• Sea Kayaking North Carolina's Outer Banks

      Waring, Allison; Dahlquist, Kari (2010)
      EXP 436: Senior Expedition may appear at first glance to be just one of the many courses listed on an expeditionary studies student's Curriculum Advising & Program Planning (CAPP) Report. However, an expeditionary studies student's senior expedition is more than your average class. It is the capstone course in the program, requiring the student to use all the knowledge and skills they have developed over the past three years, culminating in a student planned and run expedition. My expedition has been set for May 2010, and will take place along the North Carolina Coast. Myself and one other partner will paddle the 70 nautical miles of Cape Lookout National Seashore and an additional 20 nautical miles of Ocracoke region of Cape Hatteras National Seashore. We will travel in an effort to learn more about the area's natural and cultural history, as well as in search of good surf beach or two. In the process we will spend approximately six nights primitive camping on the barrier islands following Leave No Trace guidelines. Some highlights of the trip will include visiting the historic Cape Lookout and Ocracoke lighthouses and the historic city of Ocracoke, exploring the abandoned town of Porthsmouth, spotting wild ponies on Shackleford Island, and the opportunity to experience rough water and surf. This trip will involve a moderate degree of difficulty. We will be paddling around fifteen nautical miles a day on the exposed Atlantic Coastal shoreline, allowing for the daily possibility of moderate wind and swell, caused by inclement weather. However, given the geography of the barrier islands there is the option, should the conditions arise, to take an alternate route inland through the Intracoastal Waterway. We may also choose this route for one or two days of travel, to be able to experience the marsh ecosystem that exists on the protected side of these barrier islands. Although the Outer Banks only have a small two-foot tidal range some of the inlets that cut through the barrier islands can have currents in excess of three knots. While manageable, proper planning and timing will make travel much easier. This expedition is sure to test my planning, personal paddling, and camping skills. There is no doubt in my mind that it will be a challenging experience, but will hopefully be an enjoyable one as well. In the following pages you find the written result of the planning process for this expedition.
    • Shake This Square World and Blast Off for Kicksville: Teaching History with Post-WWII Prescriptive Classroom Films

      Neuhaus, Jessamyn (The History Teacher, 2010-11)
      The article discusses using social adjustment films from the late 1940s to the 1960s to teach students about U.S. history. It examines several films' themes including sexuality, manners, and drug use. Other films concerned safety, driving, and dating. The author reflects on her students' reactions to the films and analyzes humor as an educational tool. Several prescriptive classroom films are discussed, including "Marijuana" starring singer Sonny Bono, "A Date With Your Family" and "What to Do on a Date." The article also comments on viewing these mental hygiene films as reactions to social change.
    • A short proof and generalization of Lagrange's theorem on continued fractions

      Northshield, Sam (American Mathematical Monthly, 2011)
      We present a short new proof that the continued fraction of a quadratic irrational eventually repeats. The proof easily generalizes; we construct a large class of functions which, when iterated, must eventually repeat when starting with a quadratic irrational.
    • Integrating across Pascal's triangle

      Northshield, Sam (Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 2011)
      Sums across the rows of Pascal's triangle yield powers of 2 while certain diagonal sums yield the Fibonacci numbers which are asymptotic to powers of the golden ratio. Sums across other diagonals yield quantities asymptotic to powers of c where c depends on the direction of the diagonals. We generalize this to the continuous case. Using the gamma function, we generalize the binomial coefficients to real variables and thus form a generalization of Pascal's triangle. Integration of these generalized binomial coefficients over various families of lines and curves yield quantities asymptotic to powers of some c where c can be determined explicitly. Finally, we revisit the discrete case.
    • Organized Chaos

      Mathers, Cara-Jean (2011)
      When Dr. Schaefer first introduced the Skopp Project in class I was immediately interested because of my family's connection with World War II. Most of the men on my mother's side including my grandfather who fought on the beaches of Normandy brought or sent home memorabilia. This summer when we were cleaning out an old camp that used to belong to my Grandfather we found a box with a Nazi swastika eagle on it that was filled with various things containing swastikas. The box was very fresh in my mind when Dr. Schaefer introduced the project because I was very curious about, what actually happened in Nazi Germany. That is why i decided to participate in the competition, however that is not the motivation for my project. What really gave me the idea was a movie that 1 watched in my HIS285 class entitled Night and Fog, which depicted what the remaining death camps really looked like. The first thing that I noticed in the movie was that everything in the camp was a straight edged rectangle, it interested me because I had never really thought about the actual process of what it takes to plan the extermination of a race. Everything was carefully calculated and figured out, nothing was left to chance. What I want people to really reflect on is how something as chaotic as the Holocaust can occur in places that were so carefully planned and organized. My project is going to consist of a replica model of Auschwitz-Birkineau. I am going recreate the structures of the death camp on a scale thai everyone can grasp. The "ground" of the model is going to be a series of different poems that express some of the details of what occurred at that camp and different ideas that people have about the holocaust. Poems are the best way to get people to reflect and think about something because they in themselves have to be interpreted and reflected upon. The poems are also there to further demonstrate the chaos among the organization because of the ideas and feelings that they will express. The model of the camp shows the perfectly rectangular buildings while the poems scattered throughout represent the people and the ideas that died there and survived there. No one really ever thinks about the planning of the Holocaust, most think about how something like that could happen. The best way to understand how it happened through a visual aid is to depict the planning that went into it and show the destructive power of organized chaos. After all most people by nature are 50% logic and 50% chaos.
    • Sonnets for Remembrance

      Stone, Jennifer (2011)
    • Establishing records for Drosera (sundews) in Clinton County, NY

      Schelling, Lilly; May, Shane; Martine, Christopher (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2011)
      The focus of this study was to establish locality records and collect a herbarium specimen for the genus Drosera (sundew) in Clinton County, NY. Although there are suitable sites for Drosera in Clinton County there were no known herbarium records for the presence of the genus, according to the New York Flora Atlas. Two species, Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera intermedia, were hypothesized to be found in bog sites in Clinton County based on their range in the Northeast. Localities surveyed for Drosera presence included sites specified by the New York Natural Heritage Program (NYNHP) as previously having Drosera and sites of bog designation. Sites that have been recorded by the NYNHP as having Sarracenia purpurea presence were also searched, as this species is usually found growing alongside Drosera. Of the locations visited in this study, Drosera presence was only observed in two of the sites. Both locations were previously identified by the NYNHP as sites where Drosera was present. The first site, Stafford Rock, is a black spruce/ tamarack bog located on a sandstone pavement barren. This site was last visited by the NYNHP in 1991 and was classified as a healthy bog site in excellent condition. After observing this site, it seems the health of the bog is in question and will be compromised by overcrowding by woody vegetation. The second Drosera site, Mud Pond, is a tamarack/ dwarf shrub bog declared in 2005 by the NYNHP to be in excellent condition. Drosera individuals at this site are growing in a creeping sphagnum bed across the pond; which may prevent other species from moving into the Drosera habitat. Drosera rotundifolia was the only sundew species recorded.
    • Methods for Determining New Biovolumes for Copepods and Cladocerans

      Binggeli, Casey; Waring, Allison; Mihuc, Timothy (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2011)
      Zooplankton are an important component of the food web in freshwater lake ecosystems. Despite there being an abundance of density data for zooplankton taxa in these lakes, there is very little information that exists about pelagic zooplankton biovolume or biomass in temperate lakes. Biovolume is a useful estimate of biomass energy because it determines how much space a species occupies. For this research, we developed new biovolume techniques for freshwater zooplankton based on body size and geometric shape. These techniques were applied to two groups of crustacean zooplankton, the copepods and the cladocerans. Copepod biovolume is broken into two formulas: the ellipsoid formula and the cone formula. For the cladocerans, two formulas were used: one for the Bosminidae family and one for Daphnidae family. Daphnia biovolume is composed of two formulas: the ellipsoid formula and the cylinder formula. The Bosminid family biovolume formula is the same as the ellipsoid formula. These new biovolume fomulas proved to be a useful measurement of zooplankton community structure when compared with density data.
    • An ecological and cultural review of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae): Dreamtime - present

      Carroll, Rory; Martine, Christopher (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2011)
      Since the first humans arrived on the continent of Australia, they have been in a symbiotic dance with the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). This member of the flightless ratite family is a testament to evolutionary adaptation and survival in harsh habitats. It has also played a key role in Aboriginal survival, as it is deeply rooted in Aboriginal mythology, culture, and medicine. The use of emu oil began with the Aborigines and its use is widespread today. The influence of the emu now reaches around the world. By virtue of its unique characteristics, the emu has been the subject of studies in contemporary evolutionary theory, phylogenetics, agriculture, and medicine.
    • Perspectives of Psychosomatic Medicine: An Integration of Psychoneuroimmunology and Epigenetics

      Kryza, Maria (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2011)
      After being subject to Descartes' fallacy for the past few centuries, it has now again been recognized that the mental state has an impact on health and disease, and it is becoming increasingly more evident that DNA alone does not predict health trajectories. Psychoneuroimmunology and epigenetics are two fields of science whose research supports those ideas. Psychoneuroimmunology aims to discover the mechanisms that connect our mind to the rest of our nervous, endocrine, and immune systems while epigenetics demonstrates that different environmental circumstances can produce different phenotypic outcomes that are unrelated to the actual DNA blueprint. An integration of the findings of those two fields may allow for a more accurate and complete understanding of individual health trajectories and may generate pathways to a more individualized treatment approach.
    • A New Parameterization for Ford Circles

      McGonagle, Annmarie (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2011)
      Lester Ford introduced Ford circles in 1938 in order to geometrically understand the approximation of an irrational number by rational numbers. We shall construct Ford circles by a recursive geometric procedure. The Ford circles also turn out to be parameterized by the rational numbers. We introduce a new parameterization of the set of Ford circles in terms of triples of relatively prime integers that satisfy a certain equation. This is interesting because we have developed a better approximation for irrational numbers between 0 and 1 and because our new parameterization generalizes to a higher dimension.
    • An Examination of Clinical Measurements of Verbal Working Memory

      Hungerford, Suzanne; Roberts, Katharine (2011)
      Research indicates that verbal working memory is an important predictor of oral and written language processing, social problem solving, and academic success. This study examines working memory scores derived from common clinical tools in speech-language pathology, the relationships among these variables, and their ability to predict language and related skills.
    • Group Environments and Visuospatial Attention in Patients with TBI

      Freedberg, Michael; Lynch, Joseph; Ryan, Jeanne (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2011)
      Maintaining the attention and focus of patients with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a concern of many rehabilitation clinics that work with this population. The novel use of interactive video games to combat the problem of requiring attention to improve attention was utilized in the present study. It has been noted in several studies that video games can have a positive effect on one's focus and attention. The use of games such as Rockband and Guitar Hero have been observed to maintain the focus and attention of patients with TBI for prolonged periods of time. Additionally group environments have been observed to enhance the performance and focus of patients with TBI. Positive group environments are used often in clinics as a means of improving cognitive functioning. Patients with TBI and a control group (undergraduates of SUNY Plattsburgh) engaged in two one-hour sessions one month apart. During these sessions participants performed the task of playing Guitar Hero and completing the Trail Making Test (TMT), Symbols Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and Paced Auditory Serial Assessment Test (PASAT). Each participant completed one session in the presence of a positive social environment and one control session (only an experimenter was present). A positive social environment was induced by utilizing positive feedback from trained confederates. Results provide evidence disfavoring the use of interactive video as a means of attention therapy. In contrast there is evidence to suggest that a positive social environment is a significant form of attention therapy.
    • A survey of northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis) limestone woodlands at Point au Roche State Park, New York

      Shearman, Timothy; Adams, Kenneth (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2011)
      Limestone woodlands are an ecological community type identified by the New York Natural Heritage Program. These communities are characterized by shallow soil over limestone bedrock. Two northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis) limestone woodland stands were surveyed in Point au Roche State Park (Clinton County), one at Middle Point and the other at Ram's Head. Both stands were dominated by white-cedar and both stands were essentially even-aged. The Ram's Head stand was determined to be the older of the two stands. The structure of these stands indicates that they were probably regenerated by a clearcut. Northern white-cedar survivorship was determined for the Middle Point stand based on snag density per diameter at base height (dbh) class. The northern white-cedars showed a "type II" survivorship curve, with relatively constant mortality rates between 26 and 79 years of age. Although northern white-cedar is a commercially valuable species, the white-cedar limestone woodlands at Point au Roche State Park should be protected for their ecological value.
    • The "French Traveller," Patrick Henry, and the Contagion of Liberty

      Beatty, Joshua F. (2011-03-26)
      In 1921 the American Historical Review published the journal of a "French traveller" describing his trip to Britain's North American colonies in 1765. From the West Indies, the traveler sailed north to the North Carolina coast and journeyed overland to New York. Over those nine months he broke bread and drank wine with a cross-section of the colonies' wealthiest and most powerful men. The journal is unusual in two ways. First, it was written in English and yet found in a French naval archive. With its detailed descriptions of colonial port cities and their defenses, the journal was apparently written by a spy for Britain's greatest rival. Second, it contains the only extant eyewitness account of the debates in Virginia's House of Burgesses over the Stamp Act. These debates and the set of resolves that emerged served as a spark for resistance to the Stamp Act throughout Britain's North American colonies -- and yet we know little about the drama played out in the Capitol that day. The traveler never revealed his identity within the pages of the journal. Neither the editor of the AHR copy nor later historians could connect the journal to a known historical figure. This paper, then, will reveal the identity of the "French Traveller," reevaluate what the journal tells us in light of the author's identity, and examine the implications on our understanding of how the Virginia House of Burgesses and their resolves ignited colonial resistance to the Stamp Act.
    • A Lyness equation for graphs

      Northshield, Sam (Journal of Difference Equations and Applications, 2012)
      The Lyness equation, x(n+1)=(x(n)+k)/x(n-1), can be though of as an equation defined on the 2-regular tree T2: we can think of every vertex of T2 as a variable so that if x and z are the vertices adjacent to y, then x,y,z satisfy xz=y+k. This makes sense for any 2-regular graph. We generalize this to 3-regular graphs by considering xyz=w+k and xy+xz+yz=w+k where x,y,z are the three neighbors of w. In the special case where an auxiliary condition x+y+z=f(w) also hold, a solutions is determined by (any) two values and, in some cases, an invariant can be found.
    • Climbing Expedition: The Wind River Range and Grand Teton National Park

      Henley, Casey; Soroka, Laurence; Madia, Keith (2012)
      This is a proposal for a rock climbing expedition in the Wind River Mountains and Grand Teton National Park. The Wind River Range is located south of the Tetons in Wyoming. Although these two areas are geographically close in proximity, they offer different climbing culture and experiences. Based on my research, Grand Teton National Park is a smaller mountain range than the Wind River Mountains although it seems to attract a larger amount of visitors. The Tetons are only a short drive from the popular city of Jackson, WY. On the other hand, the Wind River Mountains are large and spread out. It takes a long day hike to get to the Cirque of the Towers, one of the more popular climbing areas in the range, which is the area of the Wind River Range that this proposal is based on. This paper represents the research and thought that has gone into planning an expedition in the two proposed locations. I used a variety of sources, which include credible websites, guidebooks, encyclopedias, and conversations with outdoor professionals. It also represents my own knowledge and processes of planning a climbing expedition. This means that my proposal will demonstrate the step-by-step process of planning a climbing expedition that I've learned through the Expeditionary Studies Program. The main points this proposal will relay are my own goals and reasons for this expedition, the science and history of the areas, technical attributes of a climbing expedition, risk and emergency management, and the itinerary for the expedition. In return, this proposal will validate me and my partner's ability to carry out an expedition in the Teton and Wind River Range. This expedition is the capstone to the Expeditionary Studies Program, which is required for graduation.
    • A Sea Kayak Circumnavigation of The Isle of Skye

      Maynard, Steve; Soroka, Larry; Aveson, Sydney (2012)
    • Executive Functions as Predictors of Classroom Listening Skills

      Hungerford, Suzanne; Douglas, Priscilla; Selvarajah, Elizabeth (2012)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if executive functions, including working memory, are predictors of spoken language processing skills (or listening skills ) in the classroom, as measured by the Children's Auditory Performance Scale (CHAPS). Contribution of executive skills to classroom listening has important implications for assessment and remediation.
    • The Mekong River: An Expedition Proposal

      Maynard, Steve; Soroka, Laurence; Cooper, Garrett (2012)