• Comorbidity of ADHD and adult bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Schiweck, Carmen; Arteaga-Henriquez, Gara; Aichholzer, Mareike; Edwin Thanarajah, Sharmili; Vargas-Cáceres, Sebastian; Matura, Silke; Grimm, Oliver; Haavik, Jan; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-05)
      Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) are common mental disorders with a high degree of comorbidity. However, no systematic review with meta-analysis has aimed to quantify the degree of comorbidity between both disorders. To this end we performed a systematic search of the literature in October 2020. In a meta-analysis of 71 studies with 646,766 participants from 18 countries, it was found that about one in thirteen adults with ADHD was also diagnosed with BD (7.95 %; 95 % CI: 5.31-11.06), and nearly one in six adults with BD had ADHD (17.11 %; 95 % CI: 13.05-21.59 %). Substantial heterogeneity of comorbidity rates was present, highlighting the importance of contextual factors: Heterogeneity could partially be explained by diagnostic system, sample size and geographical location. Age of BD onset occurred earlier in patients with comorbid ADHD (3.96 years; 95 % CI: 2.65-5.26, p < 0.001). Cultural and methodological differences deserve attention for evaluating diagnostic criteria and clinicians should be aware of the high comorbidity rates to prevent misdiagnosis and provide optimal care for both disorders.