• Effects of land use on periphyton chlorophyll a concentrations and biomass in Adirondack Upland Streams

      Bulova, Jessica; Woodcock, Thomas; Mihuc, Timothy (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2006)
      In this study we examined bottom-up (light, nutrient availability) and habitat (stream velocity, stream depth) factors affecting benthic chlorophyll a and periphyton biomass in logged and Forest Preserve watershed streams located in the Adirondack Uplands. Chlorophyll a concentrations and ash-free dry mass on ambient substrate were measured in six Preserve and six logged catchments, five samples were taken per site. In a nutrient amendment experiment, porous artificial substrates containing nutrient agar treatments (agar only, N, P, N+P) were secured to the bottom of two streams (one Preserve, one logged), and chlorophyll a concentrations measured after 19 days. Biomass was significantly higher (p=0.034) in streams located in the Preserve. Chlorophyll a was marginally higher (p=0.063) in the Preserve sites. Stream velocity and depth were significant covariables for both chlorophyll a concentrations and biomass. Light, while different between lands uses (p=0.045), was not a significant covariable of periphyton standing stock. In the nutrient amendment experiment, all treatments in the Preserve stream showed higher chlorophyll a concentrations than in the logged stream (p<0.001). Treatments within the logged stream showed higher chlorophyll a concentrations for the N+P treatment only, and treatments within the Preserve stream were not different (p=0.226). Higher ambient nutrient concentrations in the Preserve stream may explain these results.
    • Habitat Usage by Birds at the Lake Alice Wildlife Management Area Chazy, New York

      Juneau, Kevyn; Adams, Kenneth (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2006)
      The Lake Alice Wildlife Management Area (LAWMA) in northern Clinton County, New York is a popular location for birding enthusiasts. However, this study is the first comprehensive survey of bird species within major habitat types at LAWMA in more than 20 years. Birds were identified by sight and sound in four habitats at LAWMA between June 2 and July 22, 2003. Relative abundance and diversity were calculated for bird species in the forest habitat, and the forest-field, forestwetland and wetland-field ecotones. Thirty-one residential species were observed during the summer, with between 14 and 21 species per habitat type. The highest diversity indices were in the forest ecotones. Recommendations were made for habitat management projects to enhance bird species richness at LAWMA and increase the populations of bird species that are either threatened or of special concern status in New York.
    • Comparisons of Four Riparian Plant Communities on the Little Chazy River, Northern New York

      Becker, D.; Buboltz, A.; Kinicki, D.; Plantrich, R.; Tucker, R.; Adams, K. (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2006)
      Riparian zones are transitional plant communities that are important for the protection of stream water quality and biota and they often have high biological diversity within small geographical areas. This study characterized the vegetation and several physical site features within four riparian zones in the Little Chazy River watershed located in Clinton County, NY. A total of 110 plant species were sampled in the overstory, understory, and groundcover at these study sites. Average species richness in the 1m2 groundcover plots ranged between 7.0 at the agricultural riparian zone to 17.8 at one of the forested riparian zones. Species diversity values ranged between 1.23 at the agricultural riparian zone to 2.32 at one of the forested riparian zones. In this study, the riparian zone with active agricultural activity had no overstory or understory and the least diverse groundcover. Ordination of groundcover data showed both between-site and within-site separations, indicating large differences in species composition can occur on a small spatial scale. No relationship was found between nutrient availability and disturbance intensity of the riparian zones. The abundance of non-indigenous plant species was directly related to disturbance history of the riparian zones. Best management practices (BMP's) for agriculture and forestry in the Lake Champlain Valley should include guidelines for the preservation of natural riparian ecosystems without producing severe economic consequences for landowners. BMP's should be specific to each type of riparian ecosystem found in northeastern New York.
    • An Analysis of Executive Functions in Children Referred for Auditory Processing Evaluation

      Hungerford, Suzanne; Gonyo, Katharine; Brunell, Katelyn; Harrison, Jamie (2006)
      It is well known that attention deficits frequently co-occur with auditory processing disorder yet little is known about the (cognitive) executive functions (EFs) that regulate attention and self-control in children with auditory processing concerns. We present an analysis of EFs in children referred for auditory processing assessment, based on both teacher and parent report forms of a norm-referenced assessment instrument.
    • Not mixing is just as cool

      Northshield, Sam (Mathematics Magazine, 2007)
      Newton's law of cooling, a staple of the Calculus curriculum, is an empirical law not meant for mathematical proof. However, we show it is mathematically equivalent to the intuitively appealing principle that the average temperature of two cooling objects is equal to the temperature of a single object with initial temperature the average of the other two.
    • Nitrogen Cycling and Dynamics in Upland Managed and Preserved Watersheds of the Adirondack Mountains, New York

      Stall, Christopher; Fuller, Robert; Mihuc, Timothy; Jones, Jeffry; Woodcock, Thomas (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2008)
      This study investigated nitrogen cycling differences between management systems in the Adirondacks. The definition of managed site was that there had been active logging within the past twenty-five years and the sites fit into the preserve category because they had no active logging within the past eighty-five years. The soil nitrogen cycle is complex and can be disturbed in many ways, including timber harvesting management practices. These disturbances were investigated over the summer of 2005 when logged and preserve forested watershed soil nitrogen was examined. Five soil cores were taken from each of two managed and two preserved watersheds over a two-day period. These four adjacent watersheds have identical temperature, precipitation, and climate so this eliminates outside influence. Chemical and physical parameters including organic matter content, nitrate, ammonium and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) were compared between watershed management practices. No significant differences were found between organic matter, nitrates, or ammonium, but there was a significant difference in TKN. Managed sites contained higher concentrations of TKN. These differences are most likely not due to direct influences by the timber harvesting that has taken place in the last twenty-five years. The explanation possibly lies in the composition of the forest since the site with less deciduous trees had a higher nitrogen concentration in the soil. This could be due to a lower carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the forest litter resulting in litter that is broken down more easily.
    • Leaf Litter Quality in Adirondack Upland Streams: Managed vs. Preserve

      Bombard, Victoria; Mihuc, Timothy; Jones, Jeffry; Fuller, Robert; Woodcock, Thomas (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2008)
      Leaf litter quality has an important nutritional role in headwater streams. Since upland streams are relatively small (1st order and 2nd order streams) with a dense forest canopy, primary productivity from stream macrophytes and microphytes is hindered (Fisher and Likens 1973). This creates a dependence on the adjacent riparian zone as a primary productivity input, making upland stream ecosystems detrital based and dependent on allochthonous organic matter (Fisher and Likens 1973, Cummins and Klug 1979). Differing riparian vegetation allocate varying nutritional value which in turn reflects the stream macro and microscopic fauna. Riparian vegetation composition can be influenced by disturbances such as logging or natural disasters. This study focused on the effects of logging on leaf litter composition. To determine if logging had an effect on riparian leaf litter food quality indicators, four managed (logged) sites were compared to three Forest Preserve sites within the Adirondack Park. Food quality indicators, protein, ash free dry mass and hydrolysis resistant organic matter, were compared across sites. Managed sites had a slightly higher contribution by volume of all food quality indicators. Differences for individual indicators largely reflected changes in litter species composition.
    • Composition and Abundance of Stream Macroinvertebrates as a Determinant of Water Quality Up and Down Stream of the Imperial Dam, Saranac River, New York

      Hartmann, Erika; Mihuc, Timothy (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2008)
      The removal of the Imperial Dam in Plattsburgh, New York is a subject being currently discussed by parties including city officials, Trout Unlimited and the New York Department of Environmental Conservation. One concern is the impact on water quality and stream benthos below the impoundment which may impact the fishery. This project investigated the hypothesis that the composition and abundance of aquatic stream invertebrates do not differ as a result of the change in water quality above and below the Imperial Dam on the Saranac River. Using a Hess sampler, stream invertebrates were collected, as well as associated physical characteristics (water depth, velocity, substrate size) from two different sites located up and down stream of the Imperial Dam. Aquatic stream invertebrates were identified to Genus or Family and the data were analyzed using various community diversity indices. Results show distinct community differences between the two sites with increased filter feeder abundance at the impounded reach and higher mayfly diversity and abundance at the open river reach. While impoundment has impacted aquatic biota in the Saranac River at Imperial Dam, recovery of the benthos to open river conditions is likely to occur rapidly from upstream colonization sources upon restoration of open river conditions at Imperial Dam.
    • On two types of exotic addition

      Northshield, Sam (Aequationes Mathematicae, 2009)
      We classify, under reasonable assumptions, all differentiable functions f for which the 'secant method' [xf(y)- yf(x)]/[f(y)- f(x)] is continuous and associative. Further, we classify all differentiable functions for which the similar type of addition xf(y) + yf(x) is associative.
    • Long-term Impact of an Ice Storm and Restoration Cutting in a Rare Pine Barren

      Ceradini, Joseph; Dame, Caitlin; Glidden, Brian; Hays, Daniel; Livensperger, Carolyn; Schiesser, Robert; Adams, Kenneth (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2009)
      One of the more significant natural disturbances in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada in recent memory was the ice storm of January, 1998. In northern New York, thick accumulations of ice on tree branches caused severe crown damage across 280,000 ha of forest, including a rare pine barren in Clinton County. More than half of the trees in the pine barren were severely damaged by the ice storm, especially small-sized jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and mid-sized pitch pine (P. rigida) and red pine (P. resinosa). Over 60 percent of the sampled trees were dead after 10 growing seasons. Survival of damaged pitch pine trees was enhanced by growth of new branches from epicormic buds on the main stem. Experimental restoration cuttings were used in portions of the ice-damaged barren to decrease hazardous fuel loadings, reduce the density of ericaceous shrubs, scarify the soil surface and stimulate the release of jack pine seeds from the serotinous cones attached to broken branches. After 10 growing seasons, jack pine seedling density in the restoration cuttings averaged 9,500 stems per ha. The experimental cuttings successfully regenerated new jack pine stands without fire. Meanwhile, tree regeneration in the ice-damaged, unmanaged stands was sparse and most of these seedlings were generally red maple (Acer rubrum) or red oak (Quercus rubra). This study demonstrated that ice-damaged, fire-structured pine stands can be successfully regenerated using mechanical site treatments in northern New York.
    • Should Malingering Matter to Speech Language Pathologists?

      Hungerford, Suzanne; Bassendowski, Nancy (2009)
      Malingering, or the intentional feigning of illnesses or disorders for secondary gain, is a financial and legal burden to society. Documented malingered disorders that are of particular interest to speech-language pathologists (SLPs) include malingered dysphagia, stuttering, mutism, dysphonia, language disorders, and cognitive impairment. Unfortunately, little information on malingering is available to SLPs. In this presentation we will introduce SLPs to issues of malingering, and provide information on how to address malingering in the assessment process.
    • Do Executive Skills or Language Skills Best Predict Social Competence?

      Hungerford, Suzanne; Gonyo, Katharine; Whitford, Shasta; Bassendowski, Nancy (2009)
      Research has shown that children with developmental language impairment are at high risk for social and behavioral problems, although the reasons for this relationship are not entirely clear. Some have proposed that language impairment leads to social and behavioral problems, while others have suggested that there is some other mediating factor. In this study, executive dysfunction was found to be a powerful predictor of social skills and problem behaviors, while language alone was not.
    • The Impact of Meditative Practices on Physiology and Neurology: A Review of the Literature

      Dooley, Christopher (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2009)
      A general awareness of meditation has grown significantly in the western world within the last fifty years yet with little accurate understanding of the nature of the practice. In addition, the broad diversity of meditative practices and their variations of physiological results make a standardized study of effects difficult. Recent advances in technology have provided an opportunity for investigators to systematize their efforts so that the body of research may be more coherent. A more accurate understanding of the physiological and neurological effects of meditation will likely reveal means of therapeutic application for both individual and social benefit as well as further insight into attentional states. The preponderance of literature points to meditation as a practice facilitating a general return to neurological and physiological homeostasis.
    • Assessment of a Forest Stand for Old-Growth Status at Point au Roche State Park, Clinton County, New York

      Soranno, Matthew; Adams, Kenneth (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2009)
      Potential old-growth stands continue to be located and quantified. Although there is no generally-accepted definition of oldgrowth, there is a set of attributes that describe old-growth forests. The Hemlock-northern hardwood stand at Point au Roche State Park in Clinton County, New York has been proposed for old-growth classification. The composition and structure of this stand were sampled between September and November, 2008. Attributes of this stand were compared with old-growth conifernorthern hardwoods. The list of attributes included species composition of overstory and understory, maximum tree ages, stand structure, standing dead trees (snags) and fallen trees (logs). The Hemlock-northern hardwood stand in this study compared favorably with old-growth conifer-northern hardwood stands for all measured attributes except the number and size of logs on the forest floor. Although abundance of large logs is an important component of old-growth stands, the Hemlock-northern hardwood stand at Point au Roche State Park could be described as old-growth.
    • Iraq, Times Two: A Comprehensive Counterinsurgency Strategy for Afghanistan

      DePetris, Daniel (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2009)
      While the United States continues to make military and diplomatic progress in Iraq, the situation in Afghanistan has gotten unquestionably worse over the last three years. Although the diversion of resources from the conflict in Afghanistan to the front lines in Iraq have undoubtedly contributed to America's current quagmire, it is now time to formulate an improved strategy to turn Afghanistan around from the abyss. Fortunately for the United States military and members of the U.S. diplomatic corps, such a counterinsurgency plan need not require generals to limit the manpower, and equipment from an Iraq operation that is continuing to strengthen the country's democratic hopes. Recent calls for a large troop deployment to Afghanistan in the hopes of diminishing the violent Taliban insurgency may be appropriate for a short-term American success story, but such a move would be drastically counterproductive to the immense progress already accomplished with respect to Iraqi sovereignty: progress that, to this date, has helped stem the violence associated with Islamic extremism and promoted accountability of Iraq's national parliament. What the United States should focus on in Afghanistan is building trust among the Afghan citizenry, raising the levels of economic opportunity, by establishing third-party structures to make a true democratic system work. Doing so would result in the Taliban-led insurgency falling short of its ambitions. Through a re-prioritization of objectives, the U.S.- Afghanistan mission will be restored, America's overall image will benefit, and its successful developmental and reconstruction effort will put a major blow in the sides of terrorist networks throughout the Middle Eastern region.
    • Executive Functions and Their Relationship to Social Skills and Problem Behaviors

      Hungerford, Suzanne; Gonyo, Katharine; Whitford, Shasta; Bassendowski, Nancy (2009)
      This study examined social, behavioral, and executive function characteristics in a group of children referred for auditory and language processing assessment. Teacher ratings of executive functions were compared to parent ratings to determine if teacher's or parent's ratings are better predictors of social skill deficits or problem behaviors. Further, eight executive function skills were examined to determine which are most related to social skills and which are most related to problem behaviors.
    • Sums across Pascal's triangle modulo 2

      Northshield, Sam (Congressus Numerantium, 2010)
      We consider sums of the binomial coefficients C(i + j, i) modulo 2 over lines ai + bj = n. Many interesting sequences (old and new) arise this way.
    • On Stern's Diatomic Sequence 0,1,1,2,1,3,2,3,1,4,...

      Northshield, Sam (American Mathematical Monthly, 2010)
      We investigate several of the many interesting properties of the title sequence. In particular, we focus on the combinatorics of the sequence (e.g., what the numbers count), some parallels with the Fibonacci sequence, some connections with Minkowski's question-mark function, and some geometric aspects.
    • Square Roots of 2x2 Matrices

      Northshield, Sam (2010)
      This paper is designed to pique the interest of undergraduate students who are familiar with the concepts of linear algebra. We investigate five methods of computing square roots of two-by-two matrices. Each method gives rise to applications and examples. Topics touched upon include solutions to Abel's functional equation, Fibonacci numbers, Mobius transformations, systems of differential equations, Newton's method applied to matrices (including surprising pictures and open questions), continued fraction representations of matrices, quadratic number fields, and quadratic forms.
    • Threading The Needles of South Dakota and Storming Devils Tower of Wyoming

      Henley, Casey; Soroka, Laurence; Commanda, Brandon (2010)
      For some time now it has only been a dream of mine to travel across the country to climb the classics and the natural wonders of America. For this expedition, that could rightfully be called an American safari, my team will travel to both South Dakota and Wyoming to ascend the Needles and Devils Tower. Devils Tower, Wyoming boasts some of the most exhilarating crack climbing east of the Mississippi on a spiritually eccentric formation; while The Needles of South Dakota contain some of Americaâ s most sustained knob pulling lines on eccentric spires. Though geologists claim that these two formations were created by the same geological phenomenon, the techniques involved with climbing them could not be at further ends of the spectrum. For this expedition I intend to climb for two straight weeks, one week dedicated to each area (travel time included in figure). We will attempt to climb three to six pitches per day at a grade of 5.8-5.11 depending on physical health, weather conditions, and personal aptitude. The team shall consist of my climbing partner Forrest Kingsley, another Plattsburgh State student and avid climber, and me as leader. Even though I have only proposed a two week expedition to two areas, our trip will continue on further west once we have accomplished the goals outlined above and within this proposal.