All campuses are research institutions and offer bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees through a broad range of academic programs. Undergraduate research and honors programs provide students with opportunities to interact one-on-one with renowned national and international faculty.

Sub-communities within this community

Recent Submissions

  • Multi-sectoral collaborations to increase recruitment and retention of diverse older adults in biomedical research

    Wong, Roger; Grullon, Jason Rafael; McNamara, Sarah Elizabeth; Smith, Nancy Hovey; Dillenbeck, Colleen Anne; Royal, Kathy; Brangman, Sharon Anne (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2023-11-09)
    Background Older adults, especially minoritized racial-ethnic groups, are historically underrepresented in biomedical research. This study summarizes the development and assesses the impact of a review board involving a multi-sectoral group of stakeholders with the goal of increasing the diversity of older adults in biomedical research. Methods A 25-member board of community members, caregivers, researchers, and clinicians from Upstate New York reviewed three projects presented by researchers, clinician-scientists, and a pharmaceutical company between January and December 2022. For each biomedical research project, the reviews provided guidance to increase the recruitment and retention of diverse older adults engaged in the study. Review board members and presenters completed surveys to provide feedback on their experience in this collaboration. Results There was consistent positive feedback from all members and presenters. From member surveys, feedback trended positive in meetings throughout the year. Community members and caregivers initially indicated discomfort in expressing their views, however, these concerns subsided over time. Presenters had a very positive experience in the review board’s impact on their recruitment strategy and study design, and therefore very likely to use this service again. Recommendations were made to adjust membership criteria, presentation format, and funding to sustain this effort. Conclusions Lack of diversity for older adults represented in biomedical research contributes to ethical and generalizability ramifications. The positive feedback from all stakeholders in our multi-sectoral board of community members, caregivers, researchers, and clinicians offers a promising structure for developing similar strategies to increase diversity within and beyond biomedical aging research in other communities.
  • Prevalence of Clinical Symptoms Associated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study

    Silverberg, M. J.; Gore, M. E.; French, A. L.; Gandhi, M.; Glesby, M. J.; Kovacs, A.; Wilson, T. E.; Young, M. A.; Gange, S. J. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2004-09-01)
    Background: The extended use of antiretroviral drugs among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive individuals underscores the need for a comprehensive evaluation of therapy-associated clinical symptoms. Methods: Beginning in April 2000, 364 HIV-seronegative and 1256 HIV-seropositive women enrolled in a multicenter cohort study reported clinical symptoms that included abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia, nausea and/or vomiting, myalgias, fatigue, fever, body fat redistribution, dizziness, headaches, paresthesias, xerostomia, nephrolithiasis, and rash. We examined the prevalence of symptoms with respect to HIV infection and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), using data-correlation models. Results: In the 6 months before a study visit, 49% of HIV-seronegative women, 67% of HIV-seropositive women not receiving therapy, and 69% of HIV-seropositive women receiving HAART reported any clinical symptom. The odds ratios (ORs) for reporting any symptom were 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.8) for women who changed HAART regimens and 0.9 (95% CI, 0.7-1.1) for women reporting stable HAART use, compared with those reporting no therapy use. Significant findings (P<.05) for particular symptoms were an increased odds of diarrhea, nausea and/or vomiting, body fat redistribution, myalgias, and paresthesias, when data for women who changed HAART regimens were compared with those for women not receiving therapy. The OR for reporting any symptom was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2-1.9) for women who switched HAART regimens and 1.6 (95% CI, 1.3-1.9) for women who discontinued HAART, compared with those reporting stable HAART use. Conclusions: Our findings confirm the high prevalence of clinical symptoms among HIV-seropositive women who changed HAART regimens. The high prevalence of symptoms among HIV-seronegative women and HIV-seropositive women not receiving therapy demonstrates that caution should be used when attributing the occurrence of symptoms entirely to HAART.
  • Genotypic Resistance and Immunologic Outcomes Among HIV-1-Infected Women With Viral Failure

    Gange, Stephen J; Schneider, Michael F; Grant, Robert M; Liegler, Teri; French, Audrey; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn; Wilson, Tracey E; Ponath, Claudia; Greenblatt, Ruth (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2006-01-01)
    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of specific protease inhibitor (PI) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations and the relationship between the presence of these mutations and immunologic outcomes following PI/NNRTI initiation among a cohort of HIV-1-infected women. Methods: Viral genotypic resistance testing was done for 366 women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study at the visit immediately prior to 1st reported use of PI or NNRTI (baseline) and at the visit approximately 1 year after PI/NNRTI initiation. We modeled the changes in CD4+ T-cell counts and HIV RNA levels approximately 1 year after therapy initiation as a function of baseline and follow-up markers, type of antiretroviral therapy used, and resistance mutations. Results: At baseline, 52% of women showed only nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutations, 38% showed no mutations, and 10% showed PI or NNRTI mutations. Only 40% of women showed viral response (HIV-1 RNA < or = 80 copies/mL) 1 year after initiating a PI or NNRTI. Among those without a viral response, 54% developed PI or NNRTI mutations. NNRTI (among those with baseline NRTI mutations) and PI resistance mutations were associated with better CD4+ cell count changes (mean increase of 118 cells/mm3 and 64 cells/mm3, respectively, as compared with viral nonresponders with no PI or NNRTI mutations). Conclusions: In this population-based cohort, virologic failure with PI or NNRTI resistance was common. Viremia with these resistance mutations was associated with preserved CD4+ T-cell count responses, providing evidence of reduced virulence or viral fitness.
  • Integrating HIV Prevention Activities into the HIV Medical Care Setting: A Report from the NYC HIV Centers Consortium

    Wilson, Tracey E.; Vlahov, David; Crystal, Stephen; Absalon, Judith; Klein, Susan J.; Remein, Robert H.; Agins, Bruce (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2006-01-24)
    With the maturing of the HIV epidemic and availability of potent antiretroviral therapies in the US, priorities for HIV prevention have shifted from general population approaches to case finding, treatment, risk reduction and relapse prevention activities among those at greatest risk for acquiring or transmitting HIV infection. The challenges of this approach include ensuring access and adherence to HIV care and treatment and appropriate prevention activities to ensure adequate and sustained sexual and drug use risk reduction across diverse populations. Experience with approaches to address these issues, particularly in the context of primary care, has been limited. An agenda for future research and practice includes continued development and evaluation of interventions that can address this next generation of health care issues.
  • Physical and Sexual Violence During Pregnancy and After Delivery: A Prospective Multistate Study of Women With or at Risk for HIV Infection

    Koenig, Linda J.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Royce, Rachel A.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Ethier, Kathleen; Fernandez, M. Isabel (American Public Health Association, 2006-06)
    Objectives: We sought to describe and compare prevalence rates of and risk factors for violence against women during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: Physical and sexual violence and violence risk factors were assessed during late pregnancy and 6 months postpartum in a prospective study of pregnant women with (n=336) and without (n=298) HIV in 4 US states. Results: Overall, 10.6% of women reported having experienced violence, 8.9% during pregnancy and 4.9% after delivery. Of these women, 61.7% were abused only during their pregnancy, 21.7% were repeatedly abused, and 16.7% were abused only after their delivery. Sexual violence rarely occurred in the absence of physical violence. The strongest predictor of violence was engaging in bartered sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=5.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.0, 15.4). Other predictors included frequent changes in residence (adjusted OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.1, 2.2), financial support from family or partners (adjusted OR=0.42; 95% CI=0.2, 0.8), and HIV diagnosis during current pregnancy (adjusted OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.1, 0.7). Conclusions: Women more commonly experienced violence during than after their pregnancy, but violence was best predicted by socioeconomic and behavioral indicators whose influence did not vary over time.
  • Longitudinal Relationships Between Use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Satisfaction With Care Among Women Living With HIV/AIDS

    Burke-Miller, Jane K.; Cook, Judith A.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Hessol, Nancy A.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Richardson, Jean L.; Williams, Pete; Gange, Stephen J. (American Public Health Association, 2006-06)
    Objectives: We used longitudinal data to examine the roles of 4 dimensions of patient satisfaction as both predictors and outcomes of use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among women in the United States with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze time-lagged satisfaction-HAART relationships over 8 years in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Results: Multivariate models showed that, over time, HAART use was associated with higher patient satisfaction with care in general, with providers, and with access/convenience of care; however, patient satisfaction was not associated with subsequent HAART use. Symptoms of depression and poor health-related quality of life were associated with less satisfaction with care on all 4 dimensions assessed, whereas African American race/ethnicity, illegal drug use, and fewer primary care visits were associated with less HAART use. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that dissatisfaction with care is not a reason for underuse of HAART among women with HIV and that providers should not be discouraged from recommending HAART to dissatisfied patients. Rather, increasing women's access to primary care could result in both increased HAART use and greater patient satisfaction.
  • Predictors of Partner Notification for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae: An Examination of Social Cognitive and Psychological Factors

    Schwartz, Rebecca M.; Malka, Edmond S.; Augenbraun, Michael; Rubin, Steven; Hogben, Matthew; Liddon, Nicole; McCormack, William M.; Wilson, Tracey E. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2006-07-01)
    Efforts to control chlamydial and gonococcal infections include notifying eligible sexual partners of possible infection, primarily by asking the diagnosed patient to notify their partners. This approach, known as patient referral, is widely used but poorly understood. The current study examined psychosocial and cognitive factors associated with patient referral among an urban, minority sample of 168 participants recently diagnosed with Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. At a follow-up interview 1-month from diagnosis, participants were more likely to have notified all eligible partners if they had greater intention to notify at baseline (OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 1.34, 10.30) and if they had only one partner at baseline (OR = 4.08; 95% CI = 1.61, 10.31). There were also gender differences as well as differences based on type of partner (i.e., regular, casual, one-time). The implications of these findings for the design of programs to promote patient referral for sexually transmitted infections are discussed.
  • Patterns and Predictors of Changes in Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Longitudinal Study of Men and Women

    Lazo, M.; Gange, S. J.; Wilson, T. E.; Anastos, K.; Ostrow, D. G.; Witt, M. D.; Jacobson, L. P. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2007-11-15)
    Background: Adherence to therapy is a dynamic behavior. However, few studies have identified factors associated with changes in adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among men and women. Methods: From 1999 through 2004, self-reported adherence to HAART was recorded twice yearly as part of 2 prospective cohort studies. At each study visit, participants were categorized as being 100% adherent if they reported full adherence with their HAART regimen over the past 4 days (for men) and 3 days (for women). Repeated-measures logistic regression models were used to identify predictors for changes in adherence between consecutive visits. Results: Of the participants, 640 men and 1304 women contributed 2803 and 5972 visit-pairs, respectively. Among white men, the prevalence of 100% adherence decreased from 91% in 1998 to 80% in 2003. Among women and African American men, the prevalence of full adherence was lower (75% and 77% on average, respectively) and stable over time (P>.6). In both cohorts, the presence of clinical symptoms was independently associated with decreasing adherence (odds ratio [OR], 1.38 in men and 1.48 in women). Depression in men (OR, 1.44) and use of alcohol in women (OR, 1.81, 1.52, and 1.29, for binge drinking, moderate-to-heavy drinking, and low consumption, respectively) also predicted decreasing adherence. In addition, the use of drugs by men and women (OR, 0.61 and 0.58, respectively) and alcohol binging by women (OR, 0.41) were negatively associated with improving adherence. Conclusions: Adherence to antiretroviral treatment is a dynamic process; modifiable risk factors are associated with increasing and decreasing adherence, suggesting specific interventions. Moreover, the association of these risk factors with changes in adherence may differ by sex.
  • Illicit drug use, depression and their association with highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive women

    Cook, Judith A.; Grey, Dennis D.; Burke-Miller, Jane K.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Vlahov, David; Kapadia, Farzana; Wilson, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Schwartz, Rebecca M.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2007-06)
    Background: We examined the interaction of illicit drug use and depressive symptoms, and how they affect the subsequent likelihood of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use among women with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Subjects included 1710 HIV-positive women recruited from six sites in the U.S. including Brooklyn, Bronx, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco/Bay Area, and Washington, DC. Cases of probable depression were identified using depressive symptom scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Crack, cocaine, heroin, and amphetamine use were self-reported at 6-month time intervals. We conducted multivariate random logistic regression analysis of data collected during 16 waves of semiannual interviews conducted from April 1996 through March 2004. Results: We found an interaction effect between illicit drug use and depression that acted to suppress subsequent HAART use, controlling for virologic and immunologic indicators, socio-demographic variables, time, and study site. Conclusions: This is the first study to document the interactive effects of drug use and depressive symptoms on reduced likelihood of HAART use in a national cohort of women. Since evidence-based behavioral health and antiretroviral therapies for each of these three conditions are now available, comprehensive HIV treatment is an achievable public health goal.
  • The HIV prevention needs of injection drug users in Estonia

    Wilson, Tracey E; Sharma, Anjali; Zilmer, Kai; Kalikova, Nelli; Uusküla, Anneli (SAGE Publications, 2016-06-25)
    To assess the relationships between HIV transmission risk behaviours, HIV serostatus and knowledge of HIV serostatus among active injection drug users (IDUs) residing in Tallinn, Estonia, we conducted HIV testing and administered a standardized interview to 266 participants reporting recent injection drug use. In total, 45% were HIV positive, and of those, 39% knew their HIV serostatus. Those who knew their HIV-positive serostatus were less likely to report giving someone else their needle after they used it (9%) than were HIV-negative participants (23%) and those who were HIV positive but unaware of their HIV-positive serostatus (25%). There were no statistically significant differences in unprotected sex or other drug use behaviours between the groups. Most participants reported that HIV can be transmitted through sharing needles (98%) and unprotected sexual activity (93%). Prevention needs of IDUs in this area include increasing the rates of HIV testing and implementing effective programmes to reduce sexual and drug use risk behaviours.
  • Impact of Menopause on Condom Use by HIV-Seropositive and Comparison Seronegative Women

    Massad, L Stewart; Evans, Charlesnika T; Wilson, Tracey E; Golub, Elizabeth T; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Howard, Andrea; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Weber, Kathleen; Schilder, Katherine (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2008-03-01)
  • HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors and Beliefs Among Black West Indian Immigrants and US-Born Blacks

    Hoffman, Susie; Beckford Jarrett, Sharlene T.; Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Wallace, Scyatta A.; Augenbraun, Michael; Hogben, Matthew; Liddon, Nicole; McCormack, William M.; Rubin, Steve; Wilson, Tracey E. (American Public Health Association, 2008-11)
    Objectives: We compared Black West Indian immigrants' and US-born Blacks' sexual and drug-use risk behaviors and their beliefs related to using condoms and informing partners of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to identify possible differences in risk. Methods: We drew data from the baseline assessment of a clinic-based intervention designed to increase partner STI notification. Results: Black West Indian men were less likely than were US-born Black men to report nonregular partners. There were no differences in condom use. US-born Black women were more likely than were Black West Indian women to be extremely confident that they could convince their regular partners to use condoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 4.76), whereas there were no differences between Black West Indian and US-born Black men on this measure (interaction P = .06). US-born Black women were more likely than were Black West Indian women to be extremely confident in their ability to discuss STI screening with their regular partners (OR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.03, 3.47). Conclusions: Black West Indian women's lower levels of confidence that they can discuss STI screening with their regular partners and convince these partners to use condoms may increase their infection risk. Gender-sensitive interventions are warranted for Black West Indian immigrants, especially women.
  • A Randomized Controlled Trial for Reducing Risks for Sexually Transmitted Infections Through Enhanced Patient-Based Partner Notification

    Wilson, Tracey E.; Hogben, Matthew; Malka, Edmond S.; Liddon, Nicole; McCormack, William M.; Rubin, Steve R.; Augenbraun, Michael A. (American Public Health Association, 2009-04)
    Objectives: We sought to assess the effectiveness of approaches targeting improved sexually transmitted infection (STI) sexual partner notification through patient referral. Methods: From January 2002 through December 2004, 600 patients with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis were recruited from STI clinics and randomly assigned to either a standard-of-care group or a group that was counseled at the time of diagnosis and given additional follow-up contact. Participants completed an interview at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months and were checked at 6 months for gonorrhea or chlamydial infection via nucleic acid amplification testing of urine. Results: Program participants were more likely to report sexual partner notification at 1 month (86% control, 92% intervention; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 3.0) and were more likely to report no unprotected sexual intercourse at 6 months (38% control, 48% intervention; AOR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.1). Gonorrhea or chlamydial infection was detected in 6% of intervention and 11% of control participants at follow-up (AOR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 4.1), with greatest benefits seen among men (for gender interaction, P = .03). Conclusions: This patient-based sexual partner notification program can help reduce risks for subsequent STIs among urban, minority patients presenting for care at STI clinics.
  • Crack cocaine, disease progression, and mortality in a multicenter cohort of HIV-1 positive women

    Cook, Judith A; Burke-Miller, Jane K; Cohen, Mardge H; Cook, Robert L; Vlahov, David; Wilson, Tracey E; Golub, Elizabeth T; Schwartz, Rebecca M; Howard, Andrea A; Ponath, Claudia; et al. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2008-07-11)
    Background: Longitudinal associations between patterns of crack cocaine use and progression of HIV-1 disease are poorly understood, especially among women. This study explores relationships between crack use and HIV-1 disease outcomes in a multicenter cohort of infected women. Methods: Subjects were 1686 HIV-seropositive women enrolled at six US research centers in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Approximately 80% were non-white and 29% used crack during the study period. Cox survival and random regression analysis examined biannual observations made April 1996 through September 2004. Outcome measures included death due to AIDS-related causes, CD4 cell count, HIV-1 RNA level, and newly acquired AIDS-defining illnesses. Results: Persistent crack users were over three times as likely as non-users to die from AIDS-related causes, controlling for use of HAART self-reported at 95% or higher adherence, problem drinking, age, race, income, education, illness duration, study site, and baseline virologic and immunologic indicators. Persistent crack users and intermittent users in active and abstinent phases showed greater CD4 cell loss and higher HIV-1 RNA levels controlling for the same covariates. Persistent and intermittent crack users were more likely than non-users to develop new AIDS-defining illnesses controlling for identical confounds. These results persisted when controlling for heroin use, tobacco smoking, depressive symptoms, hepatitis C virus coinfection, and injection drug use. Conclusion: Use of crack cocaine independently predicts AIDS-related mortality, immunologic and virologic markers of HIV-1 disease progression, and development of AIDS-defining illnesses among women.
  • Longitudinal Trends in Hazardous Alcohol Consumption Among Women With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, 1995-2006

    Cook, R. L.; Zhu, F.; Belnap, B. H.; Weber, K.; Cook, J. A.; Vlahov, D.; Wilson, T. E.; Hessol, N. A.; Plankey, M.; Howard, A. A.; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2009-03-03)
    Hazardous alcohol consumption among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with several adverse health and behavioral outcomes, but the proportion of HIV-positive women who engage in hazardous drinking over time is unclear. The authors sought to determine rates of hazardous alcohol consumption among these women over time and to identify factors associated with this behavior. Subjects were 2,770 HIV-positive women recruited from 6 US cities who participated in semiannual follow-up visits in the Women's Interagency HIV Study from 1995 to 2006. Hazardous alcohol consumption was defined as exceeding daily (> or =4 drinks) or weekly (>7 drinks) consumption recommendations. Over the 11-year follow-up period, 14%-24% of the women reported past-year hazardous drinking, with a slight decrease in hazardous drinking over time. Women were significantly more likely to report hazardous drinking if they were unemployed, were not high school graduates, had been enrolled in the original cohort (1994-1995), had a CD4 cell count of 200-500 cells/mL, were hepatitis C-seropositive, or had symptoms of depression. Approximately 1 in 5 of the women met criteria for hazardous drinking. Interventions to identify and address hazardous drinking among HIV-positive women are urgently needed.
  • Disclosure of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use to Health Care Providers among HIV-Infected Women

    Liu, Chenglong; Yang, Yang; Gange, Stephen J.; Weber, Kathleen; Sharp, Gerald B.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Levine, Alexandra; Robison, Esther; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Gandhi, Monica; et al. (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2009-11)
    To determine prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use disclosure to health care providers and whether CAM use disclosure is associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence among HIV-infected women, we analyzed longitudinal data collected between October 1994 and March 2002 from HIV-infected CAM-using women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Repeated measures Poisson regression models were constructed to evaluate associations of selected predictors with CAM use disclosure and association between CAM use disclosure and HAART adherence. A total of 1,377 HIV-infected women reported CAM use during study follow-up and contributed a total of 4,689 CAM-using person visits. The overall prevalence of CAM use disclosure to health care providers was 36% across study visits. Women over 45 years old, with a college education, or with health insurance coverage were more likely to disclose their CAM use to health care providers, whereas women identified as non-Hispanic Black or other ethnicities were less likely to communicate their CAM usage. More health care provider visits, more CAM domains used, and higher health care satisfaction scores had significant relationships with increased levels of CAM use disclosure. Restricting analysis to use of herbal or nonherbal medications only, similar results were obtained. Compared to other CAM domains, mind-body practice had the lowest prevalence of CAM use disclosure. Additionally, CAM use disclosure was significantly associated with higher HAART adherence. From this study, we showed that a high percentage of HIV-infected women did not discuss their CAM use with health care providers. Interventions targeted towards both physicians and patients may enhance communication of CAM use, avoid potential adverse events and drug interactions, and enhance HAART adherence.
  • Association of Race, Substance Abuse, and Health Insurance Coverage With Use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Women, 2005

    Lillie-Blanton, Marsha; Stone, Valerie E.; Snow Jones, Alison; Levi, Jeffrey; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Hessol, Nancy A.; Wilson, Tracey E. (American Public Health Association, 2010-08)
    Objectives: We examined racial/ethnic disparities in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use and whether differences are moderated by substance use or insurance status, using data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods: Logistic regression examined HAART use in a longitudinal cohort of women for whom HAART was clinically indicated in 2005 (N = 1354). Results: Approximately 3 of every 10 eligible women reported not taking HAART. African American and Hispanic women were less likely than were White women to use HAART. After we adjusted for potential confounders, the higher likelihood of not using HAART persisted for African American but not for Hispanic women. Uninsured and privately insured women, regardless of race/ethnicity, were less likely than were Medicaid enrollees to use HAART. Although alcohol use was related to HAART nonuse, illicit drug use was not. Conclusions: These findings suggest that expanding and improving insurance coverage should increase access to antiretroviral therapy across racial/ethnic groups, but it is not likely to eliminate the disparity in use of HAART between African American and White women with HIV/AIDS.
  • Psychosocial Characteristics and Sexual Behaviors of People in Care for HIV Infection: An Examination of Men Who Have Sex with Men, Heterosexual Men and Women

    Golin, Carol; Marks, Gary; Wright, Julie; Gerkovich, Mary; Tien, Hsiao-Chuan; Patel, Shilpa N.; Gardner, Lytt; O’Daniels, Christine; Wilson, Tracey E.; Thrun, Mark; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2009-09-11)
    Few studies have examined the psychosocial factors associated with sexual transmission behaviors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), heterosexual men (MSW) and women. We enrolled 1,050 sexually active HIV-positive patients at seven HIV clinics in six US cities as part of a clinic-based behavioral intervention. We describe the sexual transmission behaviors and examine demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and clinic prevention variables associated with unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse (UAVI). Twenty-three percent of MSM, 12.3% of MSW and 27.8% of women engaged in UAVI with partners perceived to be HIV-negative or of unknown serostatus. Among MSM and MSW, having multiple partners and lower self-efficacy were associated with increased odds of UAVI. Self-rating one's health status as excellent/very good was a risk factor for UAVI among MSM. Among women, binge drinking and stressful life events were associated with UAVI. These findings identify variables that warrant attention in targeted interventions.
  • Knowledge of cervical cancer prevention and human papillomavirus among women with HIV

    Massad, L. Stewart; Evans, Charlesnika T.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Goderre, Johanna L.; Hessol, Nancy A.; Henry, Donna; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Watts, D. Heather; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2010-04)
    Objective: To assess knowledge of and attitudes towards human papillomavirus (HPV), Pap testing, and the HPV vaccine. Methods: In a multicenter U.S. cohort study, women with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and at-risk comparison women completed 44-item standardized self-report questionnaires exploring their knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and HPV vaccination. Results were correlated with demographic variables, measures of education and attention, and medical factors. Data were clustered using principal component analysis. Significant associations were assessed in multivariable models. Results: Among 1588 women, HIV seropositive women better understood facts about cervical cancer prevention and HPV than seronegative women, but both had substantial knowledge deficits. Almost all women considered Pap testing important, although 53% of HIV seropositive and 48% of seronegative women considered cervical cancer not preventable (P=0.21). Only 44% of HIV seropositive women knew Paps assess the cervix, versus 42% of HIV seronegative women (P=0.57). Both groups understood that HPV causes genital warts and cervical cancer (67% of HIV seropositive vs. 55% of seronegative women, P=0.002). About half of both groups considered HPV vaccination extremely important for cervical cancer prevention. HIV seronegative women were more likely to report learning of HPV vaccination through advertising than from clinicians (81% vs. 64%, P<0.0001). Conclusion: High risk women need effective education about cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and HPV vaccination.
  • Multi-dimensional risk factor patterns associated with non-use of highly active antiretroviral therapy among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.

    Jones, Alison Snow; Lillie-Blanton, Marsha; Stone, Valerie E; Ip, Edward H; Zhang, Qiang; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; Hessol, Nancy A (2010-06-25)
    Objectives: Relationships between non-use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), race/ethnicity, violence, drug use, and other risk factors are investigated using qualitative profiles of five risk factors (unprotected sex, multiple male partners, heavy drinking, crack, cocaine or heroin use, and exposure to physical violence) and association of the profiles and race/ethnicity with non-use of HAART over time.

View more