstrate that the risks for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are largely, if not entirely, independent of CAG-repeat length in exon 1 of KCNN3. This study cannot exclude the possibility that some aspect of this polymorphism, such as repeat-length disparity in heterozygotes, influences risk for these disorders. Further, it remains unknown if this polymorphism, or one in linkage disequilibrium with it, contributes to some distinct feature of the disorder, such as symptom severity or anticipation.
    • Can sodium/hydrogen exchange inhibitors be repositioned for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? An in silico approach

      Faraone, Stephen V.; Zhang-James, Yanli (Wiley, 2013-10-17)
      Medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are only partially effective. Ideally, new treatment targets would derive from a known pathophysiology. Such data are not available for ADHD. We combine evidence for new etiologic pathways with bioinformatics data to assess the possibility that existing drugs might be repositioning for treating ADHD. We use this approach to determine if prior data implicating the sodium/hydrogen exchanger 9 gene (SLC9A9) in ADHD implicate sodium/hydrogen exchange (NHE) inhibitors as potential treatments. We assessed the potential for repositioning by assessing the similarity of drug–protein binding profiles between NHE inhibitors and drugs known to treat ADHD using the Drug Repositioning and Adverse Reaction via Chemical–Protein Interactome server. NHE9 shows a high degree of amino acid similarity between NHE inhibitor sensitive NHEs in the region of the NHE inhibitor recognition site defined for NHE1. We found high correlations in drug–protein binding profiles among most ADHD drugs. The drug–protein binding profiles of some NHE inhibitors were highly correlated with ADHD drugs whereas the profiles for a control set of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were not. Further experimental work should evaluate if NHE inhibitors are suitable for treating ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Cartiform Implantation for focal cartilage defects in the knee: A 2-year clinical and magnetic resonance imaging follow-up study.

      Bennett, Craig H; Nadarajah, Vidushan; Moore, Michelle C; Jauregui, Julio J; Dubina, Andrew G; Burt, Cameran; Davis, Derik L; Uppal, Arvinder; Henn, R Frank (2021-02-23)
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes in patients who underwent cryopreserved viable osteochondral allograft (CVOCA) implantation for focal cartilage defects in the knee at a minimum of 2-years postoperatively. This is a retrospective follow-up study of twelve patients who underwent CVOCA implantation from 2013 to 2015 by a single surgeon for a International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 3 or 4 chondral defect. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measurements and MRI were obtained 2-years postoperatively. Collected PRO measures included: International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form; Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score; Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12); Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS); and Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Patients completed a standard return to work and sports/recreation survey. A blinded, fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist independently evaluated each MRI to determine the Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (MOCART) score. Mean follow-up was 2.1 years (2.0-2.3). There were 6 women and 6 men with a mean age of 46.2 ± 11.9 years. Mean PRO scores were: IKDC 72.6 ± 17.4; VAS 2.9 ± 2.8; WOMAC 84.2 ± 15.1; KOOS- Pain 83.8 ± 18.5, Symptoms 77.6 ± 16.0, ADL 88.0 ± 16.9, Sports/Rec 67.7 ± 33.3, QOL 54.8 ± 24.2; and VR-12 PCS 45.0 ± 8.5 and MCS 51.1 ± 9.5. The mean MOCART score was 59.5 ± 12.9. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to report clinical and MRI outcomes of CVOCA implantation in the knee. With positive functional outcomes and lack of failures at 2-year follow-up, CVOCA is a promising treatment option for focal chondral defects in the knee. Study design: Retrospective case series, Level of evidence 4.
    • A Case Study on Apache HBase

      Nalla, Rohit Reddy; Sengupta, Sam; Adviser; Novillo, Jorge; Reviewer; Rezk, Mohamed; Reviewer (2015-05-16)
      Apache HBase is an open-source, non-relational and a distributed data base system built on top of HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File system). HBase was designed post Google’s Big table and it is written in Java. It was developed as a part of Apache’s Hadoop Project. It provides a kind of fault – tolerant mechanism to store minor amounts of non-zero items caught within large amounts of empty items. HBase is used when we require real-time read/write access to huge data bases. HBase project was started by the end of 2006 by Chad Walters and Jim Kellerman at Powerset.[2] The main purpose of HBase is to process large amounts of data. Mike Cafarella worked on code of the working system initially and later Jim Kellerman carried it to the next stage. HBase was first released as a part of Hadoop 0.15.0 in October 2007[2]. The project goal was holding of very large tables like billions of rows X millions of columns. In May 2010, HBase advanced to a major project and it became an Apache Top Level Project. Several applications like Adobe, Twitter, Yahoo, Trend Micro etc. use this data base. Social networking sites like Facebook have implemented its messenger application using HBase. This document helps us to understand how HBase works and how is it different from other data bases. This document highlights about the current challenges in data security and a couple of models have been proposed towards the security and levels of data access to overcome the challenges. This document also discusses the workload challenges and techniques to overcome. Also an overview has been given on how HBase has been implemented in real time application Facebook messenger app.
    • CD11C+ T-BET+ B CELLS IN INFECTION AND AUTOIMMUNITY

      Winslow, Gary; Levack, Russell (2020)
      CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells serve crucial roles in both protective immunity and autoimmunity.However, the ontogeny of these cells remains unclear, and strategies to target them in vivo have yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate that developing CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells received help in the form of IL-21, IFN-γ, and CD40L from a population ofT follicular helper 1(TFH1)cells outside of formal germinal centers (GC). These TFH1cells provided help to developing CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells in two distinct phases: IFN-gwas provided early following infection, and CD40L was provided later. Unlike the TFH1cells, CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells required the GC-associated transcription factor Bcl-6 for their development, but not T-bet. While the CD11c+ B cells that arose in the absence of T-bet appeared nearly identical to their T-bet-competent counterparts,they did not switch to IgG2c. These data support a model where, in the absence of formal GCs, TFH1cells provide GC-like help to developing CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells and while T-bet is not required for the development of these T-bet+ B cells,it is required for appropriate class-switch recombination (CSR). Our work also demonstrates that mature CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells, which arise in both immunity and autoimmunity,wereeliminated following treatment with the adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR) agonist CGS-21680. Depletion of these CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells occurred in a B cell-intrinsic manner and was corelated with improved disease outcome in a mouse model of lupus. Preliminary data indicated that human CD11c+ B cells expressed the A2aR,and these cells were depleted following CGS-21680 treatment in vitro, suggesting that A2aR-agonistadministrationmay also be effective in the treatment of human autoimmune diseaseswhere CD11c+ Bcell play a role. Overall, this work provides novel insight into the development of T-bet+ B cells and identifies the first pharmacological approach to target these cells in vivo.
    • Centralized Information Site for IDT Imternational Students

      Sathiaseelan, Akila (2008-12-01)
      This qualitative research study analyzes the outcomes of a centralized information site created for prospective and current international students for Information Design and Technology department. Information specific to International students’ needs were gathered and categorized into major groups. A Flash site was constructed based upon those needs by applying ease of use, maintainability, search-ability and Human Centered Design (HCD) principles. Qualitative researches, namely, Participatory Action Research and Qualitative interviewing were applied for data collection and data analysis to yield the results.
    • Cerebral Folate Deficiency Syndrome: Early Diagnosis, Intervention and Treatment Strategies

      Ramaekers, Vincent Th.; Quadros, Edward V. (MDPI AG, 2022-07-28)
      Cerebral folate deficiency syndrome (CFDS) is defined as any neuropsychiatric or developmental disorder characterized by decreased CSF folate levels in the presence of normal folate status outside the nervous system. The specific clinical profile appears to be largely determined by the presence or absence of intrauterine folate deficiency as well as postnatal age at which cerebral folate deficiency occurs. The primary cause of CFDS is identified as the presence of serum folate receptor-alpha (FRα) autoantibodies impairing folate transport across the choroid plexus to the brain whereas, in a minority of cases, mitochondrial disorders, inborn errors of metabolism and loss of function mutations of the FRα (FOLR1) gene are identified. Early recognition and diagnosis of CFDS and prompt intervention is important to improve prognosis with successful outcomes. In this article we focus on FRα autoimmunity and its different age-dependent clinical syndromes, the diagnostic criteria, and treatments to be considered, including prevention strategies in this at-risk population.
    • Changes in obstetrical practices during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic.

      Gilroy, Laura C; Al-Kouatly, Huda B; Minkoff, Howard L; McLaren, Rodney A (2022-08-15)
    • Changes in the Mitogenome Announcement manuscript category

      DeSalle, Rob; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis (Informa UK Limited, 2015-02-19)
    • Characteristics and Outcomes of US Children and Adolescents With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Compared With Severe Acute COVID-19.

      Feldstein, Leora R; Tenforde, Mark W; Friedman, Kevin G; Newhams, Margaret; Rose, Erica Billig; Dapul, Heda; Soma, Vijaya L; Maddux, Aline B; Mourani, Peter M; Bowens, Cindy; et al.
      Importance: Refinement of criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may inform efforts to improve health outcomes. Objective: To compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of children and adolescents with MIS-C vs those with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Setting, design, and participants: Case series of 1116 patients aged younger than 21 years hospitalized between March 15 and October 31, 2020, at 66 US hospitals in 31 states. Final date of follow-up was January 5, 2021. Patients with MIS-C had fever, inflammation, multisystem involvement, and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or antibody test results or recent exposure with no alternate diagnosis. Patients with COVID-19 had positive RT-PCR test results and severe organ system involvement. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2. Main outcomes and measures: Presenting symptoms, organ system complications, laboratory biomarkers, interventions, and clinical outcomes. Multivariable regression was used to compute adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) of factors associated with MIS-C vs COVID-19. Results: Of 1116 patients (median age, 9.7 years; 45% female), 539 (48%) were diagnosed with MIS-C and 577 (52%) with COVID-19. Compared with patients with COVID-19, patients with MIS-C were more likely to be 6 to 12 years old (40.8% vs 19.4%; absolute risk difference [RD], 21.4% [95% CI, 16.1%-26.7%]; aRR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.33-1.72] vs 0-5 years) and non-Hispanic Black (32.3% vs 21.5%; RD, 10.8% [95% CI, 5.6%-16.0%]; aRR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.17-1.76] vs White). Compared with patients with COVID-19, patients with MIS-C were more likely to have cardiorespiratory involvement (56.0% vs 8.8%; RD, 47.2% [95% CI, 42.4%-52.0%]; aRR, 2.99 [95% CI, 2.55-3.50] vs respiratory involvement), cardiovascular without respiratory involvement (10.6% vs 2.9%; RD, 7.7% [95% CI, 4.7%-10.6%]; aRR, 2.49 [95% CI, 2.05-3.02] vs respiratory involvement), and mucocutaneous without cardiorespiratory involvement (7.1% vs 2.3%; RD, 4.8% [95% CI, 2.3%-7.3%]; aRR, 2.29 [95% CI, 1.84-2.85] vs respiratory involvement). Patients with MIS-C had higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (median, 6.4 vs 2.7, P < .001), higher C-reactive protein level (median, 152 mg/L vs 33 mg/L; P < .001), and lower platelet count (<150 ×103 cells/μL [212/523 {41%} vs 84/486 {17%}, P < .001]). A total of 398 patients (73.8%) with MIS-C and 253 (43.8%) with COVID-19 were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 10 (1.9%) with MIS-C and 8 (1.4%) with COVID-19 died during hospitalization. Among patients with MIS-C with reduced left ventricular systolic function (172/503, 34.2%) and coronary artery aneurysm (57/424, 13.4%), an estimated 91.0% (95% CI, 86.0%-94.7%) and 79.1% (95% CI, 67.1%-89.1%), respectively, normalized within 30 days. Conclusions and relevance: This case series of patients with MIS-C and with COVID-19 identified patterns of clinical presentation and organ system involvement. These patterns may help differentiate between MIS-C and COVID-19.
    • Characteristics of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Plus Substance Use Disorder: The Role of Psychiatric Comorbidity

      Wilens, Timothy E.; Kwon, Anne; Tanguay, Sarah; Chase, Rhea; Moore, Hadley; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph (Wiley, 2005-01)
      The objective of the study was to investigate the characteristics of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or substance use disorder (SUD), especially in the context of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Subjects were adults (n ¼ 78) participating in a controlled family study of ADHD and SUD. Four groups were identified based on a diagnosis of ADHD or SUD: ADHD, SUD, ADHDþSUD, and neither ADHD nor SUD. All diagnoses were determined by structured clinical interview for DSM IV. Rates of psychiatric comorbidity were lowest in the controls, intermediate in the ADHD and SUD groups, and highest in the ADHDþSUD group. Relative to controls, the ADHD, SUD, and ADHDþSUD groups had higher rates of major depression (z ¼ 1.98, p ¼ 0.05), conduct disorder (z ¼ 2.0, p ¼ 0.04), antisocial personality disorder (z ¼ 2.6, p ¼ 0.009), agoraphobia (z ¼ 2.5, p ¼ 0.01) and social phobia (z ¼ 2.7, p ¼ 0.007). Higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity, especially mood and anxiety disorders, exist in subjects with SUDþADHD relative to subjects with SUD, ADHD, or controls. Clinicians need to be attentive to other psychiatric disorders that may occur in the large group of adults with ADHDþSUD.
    • Characterization and Control of the Surface of the Topological Insulator Bi2Se3

      Green, Avery James; Diebold, Alain; Advisor (2017-12)
      The field of topological insulator (TI) materials is new. The ideal TI contains surface states in helical Dirac cones that can be used for spintronics or interconnect applications. Of the TI class, Bi2Se3 is the most promising for applications due to its stoichiometric composition, its relatively large band gap (0.3 eV), and the central (??-point) position of the Dirac cone in its 2D surface band structure. Although the theoretical solid-state models that the TI field has produced are powerful and unique, their novel emergent physical properties are not universally observed in every sample. These materials are difficult to grow and maintain under ambient conditions. Growths tend to either not be applicable to wafer-scale production or produce high polycrystallinity, and all samples experience natural oxidation, band bending, and intrinsic n-doping, which generates spin-degenerate or bulk conduction. This thesis contains a primer on topologically non-trivial materials, and two studies aimed at understanding and minimizing defects at the surface of Bi2Se3. In the first, the aging process of Bi2Se3 when exposed to air at room temperature is investigated. The time scale and topographic changes of the oxidation process at micromechanically exfoliated surfaces are measured, and an optical model of the bulk and oxide layers are developed. The surface appears to oxidize starting at 2 hours after exfoliation, and continuing through 1.5 weeks, by which time, the oxide layer growth has reached an asymptote of 1.9 nm. New optical characterization methods are developed to monitor the orientation of the crystal (via second harmonic generation) and to measure the oxide growth at the surface (using spectroscopic ellipsometry and the derived dielectric functions of the bulk and oxide layers). The goal of the second study is to assess the use of Se capping and subsequent thermal decapping to preserve a pristine surface and maintain a constant Fermi level. This was measured by annealing samples in a UHV environment to successively higher temperatures until the Bi2Se3 film decomposed, and measuring the surface crystallinity, topography, surface chemistry, and Fermi level between each anneal. Thermally decapping samples has no measurable effect on crystallinity, minimal effect on surface topography, reveals the expected Bi-Se surface bonds, and retains a mid-gap Fermi level. This may serve as a reference to improve the fabrication process of devices that include Bi2Se3.
    • Characterization of Hic-5 in Cancer Associated Fibroblasts: A Role in Extracellular Matrix Deposition and Remodeling

      Turner, Christopher; Goreczny, Gregory (2017)
      Hic-5 (TGFβ1i1) is a focal adhesion scaffold protein that has previously been implicated in many cancer-related processes. However, the contribution of Hic-5 during tumor progression has never been evaluated, in vivo. In Chapter 2 of this thesis, I crossed our Hic-5 knockout mouse with the MMTV-PyMT breast tumor mouse model to assess the role of Hic-5 in breast tumorigenesis. Tumors from the Hic-5 -/-;PyMT mouse exhibited an increased latency and reduced tumor growth. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Hic-5 -/-;PyMT tumors revealed that the tumor cells were less proliferative. However isolated tumor cells exhibit no difference in growth rate. Surprisingly, Hic-5 expression was restricted to the tumor stroma. Further analysis showed that Hic-5 regulates Cancer Associated Fibroblast (CAF) contractility and differentiation which resulted in a reduced ability to deposit and reorganize the extracellular matrix (ECM) in two-and three-dimensions. Furthermore, Hic-5 dependent ECM remodeling supported the ability of tumor cells to metastasize and colonize the lungs.The molecular mechanisms by which CAFs mediate ECM remodeling remains incompletely understood. In Chapter 3 of this thesis, I show that Hic-5 is required to generate fibrillar adhesions, which are specialized structures that are critical for the assembly of fibronectin fibers. Hic-5 was found to promote fibrillar adhesion formation through a newly characterized interaction with tensin1, a scaffold protein that binds to β1 integrin and actin. Furthermore, this interaction was mediated by Src-dependent phosphorylation of Hic-5 in two and three-dimensional matrix environments to prevent β1 integrin internalization and subsequent degradation in the lysosome. This work highlights the importance of the focal adhesion protein, Hic-5 during breast tumorigenesis and provides insight into the molecular machinery driving CAF-mediated ECM remodeling.
    • Characterization of the effects of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome associated MYO1E mutations on myosin 1e activity and podocyte functions

      Krendel, Mira; Liu, Pei-Ju (2022-08)
      MYO1E mutations are associated with familial pediatric nephrotic syndrome, a disease in which pharmaceutical treatment is limited to immunosuppressive drugs such as steroids and cyclosporine but still often fails to prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. While Myo1e deficiency leads to glomerular filtration abnormality, including podocyte foot process effacement and glomerular basement membrane thickening, developing a precise treatment for this disease is hindered, as the underlying mechanisms linking MYO1E mutations and nephrotic syndrome are unclear. With the power of whole genome and exome sequencing, multiple novel Myo1e variants have been rapidly identified from SRNS cohorts. To determine whether a MYO1E mutation identified in patients is likely to be pathogenic or benign, we have characterized the functional effects of novel sequence variants in cultured podocytes. Differential protein degradation, localization, endocytic and motor activities of Myo1eT119I and Myo1eD388H have been discovered (Chapter 2). Specifically, even when expressed as a full-length protein, Myo1eT119I is deficient in localization to podocyte junctions and clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). Consistent with the hypothesis that Myo1eT119I is a loss-of-function mutant, cells expressing Myo1eT119I exhibit decreased CCV density and prolonged CCV lifetimes. The junctional and CCV localization of Myo1eD388H is not affected but it exhibits increased association with structures in the membrane-actin interface. Most importantly, Myo1eD388H is deficient in ATP hydrolysis and actin filament translocation. We have also characterized other MYO1E variants to provide cell-based evidence to assist in the curation of variants of uncertain significance (Chapter 3). Unexpectedly, while Myo1eD185G may be considered as a likely benign variant based on the population and computational predictions, it exhibits prolonged association with the podocyte junctions, while no junctional localization and dissociation abnormality was found in a likely deleterious variant, Myo1eR523W. We also discovered that localization of Myo1edel3094-7 to the podocyte junctions can be partially restored with a proteasomal inhibitor treatment, which may be considered as a potential treatment for patients with this variant. Finally, to follow up on the questions derived from Chapter 2, we examined our hypothesis that Myo1eD388H tail is constitutively active, we demonstrated the similar junctional exchange but differential endocytic activity of Myo1eD388H and Myo1eTAIL, revealing the critical regulation of Myo1e motor to tail domain when it comes to clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Appendix 1). Overall, the studies documented here have uncovered the differential molecular defects of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS)-associated Myo1e variants and further elucidated the underlying mechanisms of podocyte disease.
    • Characterizing and Coding Psychiatric Diagnoses Using Electronic Health Record Data-Reply.

      Barr, Peter B; Bigdeli, Tim B; Meyers, Jacquelyn L (2022-09-14)
    • Characterizing the Role of the Epsilon Subunit in Regulation of the Escherichia coli ATP Synthase.

      Duncan, Thomas; Shah, Naman (2015)
      The F-type ATP synthase is a rotary nanomotor central to cellular energy metabolism in almost all living organisms. In bacteria, the enzyme also plays a role in nutrient uptake and pH regulation underlining its importance. All ATP synthases can be inhibited by ADP, whereas in bacteria, the enzyme is alsoautoinhibitedbyits ε subunit. The inhibition involves a drastic conformationa l change of the C-terminal domain of the ε subunit (εCTD)thatblockscatalytic turnover. Thisregulation by ε is believed to play an important role in maintaining viability of the cell. Recent development in the field of antibiotics has validated ATP synthase as a drug target against pathogenic bacteria. Thus, there is a renewed interest in studying the role of the ε subunit in regulation of the enzyme and exploiting it to develop antimicrobials that can kill pathogenic bacteria. The present work describes advances in our understanding of the regulatory interactions of εCTD in E. coli ATP synthase.In the first approach, we used an optical binding assay to understand the transitions of εCTD between its active and inhibitory conformations.Using different ligands we revealedthe relationship between ADP inhibition and ε inhibition. In the second novel approach, the terminal five amino acids of εCTD were deleted to observe the effects on in vivo and in vitro functions of ATP synthase. The results obtained from these studies advance our understanding of εinhibition inbacteria and also provide a noveltarget within bacterial ATP synthase to obtain antibacterial drugs.
    • Charting Neurotypical Change in Complement and Cytokine Levels Across Postnatal Human Cortical Development

      Sager, Rachel (2021-12)
      A burgeoning body of evidence supports a role for immune signals in neurotypical human brain development. Furthermore, associations between neuroinflammation in development and the subsequent increased risk for psychiatric disorders indicate that an excess of immune signaling early in life damages brain function later in life. In this dissertation, I examined the postnatal expression of two major immune signaling families: complement and cytokines; and the relative contributions of neural cell types to the cortical transcriptome. I used high-throughput microarray, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, immunohistochemistry and multiplex immunoassays. I found coordinated increases in glial cell marker, complement, and cytokine transcripts from birth until the typical age of entry into school (age 5). There were two main patterns of change in gene expression encoding immune signals and their receptors: an early postnatal peak in toddlers followed by a decline in expression levels (C1Q, C3, IL-1β, CD11B, IL-1R1, IL-18) and an early postnatal increase in toddlers, followed by additional increases in adolescents and young adults (IL-6, TNF-α). Complement inhibitor mRNAs were also differentially expressed across postnatal human life, increasing before reaching a plateau around school age (CD46, CD55, CR1,) or peaking in young adulthood (SERPING1, CD59). This suggests sustained complement inhibition during adolescence. The multiple cytokine and complement family members that peaked in toddlers suggest a period of dominant immune signaling from age two to five in humans. This may be related to the proliferation or maturation of glia during early postnatal development, whereas the cytokines seen increasing in adolescents and young adults are contemporaneous with periods of proposed increases in synaptic elimination. These findings open up additional avenues of investigation into the role of immune signaling in normal mammalian brain development and support that time periods of normative increases in developmental immune factor signaling overlap with known 'windows of vulnerability' to manifesting autism and schizophrenia.
    • The Chemosensory-­Related Consequences of Fetal Ethanol or Fetal Nicotine Exposure: Their Contribution to Postnatal Nicotine Acceptance

      Youngentob, Steven; MANTELLA, NICOLE (2015)
      Human studies demonstrate a predictive association between gestational exposure to alcohol or nicotine and the probabilityoflater nicotine dependence.The flavor qualitiesof both drugsare known to influencetheir earlyacceptance and they share the perceptual attributesof an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation.This dissertationexamined whether there are chemosensory-­‐related consequences offetal: (1) alcohol exposurethat contribute toenhanced nicotine acceptance; or (2)nicotine exposure that also enhances acceptance. The study rationale was drivenby overlappingliteraturesrelated to: (1) the relationship between gestational exposurewith chemosensory stimuli and their postnatal acceptance; (2) lessons learned from prenatal alcohol exposure and its postnatal consequences; and (3) perceptual commonalities between the flavor of alcohol and nicotine.Alcohol studies: rats were alcohol-­‐exposed during gestationvia the dams’ liquid diet. Control damsreceived ad libaccessto an iso-­‐caloric, iso-­‐nutritive diet. Nicotine studies: dams’ were implanted with a mini-­‐osmotic pump containing nicotine.Control animals received either vehicle only or no pump. Behaviorally, we found that fetal alcohol exposed adolescent rats showed anenhanced nicotine odor
    • Climate Change: Restaurant and Employee Awareness Through the Use of Tutorials

      Rowe, Amy (2015-12)
      Restaurants have a profound affect on climate change because of the large amounts of water and food that is discarded by the food industry on a daily basis. Most restaurant employers are not educated enough about food waste and its affect on climate change; so, these employers do not educate their employees on the best practices to avoid food waste. However, many companies use multimedia learning to train employees on menu offerings, company policies, payroll or other pertinent information, but do not use the opportunity to educate employees and customers about the food industry’s affects on climate change. Tutorials with infographics are a large part of multimedia learning because it offers a way for learners to do things, such as, selfinteract, read, solve problems, and answer questions. With distance learning becoming more and more popular, tutorial style teaching is as well. Multimedia learning aids are costeffective for restaurants because it accommodates multiple learning styles while covering a lot of material at once. As demonstrated by this project’s website, tutorials and infographics, when used in a multimedia setting, can motivate restaurant employees to learn about important issues, like climate change. This paper seeks to find, and to discuss, what restaurants are doing to educate employees about climate change, what the significance of climate change means to a restaurant’s best practices, and how multimedia learning can educate and influence restaurant employees to move toward best practices which will then help reverse the effects of climate change.