• Absence of Gender Effects on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Findings in Nonreferred Subjects

      Biederman, Joseph; Kwon, Anne; Aleardi, Megan; Chouinard, Virginie-Anne; Marino, Teresa; Cole, Heather; Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V. (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2005-06)
      Objective: In a previous study, the authors found that, compared with referred boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), girls are less likely to manifest comorbid disruptive behavior disorders and learning disabilities—characteristics that could adversely affect identification of ADHD in girls. However, because referral bias can affect outcome, these findings require replication in nonreferred groups of ADHD subjects. Method: The authors evaluated gender effects in a large group of nonreferred siblings (N=577) of probands with ADHD and non-ADHD comparison subjects. Ninetyeight of the nonreferred siblings (N=73 males, N=25 females) met the criteria for diagnosis of ADHD, and 479 (N=244 males, N=235 females) did not meet those criteria. All siblings were systematically and comprehensively assessed with measures of emotional, school, intellectual, interpersonal, and family functioning. The assessment battery used for the siblings was the same as that used for the probands. Results: The nonreferred males and females with ADHD did not differ in DSM-IV subtypes of ADHD, psychiatric comorbidity, or treatment history. They also showed similar levels of cognitive, psychosocial, school, and family functioning. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the clinical correlates of ADHD are not influenced by gender and that gender differences reported in groups of subjects seen in clinical settings may be caused by referral biases.
    • The Accessibility of New York State Government Web Sites Using Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Version 2.0

      Palmo, Kristen M. (2010-12-01)
      This study evaluated a random selection of NYS government web pages for WCAG 2.0 accessibility. The study also compared the WCAG 2.0 results to WCAG 1.0 results, as an indication of whether the newer guidelines were more comprehensive. The researcher used the AChecker automated tool to determine known accessibility problems and the Failure Rate (FR) metric to establish the degree each web page was inaccessible. Twenty home pages were initially selected and ranked by 2.0 A inaccessibility. Then, four illustrative sites were chosen for both 2.0 A and 1.0 AA home and secondary page analysis. The results indicated that NYS government agencies have a wide range of 2.0 accessibility problems, varying from 123 – 0 problems and 43.93% - 0.00% FR on home pages; and 185 – 4 problems and 18.97 – 0.74% FR on home and secondary pages. Overall, web pages had an average of 19.8 WCAG 2.0 problems with a 13.43% FR for home pages; and an average of 20.94 problems with a 12.28% FR for home and secondary pages. The most commonly occurring WCAG 2.0 problems included not providing text for a link, failing to provide keyboard navigation, not offering alternate text for images, not specifying the natural language of the document and having a title attribute within a table used for layout purposes. The results also determined the newer 2.0 guidelines consistently found more problems than 1.0. For instance, WCAG 2.0 found 185 problems on one set of home and secondary pages, where WCAG 1.0 only found 39 on the same home and secondary pages. The researcher expected this because NYS had been working to achieve a sub-set of WCAG 1.0 compliance in the past. Therefore,perhaps many of the 1.0 issues had already been resolved. Furthermore, WCAG 2.0 is supposedly more thorough than the previous 1.0 version, and therefore caught more accessibility errors.There were no trends found regarding agencies with low accessibility compliance vs. those with high compliance. Compliance levels seemed to vary regardless of agency audience, network traffic and age. The implications of this research may influence NYS agencies to evaluate pages for WCAG 2.0. Also, some agencies seem to handle 2.0 accessibility more effectively than others. It may be helpful for certain agencies to share their WCAG 2.0 accessibility expertise and the processes they follow.
    • Accessible Formal Methods: A Study of the Java Modeling Language

      Rawding, Michael; Andriamanalimanana, Bruno; Advisor; Spetka, Scott; Reviewer; Vishwanathan, Roopa; Reviewer (2017-04-17)
      While formal methods offer the highest level of confidence that software behaves as intended, they are notoriously difficult to use. The Java Modeling Language and the associated OpenJML tool aim to make formal specification and verification more accessible to Java developers. This report gives an overview of JML and assesses its current status and usability. Though many common Java features have been implemented, lack of standard library support is identified as an obstacle to using JML effectively. To help address that problem, this report documents the process of adding support for a new library to OpenJML.
    • Acclimating Students To College Campus Utilizing Games

      Piejko, Josh (2012-06-01)
      The purpose of this project is to see if the usage of a video game given to the students at Mohawk Valley Community college can better acquaint them with the various offices and services found on campus. Students will be given access to the game and asked to complete it in a timely manner. Through qualitative analysis, participating students will be given a survey inquiring about their experience with the game and any gained familiarity with the college. This survey will be completed and handed in to the advisement department. This project is expected to have a positive influence on students by increasing their spatial awareness of the campus for better navigational purposes, as well as giving a better understanding of the key roles and services available at each of the campus offices.
    • Accommodation to wavefront vergence and chromatic aberration: color normal and deutan observers

      Wang, Yinan (2009-05-18)
      Purpose: Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur (McLellan, Marcos, Prieto, & Burns, 2002). We examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation in color normal and deutan observers. Methods: Participants were nine normal trichromats, three deuteranomalous trichromats, and two deuteranopic dichromats (anomaloscope and D-15). Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer (100 Hz) and pupil by video-camera (30 frames/s) while observers viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target (1-3 D at .2 Hz) in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between zero and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results: Dynamic gain to vergence modulation increased significantly with pupil size in monochromatic (p=.005) but not white light (p=.12), and gain increased significantly with addition of LCA at both pupil sizes (5.7 mm, p=.004; 3 mm, p=.02). Mean RMS higher order aberration increased from .23 m with small pupils (3 mm) to .48 m with large pupils (5.7 mm). There were no significant differences in dynamic accommodation between color normal and deutan individuals for any condition (.68≤p≤.96). Normals and deutan observers showed large individual differences in dynamic gain to both vergence and LCA. Mean responses also varied among individuals, but deuteranomalous observers over-accommodated compared to color normal observers (.06≤p≤.12). Conclusions: Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation in normal and deutan observers. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less (Mathews, 1998; Mathews & Kruger, 1994).
    • Accommodation to wavefront vergence: adapting ‘averse channels’

      Chen, Angela (2008-06-02)
      Purpose: Accommodation responds to wavefront vergence, but the mechanisms for vergence detection are unknown. One possibility is that accommodation responds to the angle of incidence of light at edges blurred by defocus. ‘Averse channels’ that sample light from opposite sides of the pupil were hypothesized by Makous (1968, 1977). Makous named the phenomenon a “transient” Stiles-Crawford effect because he found that there was a reduction in sensitivity to light entering one side of the pupil that lasts for a short period of time. Such ‘averse channels’ that sample modulation across the pupil are a possible mechanism for detecting the sign of defocus. The purpose of the present experiment is to determine whether such ‘averse channels’ can operate separately of each other to specify the sign of defocus for accommodation. Method: Accommodation was monitored continuously while subjects viewed a vertical monochromatic (548nm) luminance edge (1.0 contrast) that stepped either to a far or near direction in a Badal optometer. Various levels of adapting field were used to reduce the contrast of the edge (0.48, 0.36, 0.26, or 0.17 contrast) to determine the contrast threshold for accommodation. In a final experiment, an adapting field entered the eye through the nasal or temporal side of the pupil, to selectively adapt nasally or temporally tuned ‘channels’, while the target stepped randomly toward or away from the eye. The orientation of the vertical edge was either bright on the right side or bright on the left. Results: In a preliminary experiment, only five out of twenty-six subjects showed reliable and consistent responses, with gains >0.5 for both positive and negative step change in vergence. The contrast threshold for accommodation to step changes in target vergence was approximately 26%. Data from three subjects who accommodated reliably to both directions of step changes in vergence do not support the claim that ‘channels’ sample light separately from opposite sides of the pupil to determine the sign of defocus. Conclusion: Potential factors that account for the poor accommodative responses in the present study include: 1) the target was illuminated with monochromatic light, 2) the target was a simplified stimulus in which the blur was in only one direction (one spatial phase), 3) the target was viewed monocularly, 4) the 3mm artificial pupil increased depth-of-focus and removed the normal dynamic behavior of the pupil, 5) our subjects were untrained. The negative results suggest alternate hypotheses: 1)‘averse channels’ work in conjunction with each other, not separately, to detect vergence, 2) ‘averse channels’ can function separately to detect vergence, but the signal was undetectable using the current method, and 3) ‘averse channels’ do not mediate vergence detection.
    • Achieving higher level thinking order through human-centered design tutorial development

      Brant, Charlene (2012-05-01)
      This project seeks to determine the most important characteristics in effective tutorial development. The findings from previous research of related studies provided direction regarding the design and production of solid modeling tutorials using screencapture with voiceover. Related studies were retrieved in an electronic database using the following keywords: tutorial design, improving spatial conceptualization, solid modeling tutorials, CAD tutorials, effective tutorials, and creating tutorials. Since the development of tutorials is completed via the use of ever-improving technology, the results of the search were then narrowed by the date published, rejecting anything regarding the development of tutorials dated before the year 2000. Theoretical references were not subject to this date filter. Tutorial prototypes were created using Google Sketch Up Pro, Power Point, and Camtasia II for Mac. Prototypes were designed using information from previous studies as well as guidance from Human Centered Design and Interaction theories. The resulting models were assessed using Bloom’s Taxonomy to attest to their potential value in the classroom. The final series of Google Sketch Up Pro tutorials is intended for use in a technical drawing introduction unit in middle school Technology Education classes. The objectives of the tutorials are to promote higher level thinking order and ultimately help students acquire spatial conceptualization skills in regard to technical drawing of 3D objects in 2D orthographic projection depictions. The hope is that the use of engaging tutorials will aid in bridging the gap between the 3D reality and the 2D drawing worlds.
    • Adapting the Flipped Classroom for At-Risk Science Students through Learner-Centered Design

      Sullivan, Sara (2013-12-01)
      One goal of this project is to create a collection of Learner-Centered videos to meet the needs and provide learning opportunities for alternative education students. Video creation and delivery will be based on the Learner-Centered Design principles and concepts adapted from the Flipped Classroom and tailored to the needs of at-risk students within my school. Another very important goal of this project includes creating production guidelines and a teacher self-evaluation process guided by Learner-Centered Design and the Flipped Classroom. These guidelines will be useful for developing effective videos and helpful for other teachers who want to use similar teaching techniques for alternative education students.
    • ADHD and DAT1: Further evidence of paternal over-transmission of risk alleles and haplotype

      Hawi, Z.; Kent, L.; Hill, M.; Anney, R.J.L.; Brookes, K.J.; Barry, E.; Franke, B.; Banaschewski, T.; Buitelaar, J.; Ebstein, R.; et al. (Wiley, 2009)
      We [Hawi et al. (2005); Am J Hum Genet 77:958–965] reported paternal over-transmission of risk alleles in some ADHD-associated genes. This was particularly clear in the case of the DAT1 3′-UTR VNTR. In the current investigation, we analyzed three new samples comprising of 1,248 ADHD nuclear families to examine the allelic over-transmission of DAT1 in ADHD. The IMAGE sample, the largest of the three-replication samples, provides strong support for a parent of origin effect for allele 6 and the 10 repeat allele (intron 8 and 3′-UTR VNTR, respectively) of DAT1. In addition, a similar pattern of over-transmission of paternal risk haplotypes (constructed from the above alleles) was also observed. Some support is also derived from the two smaller samples although neither is independently significant. Although the mechanism driving the paternal overtransmission of the DAT risk alleles is not known, these finding provide further support for this phenomenon.
    • ADHD Symptoms vs. Impairment: Revisited

      Barkley, Russell A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Gordon, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V.; Lewandowski, Larry; Murphy, Kevin R. (Guilford Publications, 2006-04)
    • Adoption of the Smart Cart: An Instructional Technology

      Gillander, Peter (2004-05-01)
      The intention of this study is to discover and understand how Instructional Technology is adopted into the classroom. The study also determined what is needed to meet the goals intended for it. The Rome City School District, located in central New York, conducted the Smart Cart pilot program. The research consisted mainly of interviews and observations. The planning and implementation of this pilot program were studied to understand how the adoption of the Smart Cart occurred. These findings were applied to the theories of Human Centered Design and Change. Findings included the identification of barriers to the adoption process, and the needs for meeting the pilot’s goals. Barriers found consisted of breakdowns in planning and communication, and the need for more adequate training. It was also found that the technology was capable of meeting the intended pilot’s goals, but will be more successful when the barriers are addressed.
    • Adult Psychiatric Outcomes of Girls With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: 11-Year Follow-Up in a Longitudinal Case-Control Study

      Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Fried, Ronna; Byrne, Deirdre; Mirto, Tara; Spencer, Thomas; Wilens, Timothy E.; Faraone, Stephen V. (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2010-04)
      Objective: Few follow-up studies have been conducted of girls with ADHD, and none have followed girls into adulthood. The authors sought to estimate the prevalence of psychopathology in girls with and without ADHD followed into young adulthood. Method: The authors conducted a longitudinal case-control study of 6- to 18-year-old girls with (N=140) and without (N=122) ADHD ascertained from psychiatric and pediatric sources. At the 11-year follow-up, 96 (69%) of the girls with ADHD and 91 (75%) of the comparison girls were reassessed (mean age=22 years). Participants were blindly assessed by structured diagnostic interviews. Results: Lifetime and 1-year risks for all composite categories of psychopathology were significantly greater in girls with ADHD grown up relative to comparison girls; lifetime hazard ratios were 7.2 (95% CI=4.0–12.7) for antisocial disorders, 6.8 (95% CI=3.7–12.6) for mood disorders, 2.1 (95% CI=1.6–2.9) for anxiety disorders, 3.2 (95% CI=2.0–5.3) for developmental disorders, 2.7 (95% CI=1.6–4.3) for addictive disorders, and 3.5 (95% CI=1.6–7.3) for eating disorders. For lifetime psychopathology, all six composite categories remained statistically significant after controlling for other baseline psychopathology. Except for addictive disorders, significant 1-year findings remained significant after controlling for baseline psychopathology. The 1-year prevalences of composite disorders were not associated with lifetime or 1-year use of ADHD medication. Conclusions: By young adulthood, girls with ADHD were at high risk for antisocial, addictive, mood, anxiety, and eating disorders. These prospective findings, previously documented in boys with ADHD, provide further evidence for the high morbidity associated with ADHD across the life cycle.
    • Advanced Paternal Age and Early Onset of Schizophrenia in Sporadic Cases: Not Confounded by Parental Polygenic Risk for Schizophrenia

      Wang, Shi-Heng; Hsiao, Po-Chang; Yeh, Ling-Ling; Liu, Chih-Min; Liu, Chen-Chung; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Hsieh, Ming H.; Chien, Yi-Ling; Lin, Yi-Ting; Huang, Yen-Tsung; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2019-07)
      BACKGROUND:Whether paternal age effect on schizophrenia is a causation or just an association due to con-founding by selection into late parenthood is still debated. We investigated the association between paternal age andearly onset of schizophrenia in offspring, controlling for both paternal and maternal predisposition to schizophrenia asempirically estimated using polygenic risk score (PRS) derived from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.METHODS:Among 2923 sporadic schizophrenia cases selected from the Schizophrenia Trio Genomic Research inTaiwan project, 1649 had parents’genotyping data. The relationships of paternal schizophrenia PRS to paternal ageatfirst birth (AFB) and of maternal schizophrenia PRS to maternal AFB were examined. A logistic regression model ofpatients’early onset of schizophrenia (#18 years old) on paternal age was conducted.RESULTS:Advanced paternal age over 20 years exhibited a trend of an increasing proportion of early onset ofschizophrenia (odds ratio per 10-year increase in paternal age = 1.28,p= .007) after adjusting for maternal age, sex,and age. Older paternal AFB also exhibited an increasing trend of paternal schizophrenia PRS. Additionally, aU-shaped relationship between maternal AFB and maternal schizophrenia PRS was observed. After adjusting forboth paternal and maternal schizophrenia PRS, the association of paternal age with patients’early onset ofschizophrenia remained (odds ratio = 1.29,p= .04).CONCLUSIONS:The association between paternal age and early onset of schizophrenia was not confounded byparental PRS for schizophrenia, which partially captures parental genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. Ourfindingssupport an independent role of paternal age per se in increased risk of early onset of schizophrenia in offspring
    • Age-Dependent Decline of Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact of Remission Definition and Symptom Type

      Biederman, J. (American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2000-05-01)
      Objective: Symptom decline in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was examined with different definitions of remission. Method: Symptoms in 128 boys were measured five times over 4 years. The prevalences of syndromatic (less than full syndrome), symptomatic (less than subthreshold diagnosis), and functional (full recovery) remission were estimated as a function of age with multivariate logistic regression. Results: Age was significantly associated with decline in total ADHD symptoms and symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Symptoms of inattention remitted for fewer subjects than did symptoms of hyperactivity or impulsivity. The proportion of subjects experiencing remission varied considerably with the definition used (highest for syndromatic remission, lowest for functional remission). Conclusions: These results indicate that differences in reported remission rates reflect the definition used rather than the disorder’s course. They provide systematic support for the clinical observation that hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms tend to decline at a higher rate than inattention symptoms.
    • Agonal factors distort gene-expression patterns in human postmortem brains

      Dai, Jiacheng; Chen, Yu; Chen, Chao; Liu, Chunyu (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2020-07-12)
      Agonal factors, the conditions that occur just prior to death, can impact the molecular quality of postmortem brains, influencing gene expression results. Nevertheless, study designs using postmortem brain tissue rarely, if ever, account for these factors, and previous studies had not documented nor adjusted for agonal factors. Our study used gene expression data of 262 samples from ROSMAP with the following terminal states recorded for each donor: surgery, fever, infection, unconsciousness, difficulty breathing, and mechanical ventilation. Performed differential gene expression and weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA), fever and infection were the primary contributors to brain gene expression changes. Fever and infection also contributed to brain cell-type specific gene expression and cell proportion changes. Furthermore, the gene expression patterns implicated in fever and infection were unique to other agonal factors. We also found that previous studies of gene expression in postmortem brains were confounded by variables of hypoxia or oxygen level pathways. Therefore, correction for agonal factors through probabilistic estimation of expression residuals (PEER) or surrogate variable analysis (SVA) is recommended to control for unknown agonal factors. Our analyses revealed fever and infection contributing to gene expression changes in postmortem brains and emphasized the necessity of study designs that document and account for agonal factors.
    • Agonal factors distort gene-expression patterns in human postmortem brains

      Dai, Jiacheng; Chen, Yu; Chen, Chao; Liu, Chunyu; Faraone, Stephen V. (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2020-07-12)
      Agonal factors, the conditions that occur just prior to death, can impact the molecular quality of postmortem brains, influencing gene expression results. Nevertheless, study designs using postmortem brain tissue rarely, if ever, account for these factors, and previous studies had not documented nor adjusted for agonal factors. Our study used gene expression data of 262 samples from ROSMAP with the following terminal states recorded for each donor: surgery, fever, infection, unconsciousness, difficulty breathing, and mechanical ventilation. Performed differential gene expression and weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA), fever and infection were the primary contributors to brain gene expression changes. Fever and infection also contributed to brain cell-type specific gene expression and cell proportion changes. Furthermore, the gene expression patterns implicated in fever and infection were unique to other agonal factors. We also found that previous studies of gene expression in postmortem brains were confounded by variables of hypoxia or oxygen level pathways. Therefore, correction for agonal factors through probabilistic estimation of expression residuals (PEER) or surrogate variable analysis (SVA) is recommended to control for unknown agonal factors. Our analyses revealed fever and infection contributing to gene expression changes in postmortem brains and emphasized the necessity of study designs that document and account for agonal factors.
    • Aligning the SUNY Poly NCS Program with Nationally Recognized Accreditation

      Cook, John; Marsh, John; Adviser; Hash, Larry; Reviewer; Bull, Ronny; Reviewer (2015-01-29)
      This document is an exploration into what types of curriculum changes must be made to accommodate accreditation. In the review of program accrediting bodies, none is more authoritative or more appropriate than the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). In ABET’s requirements for accreditation, computing related programs are defined and delineated. On further exploration, it can be seen that the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) has driven the development of those definitions. The ACM further defines goals and objectives for these disciplines, as well as curriculum models. When reviewing other accreditations, not only are these ACM definitions recognized within those accreditations, goal and outcome alignment is also present. This ‘goal and outcome’ methodology is also present in institution level accreditations that SUNY Poly must comply with. After reviewing the ACM program definitions and comparing them to the NCS program, it is concluded that NCS most closely resembles an ACM IT defined program. This leads to the recommendation of adopting and aligning with ACM IT program guidelines, which provides solutions to multiple program and institution requirements as well as creating a solid pathway to accreditation.
    • ALTERATIONS IN CELLULAR GLUTAMATE TRANSPORT DO NOT CONTRIBUTE TONEURONAL CELL DEATHIN A MIXED CORTICAL CELL CULTURE MODEL OF HYPOGLYCEMIA

      Hewett, Sandra; Thorn, Trista (2013)
      Severe hypoglycemia is associated with neurological deficits thatwhen left untreated can lead to frank neuronal cell death. Despite longstanding evidence in both in vitro andin vivomodels that hypoglycemic neuronalcell death is mediated by glutamateexcitotoxicity, the cellularand molecular mechanisms involved remain incompletelydefined. Toward this end, werecently reported that glutamate efflux from astrocytes via the anionic cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc-, contributed to glucose-deprivation (GD) induced neuronal cell death in vitro. However,the precise mechanism by which system xc-activity links to glutamate-mediated injury has yet to be determined. Thus, the overall purpose of this thesis was toinvestigate whetherchanges insystem xc-expression in our astrocyte and mixed cortical cell cultures and/or alterations in glutamate handling in a mixed cortical culture modelfollowing glucose deprivationoccur(s). Toward the former, no change in the expression of mRNA (GD up to 4 h) or protein(GD up to 8 h) ofxCT, the functional light chain of system xc-, in either astrocyte or mixed cortical cell cultureswas demonstrated via quantitative RT-PCR or western blot analysis, respectively. Further, aglycemic neuronal injury, induced by 6 or 8 h of glucose deprivation, was not prevented by the addition of either actinomycin D (10 μg/mL) or cycloheximide (1 μg/mL), demonstrating no requirement for transcription or translation, respectively. Toward the latter, alterations in classical glutamate re-uptake transporter function also did not appear to be altered. Media containing added glutamate taken from control astrocytes or astrocytes deprived of glucose (6 h) was equally toxic to pure neuronal cultures, demonstrating no alterations in glutamate removal between control and glucose-deprived cells. However, neurons in mixed cortical cell cultures deprived of glucose showed increased neuronal cell death over those maintained in glucose-containing medium when exposed directly to equimolar concentrations of either glutamate or NMDA.Similarly, this increased neuronal death in glucose deprived mixed cortical cultures was shown across several different time points using constant concentrations of either glutamate or NMDA. Lastly, we show that neurons in our mixed cortical cultures are fully protected from excitotoxic cell death when system xc-and NMDA receptor inhibitors are added up to two hours following the initiation of glucose deprivation. Overall, our data reveal that neither enhanced system xc-expressionnor impaired glutamate uptake could account for the neuronal cell death induced by glucose deprivation, but that energy deprived neurons appear simply more susceptible to excitotoxic insults. Therefore, physiological levels of glutamate releasedfrom astrocyte system xc-maybe sufficient to mediate neuronal cell death under aglycemic conditions.
    • Alternative splicing dysregulation in mental disorders

      Glatt, Stephen; Cohen, Ori S (2014)
      The brain's ability to adapt ultimately depends on the efficiency with which neuronal connections are made, destroyed, or manipulated. This connectivity is largely controlled by synaptic plasticity, which creates, strengthens, or weakens signals that are necessary for appropriate functioning of the organism. This constant rewiring allows an organism to learn, mature, and cope with the ever-changing environment. However, this rewiring is dependent on the ability to make new proteins, which highlights the importance of transcription, translation, and post-translational modification in the process of synaptic plasticity. Among these cellular functions, transcription plays a key role in providing the necessary variability that is required to regulate neurodevelopment and cognitive behaviors. During transcription, alternative splicing regulates the contents of transcriptomic elements by cutting and stitching the transcribed pre-mRNA and adjusting the configuration of the mature mRNA(s) to meet the necessary cellular requirements. Therefore, it is conceivable that alternative splicing abnormalities can result in inappropriate adjustment of the transcriptome and result in pathological adaptation. In this dissertation, I review the evidence of dysfunctional gene splicing in neuropsychiatric disorders. Then I evaluate the extent of alternative splicing in an animal model for social interaction. This model utilizes valproic acid exposure at a critical developmental period to illicit significant and long-lasting changes in social interaction behavior. Next, I explore the abundance and types of alternative-splicing dysregulationin postmortembrain tissue samples from schizophrenia patients as compared to non-psychotic comparison subjects. Finally, I describe the mechanisms by which a schizophrenia-associated polymorphism in a strong candidate gene (DRD2, which encodes the D2 dopamine receptor) disrupts alternative splicing and leads to inappropriate transcription that is associated with cognitive dysfunction. Collectively, these results reinforce the notion that consideration of genetic variants that dysregulate particular mRNA isoforms and understanding the biological consequence of expressing such isoforms is a crucial step in our efforts to understand human behavior and to develop therapeutic interventions for mental disorders.
    • An Analysis of a Signature-based Approach for an Intrusion Detection System in a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) using Data Mining Techniques

      Kholidy, Hisham A.; Medina, Serene Elisabeth; Kholidy, Hisham A.; Advisor (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 2020)
      Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) use biosensors worn on, or in the human body, which collect and monitor a patient’s medical condition. WBANs have become increasingly more beneficial in the medical field by lowering healthcare cost and providing more useful information that medical professionals can use for a more accurate, and faster diagnosis. Due to the fact that the data collected from a WBAN is transmitted over a wireless network, there are several security concerns involved. This research looks at the various attacks, and concerns involved with WBANs. A real physiological dataset, consisting of ECG signals obtained from a 25-year-old male, was used in this research to test accuracy of various decision tree classifiers. The Weka software was used to analysis the accuracy and detection rate results of this dataset in its original form, versus a reduced dataset consisting of less, more important attributes. The results concluded that the use of decision tree classifiers using data mining, is an efficient way to test the increased accuracy on a real dataset obtained from a WBAN once it has been altered. The original dataset produced results where the ROC curve ranged from 0.313 (31%) to 0.68 (68%), meaning their accuracy is not very high and the detection rate is low. Once an attribute selection feature was used on the dataset, the newly reduced set showed ROC curves ranging from 0.68 (68%) to 0.969 (97%) amongst the three classes. As a result, decision tree models were much more accurate with a higher detection rate when used on a real dataset that was reduced to function better as a detector for a WBAN.