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Natural History Interpretation of Rugar WoodsRugar Woods Interpretive Nature Trail is a <1mile loop in the woods behind the SUNY Plattsburgh fieldhouse. The trail meanders along a stream and provides natural history learning opportunities in the form of 23 interpretive signs, each with interactive QR codes to learn more with online supplemental materials. This nature trail is a collaboration of SUNY Plattsburgh students and faculty and was made possible by funding from a studentsubsidized Green Fee granted through the Campus Committee For Environmental Responsibility and the Lake Champlain Basin Program's Champlain Valley Natural Heritage Program.

Nearshore Fish Community Analysis On Northwestern Lake ChamplainCommunity surveys are necessary sources of information needed to properly manage fisheries. These surveys detail important historical data concerning past fish assemblages and the previous status of recreational game fish. Historically, Lake Champlain has received little attention with regard to fish community assemblage research. We undertook a beach, seine net survey at four locations along the northwestern shores of Lake Champlain. We surveyed several unique nearshore habitat types and recorded abiotic factors, fishes, and plant communities. Our results revealed 17 different taxa with four being nonnative to the basin. Lakeview Park had the highest species richness and abundance, which we believe results from the presence of vegetation at the sampling site. The scope of our survey was limited (i.e., small species or young of the year game fish), thus we recommend future comprehensive surveys that include a variety of fish sampling methods.

Neurological Predictors of Persistent Versus Recovered Developmental StutteringDevelopmental stuttering affects ~5% of preschoolaged children. While stuttering disappears in the majority of these children within 3 years after onset, it persists into adulthood in 1% of children. Determining anatomical and physiological differences in the brain between persisting and recovering stuttering may lead to early prediction of risk/nonrisk, and thus, early intervention can be appropriately implemented.

A New Parameterization of Ford CirclesLester Ford introduced Ford Circles in 1938 in order to geometrically understand the approximation of an irrational number by rational numbers. We shall construct Ford circles by a recursive geometric procedure and by a (wellknown) parameterization by rational numbers. We introduce a new parameterization in terms of relatively prime integer solutions of (a + b + c)² = a² + b² + c².

Nitrogen Cycling and Dynamics in Upland Managed and Preserved Watersheds of the Adirondack Mountains, New YorkThis study investigated nitrogen cycling differences between management systems in the Adirondacks. The definition of managed site was that there had been active logging within the past twentyfive years and the sites fit into the preserve category because they had no active logging within the past eightyfive years. The soil nitrogen cycle is complex and can be disturbed in many ways, including timber harvesting management practices. These disturbances were investigated over the summer of 2005 when logged and preserve forested watershed soil nitrogen was examined. Five soil cores were taken from each of two managed and two preserved watersheds over a twoday period. These four adjacent watersheds have identical temperature, precipitation, and climate so this eliminates outside influence. Chemical and physical parameters including organic matter content, nitrate, ammonium and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) were compared between watershed management practices. No significant differences were found between organic matter, nitrates, or ammonium, but there was a significant difference in TKN. Managed sites contained higher concentrations of TKN. These differences are most likely not due to direct influences by the timber harvesting that has taken place in the last twentyfive years. The explanation possibly lies in the composition of the forest since the site with less deciduous trees had a higher nitrogen concentration in the soil. This could be due to a lower carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the forest litter resulting in litter that is broken down more easily.

Noninvasive Monitoring of Nest BoxesNest boxes are an important wildlife management tool which have proven successful in longterm recoveries of waterfowl and other species. Previous studies have shown that flying sqquirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus and G. volans) communally nest in these boxes in northern New York. We sought to monitor wildlife occupancy in nest boxes using noninvasive technologies including cameras and acoustic devices. Between 20192020, nest boxes were monitored at the recently burned Altona Flat Rock Forest in northern New York. GoPro cameras were mounted to telescoping poles to check nest boxes for occupancy and other wildlife sign. Later in the survey, goPros were mounted to the boxes for overnight visual and acoustic sampling. Concurrent acoustic sampling was performed using a smartphone enabled bat detector (Echo Meter Touch 2), as studies have shown flying squirrel vocalizations fall in the detectable range of many bat species. Monitoring revealed sign of wildlife (e.g., nests, debris, scat) in nest boxes erected in the burn site. In addition, acoustic data confirmed the presence of a species of concern in our region, the eastern whippoorwill (Caprimulgus vociferus) who are known to have strict habitat needs involving open forests and a dense understory to protect nests from predators. This research has offered a window into the potential success wildlife professionals might have using alternative survey methods (e.g., technology) when monitoring sensitive species.

Not mixing is just as coolNewton's law of cooling, a staple of the Calculus curriculum, is an empirical law not meant for mathematical proof. However, we show it is mathematically equivalent to the intuitively appealing principle that the average temperature of two cooling objects is equal to the temperature of a single object with initial temperature the average of the other two.

A note on the Zeta Function of a GraphThe number of splanning trees in a finite graph is first expressed as the derivative (at 1) of a determinant and then in terms of a zeta function. This generalizes a result of Hashimoto to nonregular graphs.

Observing whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) behavior in Northwestern Vermont Using Trail CamerasTrail cameras are an increasingly popular and reliable noninvasive technique in wildlife ecology surveys. They have proven to be reliable, costefficient, and critical tools for gaining understanding of common and elusive species in a costeffective manner. The purpose of this study was to observe whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) behavior (e.g., foraging, yard preference, social group) in rural, urban, and agricultural edge sites in northwestern Vermont with the use of trail cameras. I predicted in colder temperatures and deeper snow, whitetailed deer (Ododoileus virginianus) would decrease daily activities and increase group size, as well as prefer densely forested areas for protection. I also predicted whitetailed deer to be most active in dawn/dusk hours. Species richness was greatest in camera observations at the rural (n = 6), agricultural edge (n = 5), and urban sites (n = 3). Whitetailed deer were observed three times as often in spring 2016 as compared to fall 2015. Predators were observed at all sites and included eastern coyote (Canis latrans) and red (Vulpes vulpes) and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Camera data suggest that deer were observed more often in urban and agricultural edge habitat in the fall, whereas more observations occurred in rural habitats in the spring. Patterns in diel activity show that whitetailed deer were most active at dusk, dawn, and during crepuscular hours equally at the agricultural edge, urban, and rural sites, respectively. Habitatspecific thermal properties were observed as whitetailed deer were observed most often at temperatures between (31  40°F) at agricultural edge and urban, and (11  20°F) at rural sites. Habitatspecific behavioral changes were noted such that at the agricultural edge and urban site, the whitetailed deer displayed vigilance, foraging, and walking proportionally throughout the study, whereas at the rural site walking and foraging were the most common behaviors. Whitetailed deer are common to New England forests and serve as excellent species for study using noninvasive techniques, such as game cameras. Landscape and standlevel habitat characteristics appear to influence whitetailed deer behavior as one considers moderation of temperature, diel movement, and grouping.

On integral Apollonian circle packingsThe curvatures of four mutually tangent circles with disjoint interior form what is called a Descartes quadruple. The four smallest curvatures of circles in an Apollonian circle packing form what is called a root Descartes quadruple and, if the curvatures are relatively prime, we say that it is a primitive root quadruple. We prove a conjecture of Mallows by giving a closed formula for the number of primitive root quadruples with minimum curvature n. An Apollonian circle packing is called strongly integral if every circle has curvature times center a Gaussian integer. The set of all such circle packings for which the center of the largest circle is in the unit square and for which curvature plus curvature times center is congruent to 1 modulo 2 is called the standard supergasket. These centers are in onetoone correspondence with the primitive root quadruples and exhibit certain symmetries first conjectured by Mallows. We prove these symmetries; in particular, the centers are symmetric around y = x if n is odd, around x = 1/2 if n is an odd multiple of 2, and around y = 1/2 if n is a multiple of 4.

On Iterates of Moebius transformations on fieldsLet p be a quadratic polynomial over a splitting field K, and S be the set of zeros of p. We define an associative and commutative binary relation on G ≡ K ∪ {∞ } S so that every Moebius transformation with fixed point set S is of the form x plus" c for some c. This permits an easy proof of Aitken acceleration as well as generalizations of known results concerning Newton's method, the secant method, Halley's method, and higher order methods. If K is equipped with a norm, then we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the iterates of a Moebius transformation m to converge (necessarily to one of its fixed points) in the norm topology. Finally, we show that if the fixed points of m are distinct and the iterates of m converge, then Newton's method converges with order 2, and higher order generalizations converge accordingly.

On Stern's Diatomic Sequence 0,1,1,2,1,3,2,3,1,4,...We investigate several of the many interesting properties of the title sequence. In particular, we focus on the combinatorics of the sequence (e.g., what the numbers count), some parallels with the Fibonacci sequence, some connections with Minkowski's questionmark function, and some geometric aspects.

On the Commute Time of Random Walks on GraphsGiven a simple random walk on an undirected connected graph, the commute time of the vertices x and y is defined as C(x,y) = ExTy+EyTx. We give a new proof, based on the optional sampling theorem for martingales, of the formula C(x,y) = 1/(Π(y)e(y,x)) in terms of the escape probability e(y,x ) (the probability that once the random walk leaves x, it hits y before it returns to x) and the stationary distribution Π(·). We use this formula for C(x,y) to show that the maximum commute time among all barbelltype graphs in N vertices is attained for the lollipop graph and its value is O[(4N3)/27]

On the spectrum and Martin boundary of homogeneous spacesGiven a conservative, spatially homogeneous Markov process X on an homogeneous spaces χ, we show that if the bottom of the spectrum of the generator of X is zero then the Martin boundary of contains a unique point fixed by the isometry group of χ.

On two types of exotic additionWe classify, under reasonable assumptions, all differentiable functions f for which the 'secant method' [xf(y) yf(x)]/[f(y) f(x)] is continuous and associative. Further, we classify all differentiable functions for which the similar type of addition xf(y) + yf(x) is associative.

Oral History: The Pilots of Plattsburgh Air Force BaseThis project consists of two transcribed oral history interviews with two Air Force veteransFrank Baehre and Henry Wursterwho served on the Plattsburgh Air Force Base. It included a detailed Finding Aid for each interview. Some of the topics addressed in the interviews include: Air Force training; service experiences in Vietnam and Laos and working at the Pentagon; perspectives on the Cold War; and daily life in Plattsburgh and North Country. These interviews are also deposited at the Plattsburgh Air Force Base Museum.

Organized ChaosWhen Dr. Schaefer first introduced the Skopp Project in class I was immediately interested because of my family's connection with World War II. Most of the men on my mother's side including my grandfather who fought on the beaches of Normandy brought or sent home memorabilia. This summer when we were cleaning out an old camp that used to belong to my Grandfather we found a box with a Nazi swastika eagle on it that was filled with various things containing swastikas. The box was very fresh in my mind when Dr. Schaefer introduced the project because I was very curious about, what actually happened in Nazi Germany. That is why i decided to participate in the competition, however that is not the motivation for my project. What really gave me the idea was a movie that 1 watched in my HIS285 class entitled Night and Fog, which depicted what the remaining death camps really looked like. The first thing that I noticed in the movie was that everything in the camp was a straight edged rectangle, it interested me because I had never really thought about the actual process of what it takes to plan the extermination of a race. Everything was carefully calculated and figured out, nothing was left to chance. What I want people to really reflect on is how something as chaotic as the Holocaust can occur in places that were so carefully planned and organized. My project is going to consist of a replica model of AuschwitzBirkineau. I am going recreate the structures of the death camp on a scale thai everyone can grasp. The "ground" of the model is going to be a series of different poems that express some of the details of what occurred at that camp and different ideas that people have about the holocaust. Poems are the best way to get people to reflect and think about something because they in themselves have to be interpreted and reflected upon. The poems are also there to further demonstrate the chaos among the organization because of the ideas and feelings that they will express. The model of the camp shows the perfectly rectangular buildings while the poems scattered throughout represent the people and the ideas that died there and survived there. No one really ever thinks about the planning of the Holocaust, most think about how something like that could happen. The best way to understand how it happened through a visual aid is to depict the planning that went into it and show the destructive power of organized chaos. After all most people by nature are 50% logic and 50% chaos.

Osteoporosis and Sensorineural Hearing LossOsteoporosis is a disease that affects 7.9 to 22.6% of women in the United States. This illness causes a loss of bone mineral density at different sites of the body. There appears to be a correlation between osteoporosis and sensorineural hearing loss, but studies have displayed conflicting results regarding this association. Furthermore, if this relationship exists, the exact physical cause of the sensorineural hearing loss is unknown. After review of the literature, although some studies denied the existence of a correlation, most research confirmed the relationship between osteoporosis and sensorineural hearing loss. Additionally, some studies have proposed demineralization of the temporal bone, damage to the cochlear nerve, and protein imbalance in the cochlea as some possible causes of sensorineural hearing loss resulting from osteoporosis. Although more research is needed to better understand this association, current literature provides a starting point from which to expand this area of research.

Otitis Media Treatment in Children: Surgery vs. AntibioticsAcute otitis media is one of the most common medical illnesses among children. Cases that are left untreated or reoccur may lead to hearing loss or further health complications such as mastoiditis. Recurrent infections may also lead to problems in the development of speech and language. The correct form of treatment is critical in curing acute otitis media. In this age of antibiotic resistance, the decision to prescribe antibiotics is approached with caution. Tympanostomy tubes is also considered when ear infections are persistent and speech is impacted. But which of the two treatments is the most efficient?

Out of the Lager and Into the Gulag: Romanian Foreign Relations Before and After King Michael's CoupI explore the external and internal factors that led to Romania joining the Axis during World War Two, the circumstances and negotiations that surrounded King Michael's coup, and the effects the coup had on the armistice terms proffered by the Allies. The bulk of my analysis focuses on the development of the armistice terms from those of total surrender to more beneficial terms that protected Romanian sovereignty. I argue that the coup played an integral role in securing these more favorable terms for Romania. I use declassified telegrams and documents between the Allies and King Michael's shadow government as my main primary sources. I refer to these documents as they appear in the 1944 and 1945 editions of the State Department's Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS).</p> <p>I analyze the differing motives of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union in accepting the Romanian surrender, and discuss each of the separate visions the "Big Three" had for postwar Romania. I then examine the almost immediate Soviet violation of the armistice terms. Using this Soviet behavior as evidence, I finally argue that the Cold War began during 1944 as the Allied powers clashed over how to restructure postwar Romania. I again rely on declassified material from FRUS. My secondary sources include biographies of King Michael, analyses of the surrender in book and article form by primary witnesses to the events as well as period scholars, and books that complete the historical narrative and place these events in context.