• Observing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) behavior in Northwestern Vermont Using Trail Cameras

      Garneau, Danielle; Cole, Brittany (2016)
      Trail cameras are an increasingly popular and reliable non-invasive technique in wildlife ecology surveys. They have proven to be reliable, cost-efficient, and critical tools for gaining understanding of common and elusive species in a cost-effective manner. The purpose of this study was to observe white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) behavior (e.g., foraging, yard preference, social group) in rural, urban, and agricultural edge sites in northwestern Vermont with the use of trail cameras. I predicted in colder temperatures and deeper snow, white-tailed deer (Ododoileus virginianus) would decrease daily activities and increase group size, as well as prefer densely forested areas for protection. I also predicted white-tailed deer to be most active in dawn/dusk hours. Species richness was greatest in camera observations at the rural (n = 6), agricultural edge (n = 5), and urban sites (n = 3). White-tailed deer were observed three times as often in spring 2016 as compared to fall 2015. Predators were observed at all sites and included eastern coyote (Canis latrans) and red (Vulpes vulpes) and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Camera data suggest that deer were observed more often in urban and agricultural edge habitat in the fall, whereas more observations occurred in rural habitats in the spring. Patterns in diel activity show that white-tailed deer were most active at dusk, dawn, and during crepuscular hours equally at the agricultural edge, urban, and rural sites, respectively. Habitat-specific thermal properties were observed as white-tailed deer were observed most often at temperatures between (31 - 40°F) at agricultural edge and urban, and (11 - 20°F) at rural sites. Habitat-specific behavioral changes were noted such that at the agricultural edge and urban site, the white-tailed deer displayed vigilance, foraging, and walking proportionally throughout the study, whereas at the rural site walking and foraging were the most common behaviors. White-tailed deer are common to New England forests and serve as excellent species for study using non-invasive techniques, such as game cameras. Landscape- and stand-level habitat characteristics appear to influence white-tailed deer behavior as one considers moderation of temperature, diel movement, and grouping.
    • On integral Apollonian circle packings

      Northshield, Sam (Journal of Number Theory, 2006)
      The curvatures of four mutually tangent circles with disjoint interior form what is called a Descartes quadruple. The four smallest curvatures of circles in an Apollonian circle packing form what is called a root Descartes quadruple and, if the curvatures are relatively prime, we say that it is a primitive root quadruple. We prove a conjecture of Mallows by giving a closed formula for the number of primitive root quadruples with minimum curvature -n. An Apollonian circle packing is called strongly integral if every circle has curvature times center a Gaussian integer. The set of all such circle packings for which the center of the largest circle is in the unit square and for which curvature plus curvature times center is congruent to 1 modulo 2 is called the standard super-gasket. These centers are in oneto-one correspondence with the primitive root quadruples and exhibit certain symmetries first conjectured by Mallows. We prove these symmetries; in particular, the centers are symmetric around y = x if n is odd, around x = 1/2 if n is an odd multiple of 2, and around y = 1/2 if n is a multiple of 4.
    • On Iterates of Moebius transformations on fields

      Northshield, Sam (Mathematics of Computation, 1997)
      Let p be a quadratic polynomial over a splitting field K, and S be the set of zeros of p. We define an associative and commutative binary relation on G ≡ K ∪ {∞ } -S so that every Moebius transformation with fixed point set S is of the form x plus" c for some c. This permits an easy proof of Aitken acceleration as well as generalizations of known results concerning Newton's method, the secant method, Halley's method, and higher order methods. If K is equipped with a norm, then we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the iterates of a Moebius transformation m to converge (necessarily to one of its fixed points) in the norm topology. Finally, we show that if the fixed points of m are distinct and the iterates of m converge, then Newton's method converges with order 2, and higher order generalizations converge accordingly.
    • On Stern's Diatomic Sequence 0,1,1,2,1,3,2,3,1,4,...

      Northshield, Sam (American Mathematical Monthly, 2010)
      We investigate several of the many interesting properties of the title sequence. In particular, we focus on the combinatorics of the sequence (e.g., what the numbers count), some parallels with the Fibonacci sequence, some connections with Minkowski's question-mark function, and some geometric aspects.
    • On the Commute Time of Random Walks on Graphs

      Northshield, Sam; Palacios, Jose Luis (Brazilian Journal of Probability and Statistics, 1995)
      Given a simple random walk on an undirected connected graph, the commute time of the vertices x and y is defined as C(x,y) = ExTy+EyTx. We give a new proof, based on the optional sampling theorem for martingales, of the formula C(x,y) = 1/(Π(y)e(y,x)) in terms of the escape probability e(y,x ) (the probability that once the random walk leaves x, it hits y before it returns to x) and the stationary distribution Π(·). We use this formula for C(x,y) to show that the maximum commute time among all barbell-type graphs in N vertices is attained for the lollipop graph and its value is O[(4N3)/27]
    • On the spectrum and Martin boundary of homogeneous spaces

      Northshield, Sam (Statistics and Probability Letters, 1995)
      Given a conservative, spatially homogeneous Markov process X on an homogeneous spaces χ, we show that if the bottom of the spectrum of the generator of X is zero then the Martin boundary of contains a unique point fixed by the isometry group of χ.
    • On two types of exotic addition

      Northshield, Sam (Aequationes Mathematicae, 2009)
      We classify, under reasonable assumptions, all differentiable functions f for which the 'secant method' [xf(y)- yf(x)]/[f(y)- f(x)] is continuous and associative. Further, we classify all differentiable functions for which the similar type of addition xf(y) + yf(x) is associative.
    • Oral History: The Pilots of Plattsburgh Air Force Base

      Neuhaus, Jessamyn; Beck, Tyler (2014)
      This project consists of two transcribed oral history interviews with two Air Force veterans-Frank Baehre and Henry Wurster-who served on the Plattsburgh Air Force Base. It included a detailed Finding Aid for each interview. Some of the topics addressed in the interviews include: Air Force training; service experiences in Vietnam and Laos and working at the Pentagon; perspectives on the Cold War; and daily life in Plattsburgh and North Country. These interviews are also deposited at the Plattsburgh Air Force Base Museum.
    • Organized Chaos

      Mathers, Cara-Jean (2011)
      When Dr. Schaefer first introduced the Skopp Project in class I was immediately interested because of my family's connection with World War II. Most of the men on my mother's side including my grandfather who fought on the beaches of Normandy brought or sent home memorabilia. This summer when we were cleaning out an old camp that used to belong to my Grandfather we found a box with a Nazi swastika eagle on it that was filled with various things containing swastikas. The box was very fresh in my mind when Dr. Schaefer introduced the project because I was very curious about, what actually happened in Nazi Germany. That is why i decided to participate in the competition, however that is not the motivation for my project. What really gave me the idea was a movie that 1 watched in my HIS285 class entitled Night and Fog, which depicted what the remaining death camps really looked like. The first thing that I noticed in the movie was that everything in the camp was a straight edged rectangle, it interested me because I had never really thought about the actual process of what it takes to plan the extermination of a race. Everything was carefully calculated and figured out, nothing was left to chance. What I want people to really reflect on is how something as chaotic as the Holocaust can occur in places that were so carefully planned and organized. My project is going to consist of a replica model of Auschwitz-Birkineau. I am going recreate the structures of the death camp on a scale thai everyone can grasp. The "ground" of the model is going to be a series of different poems that express some of the details of what occurred at that camp and different ideas that people have about the holocaust. Poems are the best way to get people to reflect and think about something because they in themselves have to be interpreted and reflected upon. The poems are also there to further demonstrate the chaos among the organization because of the ideas and feelings that they will express. The model of the camp shows the perfectly rectangular buildings while the poems scattered throughout represent the people and the ideas that died there and survived there. No one really ever thinks about the planning of the Holocaust, most think about how something like that could happen. The best way to understand how it happened through a visual aid is to depict the planning that went into it and show the destructive power of organized chaos. After all most people by nature are 50% logic and 50% chaos.
    • Osteoporosis and Sensorineural Hearing Loss

      Dzienzynski, Jenette (2017)
      Osteoporosis is a disease that affects 7.9 to 22.6% of women in the United States. This illness causes a loss of bone mineral density at different sites of the body. There appears to be a correlation between osteoporosis and sensorineural hearing loss, but studies have displayed conflicting results regarding this association. Furthermore, if this relationship exists, the exact physical cause of the sensorineural hearing loss is unknown. After review of the literature, although some studies denied the existence of a correlation, most research confirmed the relationship between osteoporosis and sensorineural hearing loss. Additionally, some studies have proposed demineralization of the temporal bone, damage to the cochlear nerve, and protein imbalance in the cochlea as some possible causes of sensorineural hearing loss resulting from osteoporosis. Although more research is needed to better understand this association, current literature provides a starting point from which to expand this area of research.
    • Otitis Media Treatment in Children: Surgery vs. Antibiotics

      Urlacher, Mary Catherine (2014)
      Acute otitis media is one of the most common medical illnesses among children. Cases that are left untreated or reoccur may lead to hearing loss or further health complications such as mastoiditis. Recurrent infections may also lead to problems in the development of speech and language. The correct form of treatment is critical in curing acute otitis media. In this age of antibiotic resistance, the decision to prescribe antibiotics is approached with caution. Tympanostomy tubes is also considered when ear infections are persistent and speech is impacted. But which of the two treatments is the most efficient?
    • Out of the Lager and Into the Gulag: Romanian Foreign Relations Before and After King Michael's Coup

      Van Uden, Kristen (2016-04-30)
      I explore the external and internal factors that led to Romania joining the Axis during World War Two, the circumstances and negotiations that surrounded King Michael's coup, and the effects the coup had on the armistice terms proffered by the Allies. The bulk of my analysis focuses on the development of the armistice terms from those of total surrender to more beneficial terms that protected Romanian sovereignty. I argue that the coup played an integral role in securing these more favorable terms for Romania. I use declassified telegrams and documents between the Allies and King Michael's shadow government as my main primary sources. I refer to these documents as they appear in the 1944 and 1945 editions of the State Department's Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS).</p> <p>I analyze the differing motives of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union in accepting the Romanian surrender, and discuss each of the separate visions the "Big Three" had for post-war Romania. I then examine the almost immediate Soviet violation of the armistice terms. Using this Soviet behavior as evidence, I finally argue that the Cold War began during 1944 as the Allied powers clashed over how to restructure post-war Romania. I again rely on declassified material from FRUS. My secondary sources include biographies of King Michael, analyses of the surrender in book and article form by primary witnesses to the events as well as period scholars, and books that complete the historical narrative and place these events in context.
    • Paddling With the Ghost of the Giver: An Expedition by Canoe Down the Mekong Delta

      Maynard, Steven; Soroka, Laurence; Smith, Matthew (2013)
      Escapism ultimately is a comfort. Accepting this truth was tied to my childhood. However, even after this I find myself still day dreaming of adventures and heroic legends. It was after reflecting on a hiking trip in the Snowdonia mountain range birth place of the King Arthur legends, these dreams were reawakened. I realized, walking among ancient ruins, dunking into the water of Lyn Agwyn and standing on Snowden's peak where King Arthur had defeated the king slayer, that true adventure transcends fiction and is built into the core of every day-dreamer. Actualization of adventure must be done by realistic means. This is the mindset of the expedition planner. The completion of my proposed expedition on the Mekong Delta will be the culmination and proof of my mastery of the expedition planner's mindset. What will follow in this proposal is an argument to prove my mastery is this field of study. This document is research into both the Cambodian and Vietnamese sections of the Dragon's Mouth expedition seen at http://www.cprexpedtion.weebly.com. This document features research about the entire route but focuses on the section of river within the Mekong Delta.
    • Paragraph 175

      Suphan, Jessica (2017)
      Rationale: No one wants to talk about LGBT+ history. As if we didn't exist outside the AIDS crisis and our suffering in the Holocaust is just the word "homosexual" in the list of those who were wronged, easily skipped over. This piece was inspired by those whose suffering is seen as a footnote, because they deserve to be brought back to life. Paragraph 175 refers to a longstanding provision of the German Criminal Code that outlawed homosexual acts between men. Synopsis: Our main character Aloys and his lover Otto begin the story by hiding from the SS in an alleyway. They're torn apart but reunited months later, with whispers of Allied forces amongst homosexual-specific horrors. As expectations mount the two dare to dream of a life together, of happiness. When the Allies attack the camp a soldier gets into the homosexual part of the camp and orders them all inside so they're not shot. But once they obey he locks them in, rescuing everyone else while leaving them all to die.
    • Patterns of Nest Box Use Among Squirrels (Sciuridae) in Managed Forest Stands in Clinton County, New York

      Garneau, Danielle; Sotola, Alex; Leewe, Jason (2014)
      Both natural and artificial habitat enhancements can be the structural component that increases the fitness of squirrels (Sciuridae) and thus warrant study. These structures can provide useful demographic and community information about wildlife populations, such as occupancy rates, litter size, habitat preference, as well as species richness and abundance estimates. This artificial nest box study aims to investigate the nesting patterns of squirrels from late winter through early fall 2011 in managed mixed forest stands within Clinton County, New York. It is known that squirrels are very sensitive to forest disturbance, hence we compared sites of varying silvicutural impacts (e.g., managed for logging and maple sugaring versus a control). A total of 48 nest boxes (16 per site) were constructed, across 4 stands. Weekly measurements of abiotic variables were recorded and biotic variables were examined which included wildlife point counts and nest box occupancy. Occupancy may be a function of nest box height (~3.5m and ~5m), site-specific tree cavity/ snags/drey abundance, thus they were surveyed. Of nest boxes, approximately 81%, 44%, and 13% in the control, logged and maple sugar site, respectively, had visual confirmations of Glaucomys sabrinus (Northern flying squirrel), with one observation of Sciurus carolinensis (Red squirrels). The first noted incidence of nest box occupancy was observed on 20 March, 2011 approximately two weeks after erection at the control site. Additionally, approximately 79% of nest boxes show evidence of wildlife visitation (e.g., scat, crushed seeds, or nesting material), 87% of the high boxes versus 71% of the low boxes were utilized, and 17% of all occupancies contained multiple individuals. This survey provides additional multi-season occupancy data for an elusive mammal species under managed habitat regimes. We suggest forest managers, and conservation biologists alike, attempt to reduce the removal rate of snags and trees with cavities in their daily practices, as these features can enhance the nesting success of squirrels. Additionally, if faced with logging, managers should implement habitat enhancements (e.g., nest box addition) to offer long-term housing and protective refugia for squirrels.
    • Perspectives of Psychosomatic Medicine: An Integration of Psychoneuroimmunology and Epigenetics

      Kryza, Maria (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2011)
      After being subject to Descartes' fallacy for the past few centuries, it has now again been recognized that the mental state has an impact on health and disease, and it is becoming increasingly more evident that DNA alone does not predict health trajectories. Psychoneuroimmunology and epigenetics are two fields of science whose research supports those ideas. Psychoneuroimmunology aims to discover the mechanisms that connect our mind to the rest of our nervous, endocrine, and immune systems while epigenetics demonstrates that different environmental circumstances can produce different phenotypic outcomes that are unrelated to the actual DNA blueprint. An integration of the findings of those two fields may allow for a more accurate and complete understanding of individual health trajectories and may generate pathways to a more individualized treatment approach.
    • Picketing the Virtual Storefront: Content Moderation and Political Criticism of Businesses on Yelp

      Medeiros, Ben (2019)
      This article examines incidents in which business owners incur criticism on the consumer review platform Yelp based on political ideology. I analyze two case studies from the summer of 2018 by considering the sentiments expressed in the review texts, the application of Yelp’s relevant policies, and the tactical adaptations of reviewers. The case studies evince a normative conflict over how the platform should treat viral criticism of this sort. While Yelp clearly cannot truly function as a laissez-faire public forum, its moderation criteria can be gamed, and its efforts evidently exclude a range of sentiments that some users find meaningful. The article provides an in-depth exploration of a platform that has received somewhat less attention in the growing literature on the role of private intermediaries in shaping what kinds of speech attain visibility in the digital public sphere.
    • Pinterest in the Writing Classroom: How Digital Curation and Collaboration Promotes Critical Thinking

      Castro-Lewandowski, Athena (The Common Good: A SUNY Plattsburgh Journal on Teaching and Learning, 2013)
      Often reworking existing digital materials, twenty-first century writers are increasingly collaborative and multimodal composers. This article explores how teachers of Freshman Year Composition can use the image based social media site Pinterest to harness students' digital curation and collaboration skills and promote critical thinking in the writing classroom. Castro-Lewandowski examines Pinterest's unique affordances and offers a case study of how two of her writing students built their critical thinking skills in a Pinterest-based assignment.
    • Plant Community Succession Following Disturbances in a Pine Barren and Adjacent Hardwood Forest

      Krill, Allison; Newell, Collette; O'Neil, Maggie; Phommala, Orathai; Adams, Kenneth (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2004)
      The sandstone pavement barren and adjacent cobblestone formations in Clinton County, New York were created by the sudden release of water from glacial Lake Iroquois approximately 12000 ybp. Today, the barren is a rare ecological community type in New York State, dominated by jack pine, a species that can tolerate a water- and moisture-deficient soil. The soil in the cobblestone deposits supports hardwood trees such as northern red oak, sugar maple, red maple, and American beech. In January 1998, several days of freezing rain in the Northeast blanketed 10 million ha with 2 to 10 cm of ice. Two million ha of forests were severely affected, including the pine barren and adjacent forests in Clinton County, New York. This study investigated the effects of the ice storm and subsequent "restoration cuttings" on plant community succession in the pine barren and adjacent hardwoods. The William H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute, Chazy, New York owns the eight stands sampled in this study. Both disturbance types had dramatic effects on plant community structure. Nearly half of the hardwood trees were severely affected by the ice storm, but most survived through epicormic branching. Understory trees and regeneration proliferated beneath the temporary canopy gaps in the main canopy. Overstory species are represented in the regeneration size classes, with shade-tolerant species being most important. In the hardwoods, neither the ice storm or restoration cuttings caused plant community succession in the strict definition; the disturbances caused shifts in importance of species present at the time the disturbances occurred rather than a replacement of one plant community by another. In the pine barren, ice storm damage was especially intense, causing severe crown breakage in more than half of the pine trees. The majority of pine trees were killed by the ice storm and no pine seedlings were observed in the ice storm-damaged stands. Moderate amounts of jack pine regeneration (between 18000 and 24000 stems per hectare) were found in the areas treated with a restoration cutting. This amount of jack pine regeneration was considered sufficient to replace the original stand. The future of ice storm-damaged, uncut stands in the barren is not promising. Here, the majority of pine trees are standing dead stems and the regeneration, while sparse, is primarily red maple. Without silvicultural intervention, ice storm damaged areas of the barren will have a shift from dominance by jack pine to heath shrubs, especially black huckleberry. The restoration cutting showed that mechanical treatment, while not as effective as fire in regenerating jack pine, can bring about adequate amounts of jack pine regeneration, along with red maple, white birch and gray birch.
    • Plattsburgh Air Force Base

      Garneau, Danielle; McAdams, Colleen; Guerrier, Danielle (206)