Now showing items 1-20 of 346

    • "Deer in the Duff: Does Habitat Impact Deer Activity Patterns? "

      Fritz, Jordan; Ehrensbeck, Ethan; Baran, Mark; Garneau, Danielle; Lesser, Mark (2023-12-06)
      "Forest communities vary due to patch dynamics resulting from differing successional trajectories following disturbances. The habitat mosaic left behind in the wake of disturbances both biotic (e.g., beaver, forest pests and pathogens) and abiotic (e.g., wildfire, wind, ice storm) can have profound effects on forest structure and composition. These stand-level differences in community composition and age structure can alter browse quantity and quality and limit white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) abundance on a seasonal basis. In fall 2023, we performed a deer pellet count survey to estimate deer density differences across three different forest types 1) recently burned jack pine (Pinus banksiana)-dominated barrens (2018 wildfire), 2) unburned (1957 wildfire since regenerated barrens), and 3) a hardwood forest at the Flat Rock sandstone pavement barrens in Altona, NY. We predicted the highest deer densities would be in the hardwood forest due to the diversity in overstory species and availability of hardwood mast. Concurrent long-term wildlife monitoring surveys across habitats within the Flat Rock offered game camera access in order to compare estimates of techniques in each of the three forest types. Game cameras added behavioral observations of deer diel activity, demographics (e.g., age structure, gender), and abiotic conditions such as temperature and moonphase to our study. Pellet count estimates of deer densities in the hardwood and recently burned stands were 15.88 and 4.76 deer/mi2, respectively. Deer pellets were not detected in the unburned barrens. Game cameras detected three and six times more deer in the hardwood as compared to the burn and unburned stands, providing support for use of pellet count surveys. Behavioral patterns were similar across sites with travel and vigilance being observed more often than browsing. White-tailed deer behavior is largely diurnal at all sites, with additional activity mid-day in the burn, at 6AM and 7PM at the unburn, and 2AM in the hardwood stands. Age structure differed across sites with the unburn having all adult deer and gender ratios of 9.6 and 11:1 adults to juveniles in the burn and hardwood stands, respectively. Average group size was similar across sites ranging from solitary deer in the unburn to average groups of 1.35 and 1.4 deer at the hardwood and burn sites, respectively. Our general habitat-specific deer density estimates were similar for both non-invasive techniques, which provides wildlife managers options that are more cost-effective and less time intensive for surveys across a large study area. White-tailed deer hunting is a major source of revenue in Upstate New York and any efforts to make hunters more efficient at harvest by offering target habitats and times of day are helpful given the lack of top predators available to regulate this abundant resource."
    • The influence of different silvicultural practices and soil characteristics on herpetofaunal communities in northern New York

      Wholey, James; Palladino, Alex; Garneau, Danielle (2023-12-06)
      "There are many different species of herpetofauna in upstate New York, in part due to our abundance of wetlands. Forested areas with soil rich in organic matter, dense leaf litter, moist soils, and abundant coarse woody debris are particularly suitable. We aimed to compare herpetofaunal communities at two upstate New York sites 1) an experimental forest that underwent a suite of silvicultural practices at the Paul Smiths Visitor’s Interpretive Center (VIC), Franklin County and 2) a managed woodlot (Godwin Woods) in Morrisonville, Clinton County. In fall 2023, we implemented a cover object search of rocks, logs, and coverboards, along riparian habitat at Godwin Woods (Riley Brook) and experimentally manipulated forest patches (FERDA plots) at Jenkins Mountain on the Logger’s Loop trail (Paul Smiths). For each individual, we used ArcGIS Survey123 to georeference, catalog an image, microhabitat, soil type, and metrics such as weight and snout-to-vent length. Soil was sampled from herpetofaunal sites, as well as random points to compare percent moisture and organic carbon, as well as pH differences. Herpetofaunal communities were unique and species richness was low at both sites VIC (S=3) and Godwin Woods (S=2). VIC herpetofauna was dominated by red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus), as well as American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer). Godwin Woods herpetofauna were less abundant and consisted of northern dusky (Desmognathus fuscus) and northern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata). Herpetofauna were most abundant at sites least disturbed (e.g., individual tree cut and control). In addition, the percent soil moisture at herpetofaunal locations at both the VIC and Godwin Woods was greater than those of random control samples. Soil organic carbon at herpetofaunal sites was higher and lower than random sites at the VIC and Godwin Woods, respectively. All soil variables were significantly different across sites and likely influenced herpetofaunal community composition and abundance. Our findings serve as an important reminder to landowners and foresters of the need to consider the consequences of overstory management practices on sensitive understory wildlife species."
    • Death in the Fast Lane: Assessing the Variables Surrounding Vehicle Caused Wildlife Mortality

      Gilman, Christien; Garneau, Danielle (2023-12-06)
      Roads segment Earth’s land surface into ~600,000 fragments. This habitat fragmentation leads to, unsurprisingly, frequent collisions with wildlife. Vehicle collisions are second only to legal harvesting in regards to anthropogenic mortality for numerous vertebrate species. In addition to increased mortality, roads can affect local hydrology, sediment and debris transport, water and air chemistry, microclimate and pollution. Variation in speed limits, road characteristics, weather conditions and fragmentation of existing contiguous habitats are expected to influence wildlife mortality. We hypothesized increased speed limits and roads bisecting developed and undeveloped land cover would lead to increased mortality. We used online data gathering application ArcGIS Survey123 to document and catalog instances of vehicle-caused wildlife mortality in Northern New York and Vermont. For 2023, two routes were driven regularly representing primarily forested and agricultural areas respectively. This was combined with a pre-existing dataset containing observations from across the country. Statistical analysis was undertaken in order to determine species distribution as well as how land cover type, speed limit, and road characteristics relate to wildlife mortality. Our study concluded that mammals accounted for the majority of animals killed on roads. Roadkill events occurred primarily in areas of low intensity development and mixed forests. Increased road speed appeared to correlate with increased mortality. Data from our 2023 sampling regimen parallels that of the national dataset. The most frequently found animals were the common raccoon (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephetis mephetis), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). This research allows us to see how continued development and habitat fragmentation is directly affecting wildlife populations in areas of human development.
    • Bioblitz or Bust: A Biolblitz Survey of Godwin Woods

      McLaughlin, Brianna; Grossman, Leslie; Murphy, McKenzie; Cook, Isabella; Garneau, Danielle (2023-12-06)
      "A bioblitz is a rapid survey of the living species in a given area; therefore, the main purpose of a bioblitz study is to grasp the biodiversity of an ecosystem. Bioblitzes have become a reliable and effective tool used by government agencies, citizen science projects, and other private groups to collect biodiversity inventories in a short period of time. Even schools, colleges,and other institutions conduct these events as a means of stewardship and engagement. During fall 2023, we conducted a bioblitz of Godwin Woods, a privately owned property, in Morrisonville, New York which is bisected by Riley Brook. We predicted the forested microhabitat would have the highest species richness on the property because of the presence of the riparian area. In order to maximize diversity, we surveyed two different microhabitats, specifically a forest and meadow ecotone. At both sites, a variety of capture methods were used, specifically Sherman live traps for small mammals, minnow traps for fish, and two non-invasive survey methods Merlin smartphone app acoustic detection for birds songs and a game camera for large mammals among other taxa. The species richness was 22 species for the forest and 12 species for the meadow ecotone, indicating 47% similarity between communities. Species shared were white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mice (Peromyscus sp.), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), raccoon (Procyon lotor), coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), brown creeper (Certhia americana), and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Certain species that were unique to the meadow ecotone were the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) in the forest. Largely differences in the community resulted from a rich diversity of birds within the forested microhabitat. Our findings will help inform the landowner of unique species found on his property and better inform his forest management plan to promote a healthier wildlife population and reduce the risk of nuisance species that might increase disease risk (e.g., Lyme and other tick-borne illnesses)."
    • Whiskers in the Storm: Exploring the Rollercoaster of Disturbances Impacting Small Mammal Populations

      Agoney, Amanda; Duprey, Macey; Garneau, Danielle (2023-12-06)
      Our understanding of how disturbances influence small mammal communities is vital given their role as seed predators and dispersers, intermediate hosts for disease vectors, and as prey for higher trophic levels. We must consider landscape-level disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic, as well as habitat management practices to ensure resilient ecosystems. Disturbances can negatively impact small mammal populations. Studies have shown that deforestation, urbanization and silvicultural practices (harvesting) can reduce diversity and abundances of small mammals in favor of the common deer (Peromyscus maniculatus) and white-footed mice (P. leucopus). In fall 2023, we conducted a small mammal survey across a gradient of disturbance, specifically wildfire (Altona Flat Rock 2018), silviculture (harvesting in Ellenburg Depot), and urbanization (City of Plattsburgh industrial park) and paired these sites with adjacent undisturbed reference sites in northern NY. We hypothesized that there would be greater diversity and abundances in small mammal populations at the undisturbed sites. To test this hypothesis, we performed weekly monitoring of Sherman traplines in all sites and performed mark recapture, as well as collected metrics such as weight, gender, and body and tail length. The greatest abundance of small mammals was found within the silviculture harvested site. Long-term monitoring at the Altona Flat Rock suggests that small mammal abundance has been declining since the 2018 wildfire. A species common to all sites was Peromyscus sp., a red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus) and an eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) were found in the unharvested and unburned sites, respectively. No animals were present at the urban disturbed site. There was a significant difference in weight among Peromyscus sp. across sites, but not length indicating differences in habitat quality. Apart from the urban site, all disturbed sites possessed the greatest small mammal abundance and their paired undisturbed sites the greatest diversity. There are additional explanations for these results besides disturbance, in particular regional tree masting cycles, which provide a reliable seed source for granivores could be contributing. Understanding how disturbances affect small mammals is essential for biodiversity conservation. Monitoring small mammals can provide early warnings about environmental issues and disturbances, helping researchers and conservationists respond to potential problem.
    • Palatable Plastics: Assessment of Microplastic Abundance in Pelagic Fish of the Saranac River, NY

      Sherwood, Davin; McDonough, Thomas; Garneau, Danielle (2023-12-06)
      "Microplastics have plagued fish communities since the inception of industrialization and regulations have not been keeping pace. Microplastics are defined as particulates less than 5mm in size and are characterized by type (e.g., fragment, fiber, film, foam, bead, and nurdle/pellet), color, polymer, and size. Fish uptake particulates via ingestion, gill adhesion, and absorption. These microplastics have the potential to adsorb additional chemicals and toxins, further reducing reproduction, feeding, and survival. We conducted a survey of microplastics in fish of the Saranac River, New York using the traditional hook and line method to simulate common recreational angling practices. Fish were sampled above and below impoundments (e.g., Imperial Dam, Plattsburgh and Cadyville Dam, Cadyville, NY) and only fish that met New York state fishing regulations for capture were kept for microplastic analysis. Wet peroxide oxidation was used to isolate microplastics within digestive tracts and samples were then size separated (e.g., 1mm, 355um, 125um). Particulate was quantified and characterized under a dissecting microscope. Fish generally had higher microplastic burdens below impoundments, specifically 5.22 and 2.58 particles per gram in their stomachs and intestines, respectively. Fish captured above impoundments had 2.56 and 1.74 particles per gram in their stomach and intestines, respectively. The most prevalent particulate size was 125 microns, the smallest of size classes. Fibers were 97 and 99% prevalent above and below impoundments, respectively and were largely blue in color. With the traditional hook and line method becoming ever more popular in recent years, it is imperative that anglers understand the microplastic pollution risks associated with their catches and offers an opportunity for community efforts to reduce our dependencies on plastic. "
    • WHO’S There?: Barred Owl (Strix varia) Urban or Rural Living

      Pollack, Elizabeth; Bellis, Morgan; Garneau, Danielle (2023-12-06)
      Urbanization has been shown to have long-term impacts on wildlife behavior. New York state is home to 10 different owl species, only five species are commonly found in the North Country. Land-use change has been a major threat to owl populations, specifically the conversion of forests to agriculture and development has displaced wildlife and poses threats to long-term population persistence. Barred owls (Strix varia) have historically inhabited mixed hardwood deciduous forests with sparse clearings in proximity to wetlands. The goal of this survey was to determine the effects of urbanization on the diversity of owl communities using acoustic detection. We predicted that owls would prefer less-developed rural forests over urban sites. Using a Bluetooth speaker paired to our smartphone’s Audubon’s Merlin application, we played owl calls and recorded responses. Owl survey sites were buffered by 800m and percent land-cover was extracted for all sites. Aural (n=3) and visual (n=1) detections of barred owls occurred only at the rural sites with mixed hardwood forest and proximity to wetlands during the near full moon phase with conditions of limited wind. Forested wetlands are considered more favorable for nesting, hunting and mating. Urbanization influences the health, survival, and behavior of raptors. Development impacts avifauna in species-specific ways. The nocturnal behavior of owls makes them particularly important subjects for studies associated with urban light and noise pollution. As top predators, owls regulate prey populations and contribute to the overall health of ecosystems and continued long-term monitoring is encouraged.
    • Bats: City Slickers or Country Bumpkins?

      Halloran, Casey; Rocco, Giancarlo; Flaherty, Kyle; Leahey, RJ; Garneau, Danielle (2023-12-06)
      New York state is home to 9 bat species which all play a major role in ecosystems, such as with pollination and seed dispersal. They are often categorized into two categories based on their roosting behaviors within caves or trees. Other habitat attributes such as canopy cover and access to waterbodies also determine their regional abundance. Human encroachment of natural habitat has led to bat populations establishing colonies in artificial structures. The exact diversity of bat populations that exist within human settlements, particularly between rural and urban developments, is not well understood. To better understand these diversity differences, we evaluated the presence of bat species in northeastern New York along a developed urban and rural route. We hypothesized that the rural habitat would have a higher bat species richness, diversity, and frequency of detections. Using the Echo Meter Touch 2, a ultrasonic frequency detector, we identified bat calls along two separate routes, specifically an urban and rural site. We then spatially analyzed bat locations in ArcGIS and extracted canopy cover and habitat types within 200m of each location. We detected a total of 24 bats, with 11 and 13 along the urban and rural routes respectively. Bat communities were 80% similar with 4 shared species and two unique urban species. The most frequently detected bat was the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), with a total of 11 detections. These results suggest that many of the bat species in northeastern NY have been successfully adapting to anthropogenic development. As research continues, it will be important to survey long-term and during seasons when they are most active. Given the threats of disease white nose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) and climate change, it is essential that monitoring efforts such as this be supported among state agencies and citizen scientists.
    • "Picture This: Wildlife Habitat Suitability Across a Chronosequence of Wildfire-Origin Stands at a Jack Pine Barrens "

      Bargabos, Meghan; Hart, Zachary; Garneau, Danielle; Lesser, Mark (2023-10-10)
      "Research on wildlife’s response to wildfire in fire-dependent pine barrens is limited. In the northeastern United States, pine barrens ecosystems are often relatively small landscape patches nested within a matrix of northern hardwood forest with low burn frequency. Thus, pine barrens not only represent a unique habitat type for wildlife at the landscape scale, but also may contain varied forest patches of differing stand age and structure based on their disturbance history. Wildlife may, in turn, respond in their use of this habitat mosaic that is experiencing patch-level successional differences in forest structure and composition since the wildfire disturbance. The objective of this study was to quantify wildlife habitat suitability across a fire-dependent Pinus banksiana (Jack Pine) sandstone pavement barrens in northeastern New York. The Altona Flat Rock is an ~2000 ha pine barrens dominated by Jack Pine interspersed with, and surrounded by, northern hardwood forest. Over the past century areas of the Flat Rock have experienced wildfire in 1919, 1940, 1957, and most recently 2018, resulting in a chronosequence of stand-origin ages. Beginning in September 2022, we established a network of twenty 1km 2 grid-cells spanning the Flat Rock and surrounding hardwood forest. We positioned a camera trap in the center of each grid cell to continuously monitor wildlife. Additionally, we randomly selected three locations within each grid cell to determine forest structural attributes (e.g., density, basal area, canopy closure, understory composition, and abundance of coarse woody debris) and stand age. Preliminary results show that Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer), Canis latrans (Coyote), Lynx rufus (Bobcat), and Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare) are some of the most frequent occurrences, with White-tailed Deer, in particular, having been found at every camera site at high abundances. We aim to continue monitoring camera traps over the course of 2023. Wildlife occurrence data will be used in conjunction with forest structure data to build species-specific occupancy models. These results will provide critical information for ecologically sound management (i.e., frequency and extent of burning) of this globally rare pine barrens."
    • "Living Among The Ash: The Impacts of Wildfire on Wildlife Use Patterns on a Pinus banksiana (Jack Pine) Barrens"

      Halloran, Casey; Bargabos, Meghan; Lesser, Mark; Garneau, Danielle (2023-04-17)
      "Disturbances such as wildfire, ice storms, and pest outbreaks shape forest communities. Wildlife communities are shaped by successional trajectories that follow disturbances in terms of resource quality, quantity, and forest structure which influences predation risk. Our research aims to evaluate the extent to which wildfire disturbance has altered wildlife composition over time in a unique barrens community. The Altona Flat Rock is an ~2,000 ha sandstone pavement barrens located in northern New York. Overstory at the barrens is dominated by Pinus banksiana (Jack Pine) with an understory of primarily Vaccinium angustifolium (Lowbush Blueberry) and Gaylussacia baccata (Huckleberry). In July 2018, a wildfire burning 225 ha occurred, providing us the opportunity to study wildlife response to disturbance, and how this response changes over time as the forest recovers, regenerates, and grows - changing structural attributes and associated habitat characteristics. Using camera trapping, we monitored wildlife occurrences between the area burned in 2018 and the adjacent unburned (66 year old mature Jack Pine) forest from September 2018 (immediately following the wildfire) through 2023. Cameras were arranged to capture differences in wildlife use patterns in both the recent burn (n=2) and unburned (n=2) stands. Species-specific differences in wildlife occurrences were analyzed by year, season, and time of day. Overall wildlife species richness at the Jack Pine barrens was 31 and was greater in the burned (S=26) than the unburned (S=22) stands. The most common species were Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) and Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare), and Canis latrans (Eastern Coyote). Immediately following the wildfire, wildlife occurrences were higher in the undisturbed stand; however by 2020 wildlife were using both stands equally. More recently, wildlife have again shifted away from the burned area possibly due to increasing mobility constraints caused by coarse woody debris. This study provides management guidance on wildlife habitat use patterns in response to wildfire as the barrens community recovers."
    • How Does Economic Growth Affect Environmental Damages? Evidence From Country-Level Panel Data

      Cheney, Tatem (2023-05-12)
      The environmental effects of economic growth are a new topic of discussion in economics. Social media has been a large part of the rapidly increasing concern for our environment. How do us as consumers play a role in the long-term effect environmental damage could have on our planet? We have seen a large increase in average temperature and carbon dioxide emissions in the past 50 years. This is largely due to the increase in consumption of goods by consumers, increase in population and increase in international trade. Having an economy that is continuously growing, how much are we damaging our environment? Is there a possibility that this increase in our economy could eventually save our environment as technology continues to increase? Continuous economic growth can create long term environmental damage that is irreversible. Using regression analysis the following study will determine the relationship between environmental damage, using CO2 emissions and economic growth, using gross domestic product, GDP. The findings of this study include a negative relationship when the model is linear and an inverted U shape relationship when the model is quadradic. Therefore, dismissing the hypothesized positive linear relationship of the Daly Curve and affirming the inverted U shape of the Kuznets Curve.
    • Time-Series Statistical Analysis of Suicidal Behavior Among Non-Heterosexual Youth

      Chowdhury, Adeeb (2023-03-01)
      The disproportionately higher rates of suicide among LGBTQ+ youth has been so widely documented that within pediatrics, it is known as "the suicide consensus." This disturbing trend has been attributed to the pervasive violence, harassment, abuse, and isolation faced by young queer people. This paper employs SPSS statistical analysis tools to investigate the patterns of suicidal behavior among LGBTQ+ youth in the United States and how it has been affected, if at all, by the nationwide legalization of same-sex marriage in 2015. Building on the hypothesis that this Supreme Court decision paved the way for greater acceptance and more positive attitudes towards same-sex relationships, the paper tracks victimization rates among queer youth for several years before and after 2015. It finds a statistically significant finding between the legalization of SSM and the decline of suicide rates among LGBTQ+ American youth.
    • Flexible and inclusive ecology projects that harness collaboration and neon-enabled science to enhance student learning

      Stack Whitney, Kaitlin; Heard, Matthew Joshua; Anderson, Laurel J.; Cooke, Sandra; Garneau, Danielle; Kilgore, Jason S.; Kolozsvary, Mary Beth; Kuers, Karen; Lunch, Claire K.; McCay, Timothy S.; et al. (2022-04)
      "The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted undergraduate education and fundamentally altered the structure of course delivery in higher education. In field-based biology and ecology courses, where instructors and students typically work collaboratively and in-person to collect data, this has been particularly challenging. In this context, faculty from the Ecological Research as Education Network (EREN) collaborated with the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) to design five free flexible learning projects for use by instructors in varied modalities (e.g., socially distanced in-person, remote, or HyFlex). The five flexible learning projects incorporated the Ecological Society of America’s 4DEE framework and included field data collection, data analysis components, and an activity that incorporates existing NEON field protocols or datasets. Each project was designed to provide faculty members with a high degree of flexibility so that they could tailor the implementation of the projects to fit course-specific needs. Collectively, these learning projects were designed to be flexible, inclusive, and facilitate hands-on research while working in alternative classroom settings."
    • Where is garlic mustard? Understanding the context for dense invasions of Alliaria petiolata

      Rodgers, Vikki L.; Scanga, Sara E.; Kolozsvary, Mary Beth; Garneau, Danielle; Kilgore, Jason S.; Anderson, Laurel J.; Hopfensperger, Kristine N.; Aguilera, Anna G.; Urban, Rebecca A.; Juneau, Kevyn (BioScience, 2022-06)
      "The invasive plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) has spread throughout forest understory and edge communities in much of North America, but its persistence, density, and impacts have varied across sites and time. Surveying the literature since 2008, we evaluated both previously proposed and new mechanisms for garlic mustard’s invasion success and note how they interact and vary across ecological contexts. We analyzed how and where garlic mustard has been studied and found a lack of multisite and longitudinal studies, as well as regions that may be under- or overstudied, leading to poor representation for understanding and predicting future invasion dynamics. Inconsistencies in how sampling units are scaled and defined can also hamper our understanding of invasive species. We present new conceptual models for garlic mustard invasion from a macrosystems perspective, emphasizing the importance of synergies and feedbacks among mechanisms across spatial and temporal scales to produce variable ecological contexts"
    • Macroeconomic Factors that Affect the Price of Housing in the United States: Evidence from a State-Level Panel Data Analysis

      Ronan, Sean (2023-05-31)
      Due to all the changes in the economy recently the goal of the study is to see how specific macroeconomic factors have affected the housing market in the past to gain some insight into where the overall housing market may trend in the future. This paper offers evidence from a state- level panel data analysis from 1975-2021 on the effects that macroeconomic factors have on home prices in the United States. This analysis focuses on state and country level variables to determine their effect on the housing price index. The results produced by this model indicate that increases in the unemployment rates, the annual supply of new homes, and the federal funds effective rate are connected to decreases in the housing price index. While increases in state minimum wages and inflation can be attributed to increases in home prices. All the variables in the model are statistically significant at the 1% level and the model has an R-squared of .89.
    • Determinant Factors of German Bilateral Export Volume: Evidence From Panel Data Analysis

      Savage, Spencer (2023-05-30)
      "This study applies the gravity model of international trade to analyze determinant factors of bilateral export volume by specifically looking at German exports. Germany currently stands as one of the largest exporters in the world. By examining the export flow patterns of Germany, we can get a better understanding of what factors facilitate trade and which ones discourage. Research is based on panel data of 163 countries taken from the years 2009-2018. Analysis was conducted based on the specifications of the gravity model of international trade. Fixed effects and random effects models were estimated. The conclusions from the estimated model are that the gravity model is significant and an accurate model for determining bilateral trade flows in the case of Germany. The model also shows that membership in the European Union has a significant and positive impact on exports. Inflation has an insignificant impact on export volume, while population has a significant and non-linear relationship with exports."
    • Foreign Aid -- Economic Growth Nexus

      Barber, Veronica (2023-05-28)
      The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the United States’ current government spending on foreign assistance is efficient for the economic development of the recipient countries. The relationship between foreign aid and economic growth is a highly debated topic, as evidenced by its literature. Some believe that qualitative factors such as institutional quality may be the driving force behind economic growth in developing countries. Others have proved that factors such as institutional quality have no effect on the economic development of a nation at all. In my study, I analyze the relationship between disbursed U.S. economic aid and GDP per capita growth in developed countries from 2002 to 2021. I take into account the potential impact of institutional quality on the economic growth of developing nations. My results showed a positive relationship between GDP per capita growth and foreign aid. Additionally, institutional quality may have a positive influence on the economic growth of receiving countries. I used a primary regression to create three sub-regressions that show how institutional quality affects each income level: low income, lower-middle income, and upper-middle income. What I found is that voice and accountability affect low-income countries, rule of law affects lower-middle-income countries, and political stability and control of corruption affect upper-middle-income countries. This breakdown may be used to inform policymakers in the United States to reconsider their approach to foreign aid disbursement.
    • CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth: Empirical Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

      Nishizawa, Hana (2023-05)
      This research paper investigates the applicability of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis using panel data from 183 countries between 1990 and 2019. The analysis employs a model incorporating a quadratic equation for per capita income. Methodological concerns, including simultaneous bias is addressed. Results support the existence of an EKC for both the full-sample panel and the high-income panel. The estimated tipping points, representing income levels where environmental improvement begins, for the full sample panel aligns with or below previous studies, and those for the high-income panel are higher than earlier estimates. Low- and middle-income countries, EKCs are not established in at least one of the models in each income panel, i.e. CO2 emissions are expected to continue increasing. These results implies that comprehensive strategies are needed that address both economic growth and environmental improvements, especially in low- and middle-income countries.
    • Digital and Social Media Marketing Strategies of American and Canadian Restaurants in a Pandemic

      Gultek, Mark (Journal of Marketing Management, 2021)
      This paper examines the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on restaurant marketing practices and outlines a two-pronged approach of analyzing digital marketing and social media platforms that restaurants use to market their product. The presence of COVID-19 information and practices in these marketing platforms is explored in a comparison model of restaurants between the United States and Canada. Understanding the marketing impact of these practices during a global pandemic can provide actionable insights to promote development and sustainability in the restaurant industry. Since very little research has examined the marketing strategies of restaurants during a pandemic as well as exploring a country comparison model to shed light on the global aspects of it, this paper is one of the frontier studies looking critically at the potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the restaurant industry.
    • Manipulating Chladni Patterns of Ferromagnetic Materials by an External Magnetic Field

      Podolak, Kenneth R.; Wickramasinghe, Vihan A.W.; Mansfield, Gareth A.; Tuller, Alex M. (Sound & Vibration, 2021)
      Ernst Chladni is called the father of acoustics for his work, which includes investigating patterns formed by vibrating plates. Understanding these patterns helps research involving standing waves and other harmonic behaviors, including studies of single electron orbits in atoms. Our experiment vibrates circular plates which result in well-known patterns. Alternatively to traditional experiments that used sand or salt, we use magnetic materials, namely iron filings and nickel powder. We then manipulate the patterns by applying a localized external magnetic field to one of the rings that moves a segment of the magnetic material in that ring to the next inner ring. The results show a significant decrease in magnetic field necessary to move the magnetic material at higher frequencies as well as a significant decrease in the magnetic field required to move the magnetic material as nickel powder is substituted for iron filings while keeping the mass constant.