• Ideologically Driven Loyalists: The Values that Defined Loyal Colonists in the American Revolution

      Cloutier, Cassandra (2016-04-30)
      The American Revolution is typically viewed as a war for independence between two groups, the revolutionaries and their oppressors, the British. Little is known about another party: the Loyalists. This group of people was set apart from the other players in the Revolution. They were men, and supporting women, who opposed the Revolution, unified by their politics and paternalistic values. These ideologies appealed to a wide array of people. Liberal constitutionalism, a political ideology in which one is open to change within the law of the constitution, generated a population of Loyalists who were white males that had held these views prior to the Revolution. Paternalism ushered in a vast range of other Loyalists, such as women and African Americans, because of their adherence to following the male authority, which in this case was the king. Using evidence from Peter Oliver's manuscript and accounts from various secondary sources, this paper argues that Loyalists were a group defined by their politically moderate and paternalistic values.
    • The Impact of CEOs’ Incentives for Risk-Taking or Risk-Aversion on Corporate Performance: Using CEO Vega and CEO Delta as Incentive Measures

      Garas, Samy; Kienpin, Tee; Lee, Chuo-Hsuan (2022)
      This article has a two-fold purpose. First, we investigate whether the CEOs’ risk-taking incentives are associated with better concurrent firm performance. Second, we examine the impact of gender on the aforementioned relationship. We find solid empirical evidence that CEOs’ risk-aversion incentive, as represented by a higher CEO delta, can be linked to better concurrent firm performance such as return on assets (ROA) and Market-to-Book Value (MTB) ratio. By contrast, we find that the risk-taking incentive, as represented by CEO vega, has no significant impact on ROA, but has a significant impact on MTB ratio only among the group of CEOs with larger share ownerships. Furthermore, we research on the same incentives using only female CEOs in our sample. Our panel-data findings indicate that female CEOs on average possessed a lower CEO delta (low risk aversion) and a lower CEO vega (risk-taking incentive) in their compensation packages when compared with their male counterparts. Taken together, these two risk incentives; are linked to a lower concurrent ROA and MTB value. Our findings also indicate that the aforementioned positive relationship between CEOs’ risk- aversion incentive (as measured by CEO delta) and firm performance (as measured by ROA) are less pronounced when a CEO is female. This implies that a female CEO is less likely to increase the firm’s ROA relative to a male CEO, given the same sensitivity of personal wealth to stock price change (i.e., the same CEO delta).
    • The Impact of Ruling Family Board Members on the Performance of Commercial Banks

      Kienpin, Tee; Garas, Samy (Association for Accountancy & Business Affairs, 2021)
      We examine the impact of royal family involvement in the ownership and strategic management of commercial banks within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. Existing finance literature has examined the impact of board members with political connections on bank performance to find mixed evidence of whether such connections have a positive or negative impact. However, such empirical studies have not been applied to the commercial banks of the GCC region. Our empirical analysis uses four separate metrics of performance to examine what influence board membership, board chairmanship and bank ownership shares by a royal family member has on bank performance. Our panel data analysis of GCC commercial bank data across six countries from 2013 to 2018 reveals that all three potential royal family roles exert a positive influence over GCC commercial bank performance. We derive these empirical results using relevant control variables at both the firm level and the industry level. Furthermore, we apply a system generalized moments of methods specification to our sample and find that these results are invariant to various specification robustness checks. Our results appear to support the Resource Dependency Theory (RDT), where the commercial banks rely on external resources to enhance financial performance.
    • Impacts on the growth of Sweet Corn (Zea Mays) exposed to plastic weed fabric and soil amendment with and without earthworms

      Lee, Linh; Gomez, Isabel; Garneau, Danielle (2020-05-05)
      Agricultural practices, such as farm field application of sewer sludge or use of plastic weed fabrics may impact yield of crop plants. Numerous studies have documented the presence of microplastics in wastewater treatment plant effluent and sludge and have noted negative impacts on terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Plastic mulch and weed fabrics are increasingly more common in small-scale farming and over time will degrade into finer microplastic particulate. Both plastic sources have the potential to leach residues into soils and adjacent waterbodies, with potential impacts on both plants and wildlife. Earthworm bioturbation has the potential to redistribute microplastics even deeper into the soils as they consume and lay castings. We established a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of farming-associated plastics on Sweet Corn (Zea mays) in the presence of Red Worms (Eisenia foetida). We sowed 4 corn seeds per pot across 5 treatments (control, macroplastic, microplastic, amendment 1mm, amendment 355um) with 6 replicates per treatment and lined and covered the pots with screening. Once plants were established (13 days), two Red Worms were introduced to three pots across all treatments. Plant height was measured weekly and upon harvest, stem diameter, leaf abundance, and weights were obtained. Preliminary results suggest that the amendment hastened the date of first germination (6 days post-planting). All plants germinated in 1mm amendment and macroplastic, whereas minimum (88%) germination was observed in 355um amendment and microplastic treatments. There was a statistical difference in the height of Sweet Corn after a week with the tallest plants deriving from the 1mm amendment treatment (p = 0.037, F = 2.643, df = 119). This study serves to help elucidate the complex interactions of microplastic and soil-dwelling organisms on yield of crop plants. Our results will inform farmers and land managers about avoiding techniques that will potentially increase plastics inputs into ecosystems.
    • Imperial Dam

      Garneau, Danielle; Hilling, Tom; Tanner, Sam; Beers, Chris (2016)
    • In Our Own Image: An Oral History of Mexican Women Filmmakers (1988-1994)

      Arredondo, Isabel (2012)
      In Our Own Image: An Oral History of Mexican Women Filmmakers (1988-1994) is a translation of Isabel Arredondo's Palabra de Mujer: Historia oral de las directoras de cine mexicanas 1988-1994. The translation is by Mark Schafer, Jim Heinrich, Elissa Rashkin, and Isabel Arredondo. The book includes an introduction, six interviews with Mexican women filmmakers, an epilogue and a filmography. The goal of the book is to accurately document the entrance of women filmmakers, as a group, into Mexico's film industry at the end of the 1980s into the 1990s. These interviews trace the emergence of a new perspective within Latin American cinema. Beginning in the 1980s, social problems are approached from the perspective of the individual; a person's gender, ethnicity and sexual orientation become the link to the society. The filmmakers, studied in In Our Own Image as a group, give a coherent overview of the problems in Latin American society, especially Mexican society, from a gender perspective at this time. The introduction, which includes interviews with key figures of the state film industry in Mexico, describes how films are produced within this industry, the rationale for having a state film industry, and the openings it provides for women. The interviews with filmmakers Guita Schyfter, Busi Cortes, Marisa Sistach, Mar­a Novaro, Dana Rotberg and Eva Lopez-Sanchez explain how each filmmaker made her way into the film industry. The interviews also highlight the filmmakers' personal preoccupations and experiments in approaching social problems from a gender perspective. In 2013 Isabel Arredondo will publish Motherhood in Mexican Cinema, 1941-1991 The Transformation of Femininity on Screen, a study drawing on the interviews published here in In Our Own Image. You can read more about Motherhood in Mexican Cinema at the publisher's website: http://www.mcfarlandbooks.com/book-2.php?id=978-0-7864-6804-1
    • Inclusive schooling in Southeast Asian countries: a scoping review of the literature

      Hosshan, H.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Villeneuve, M.; Bonati, Michelle L. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-07-29)
      Most of the Southeast Asian region is comprised of developing countries. This region has a short history of inclusive education implementation and differs from developed countries’ more mature inclusive education systems. This review reveals how inclusive schooling has been implemented in Southeast Asian countries and the current practices in the region. We used scoping review methodology to examine peer-reviewed literature published between January 1994 and January 2017 on inclusive schooling in the Southeast Asian countries. The inputs-processes-outcomes (IPO) model was used to group and describe the extant research. Thirty-eight articles were identified that contributed to region of Southeast Asia inclusive education research. The majority (n = 29, 76%) were published after 2010. The articles were organised by IPO stage: Inputs stage (staff professional and teacher education, resources and finances, leadership, curriculum and policy); Processes stage (collaboration and shared responsibility, school practice, classroom practice and climate) and Outcomes stage (participation). The elements of staff professional and teacher education, and collaboration and shared responsibility were most frequently featured in the literature of the inputs and processes stages. Research information about the outcomes stage of inclusive schooling was sparse. The inclusive education literature from the region is still emerging. A greater focus on outcomes is recommended in future research and practice. Having outcome data will enable evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of inclusive education. If evaluation reveals problems, then aspects of the inputs and processes stages may need to be improved to achieve better outcomes.
    • The Influence of Texture Modification on Nutrition in People with Dysphagia

      Runge, Mary (2015)
      Texture modification is the most common form of treatment among patients with dysphagia. It has been associated with a significant number of successful therapy outcomes for swallowing disorders. In contrast it has also been correlated with a high rate of malnutrition cases. Modifying texture to accommodate swallowing may compromise the nutritional value of food being administered. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial in preventing and managing dehydration, malnutrition, and increased risk of illness.
    • Integrating across Pascal's triangle

      Northshield, Sam (Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 2011)
      Sums across the rows of Pascal's triangle yield powers of 2 while certain diagonal sums yield the Fibonacci numbers which are asymptotic to powers of the golden ratio. Sums across other diagonals yield quantities asymptotic to powers of c where c depends on the direction of the diagonals. We generalize this to the continuous case. Using the gamma function, we generalize the binomial coefficients to real variables and thus form a generalization of Pascal's triangle. Integration of these generalized binomial coefficients over various families of lines and curves yield quantities asymptotic to powers of some c where c can be determined explicitly. Finally, we revisit the discrete case.
    • Integrating Civic Engagement with the Online Classroom: Lessons from Tennessee State University

      Robinson, Cara (The Common Good: A SUNY Plattsburgh Journal on Teaching and Learning, 2014)
      The promotion of active citizenship and a commitment to public service while providing an environment of experiential learning and activity in traditional classrooms with traditional students can be tough enough; however, the task is exponentially more difficult in an online classroom of non-traditional students. The Urban Studies and Nonprofit Management programs at Tennessee State University (TSU) continue to explore ways in which to integrate their programmatic commitments to civic education, service learning and community engagement while understanding the changing landscape of the student body and the demand for online education. This paper reviews the challenges faced by online educators and offers potential solutions for online civic engagement and citizenship curriculum based on the experience of educators at TSU.
    • Into the West: A Journey to Big Sky Country for Ski Mountaineering

      Henley, Casey; Soroka, Larry; Makowicki, Chris (2013)
      The Madison range is nestled in the south west corner of Montana right between Yellowstone and Bozeman. Surrounding southwest Montana are the Bridger, Madison, Hyalite, Greater Gallatins, Absaroka and Beartooth range. This unsupported expedition will take place over a 14 day period. My team which includes Bobby O'Connor and Dan Nesel picked the Madison range for its amount of snow; in the northern range the mountains annually get 300 to 400 inches while the southern range gets 400 to 500 inches. This range I think is our best option not only because of snow but also because it is known for its low traffic of skiers, good spring skiing, some technical routes and some easy approaches. It holds the opportunity for us as expeditionary leaders to put our skills to practice, finding out what works and what doesn't. What follows is sample of peaks that we would like to mountaineer/ski mountaineer. These areas have little to no restrictions regarding permits for skinning and skiing which make it easier to camp in the backcountry. Following the end of the spring semester my team will be driving out to Montana which we plan on taking 4 to 5 days to get out to Bozeman. The fuel coast according to AAA (split between 3 people) for my Subaru forester will be 137 $. With gas prices fluctuating from region to region my team will throw an extra 45$ each. As far as food goes will we each allow ourselves a budget of 7$ per person per day. This 7$ budget includes the drive out and amount per day on the expedition as to not go over our purposed budget. In the event the weather does not cooperate we will follow out our contingency plan, heading further to the Pacific Northwest in the north cascades in Washington. If snow is still unsuitable we will follow out on mountaineering in or around Bozeman Montana in one of the many mountainous ranges to complete our requirements for 436 Senior Expedition.
    • Inventory of Small and Large Mammal Diversity in a Fragmented Landscape: A Baseline for Investigating Ecological Impacts of Human Disturbance

      Burgess, Michael; Garneau, Danielle; Wantuch, Joseph (2015)
      Systematic study of biological diversity is a prerequisite for understanding the ecological effects of climate instability and human disturbance. Our study is part of the Rugar Woods All Taxa Biological Inventory (ATBI) project, which seeks to document the biodiversity of Rugar Woods. We performed a field survey to inventory small and large mammals within Rugar Woods, a 50-acre, temperate, mixed forest. We collected five replicate measurements of both track and stride length and width, as well as photo-documented and georeferenced each track. All observations of sign were inventoried in a database and spatially explored with the iNaturalist application. We recorded ten mammal species, from five families. The most frequently recorded species were weasels (Mustelidae), including long-tailed weasel, fisher, river otter, and mink. We recorded a red fox (Canidae), white-footed mouse (Rodentia), beaver (Rodentia), and grey squirrel (Rodentia), a raccoon (Procyonidae), and white-tailed deer (Cervidae). Mammal tracks were commonly recorded on the ice of the Saranac River where domestic dog tracks were infrequent, and open space likely facilitated animal movement. A majority of tracks were recorded from riparian emergent and scrub-shrub habitats. These habitats are ecologically productive, and are thus integral components of the predator-prey food web. Because of the impending removal of the Imperial Dam, our data provide an important baseline for studying the cascading ecological effects of dam removal. Additionally, the documented mammal species are an essential part of the forest community, and their presence in a fragmented urban forest is encouraging. Finally, many are also disease vectors (e.g., Lyme disease and rabies), thus understanding their habitat use patterns is vital for ecological epidemiology.
    • Investigating the availability of services for individuals with communication disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa

      Capurso, Cynthia-Ann (2019-05)
      In Sub-Saharan Africa, it is estimated that there are at most six Speech-Language Therapists per one million individuals with communication disorders. It is evident that this population is severely limited in appropriate healthcare services. This literature review identifies the underlying factors that contribute to the healthcare shortage for those with communication disorders in order to determine solutions. The most prominent aspects that impede healthcare development in Sub-Saharan Africa for these individuals are the severely limited availability of health workers, inadequacy of training among professionals, and culturally appropriate care. Global responsibility and sustainability within the health workforce is necessary to implement the most advantageous solutions in order to mitigate this issue holistically.
    • Investigation of the Northern Range Expansion of the Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginians)

      Garneau, Danielle; Gervich, Curt; Romanowicz, Ed; Appling, Leslie (2014)
      The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) has a very wide geographic range and is found throughout the south and northeastern United States, as far south as Central America and recently a few sightings have been noted in southern Canada. Low temperatures play a significant role in defining the opossum distribution, as they do not forage when temperatures are below 24.8°F. In parts of the opossum range, where they are forced to endure this temperature minimum, many experience increased mortality rates as a result of frostbite due to their small body size and hairless ears and tail. It may also be possible for them to persist in the northern extreme of their range by metabolizing body fat stores during cold winter months. Opossums found further north typically have a thick layer of underfur, which serves a thermoregulatory function. Because the opossum does not hibernate, it must forage year-round; however, this is difficult during the cold winters of upstate, New York. Typically the opossums stop foraging in temperatures less than 24.8°F, and avoid foraging in temperatures below 32°F . The goal of this study was to assess the progression of the northern migration of the opossum using a combination of qualitative roadkill and live sighting survey responses (i.e., bus drivers, mail collectors, Fed Ex drivers, hunters and trappers) and climate trends derived from long-term regional weather station records. We do not predict that sustainable Virginia opossum populations currently reside in high density within our region. Largely, this is because Clinton County is at the northern extent of their range in United States and their thermoregulatory needs cannot be met in these rural habitats. However, warming climate and increases in anthropogenic food sources may be making their northern migration possible in the near future.
    • Iraq, Times Two: A Comprehensive Counterinsurgency Strategy for Afghanistan

      DePetris, Daniel (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2009)
      While the United States continues to make military and diplomatic progress in Iraq, the situation in Afghanistan has gotten unquestionably worse over the last three years. Although the diversion of resources from the conflict in Afghanistan to the front lines in Iraq have undoubtedly contributed to America's current quagmire, it is now time to formulate an improved strategy to turn Afghanistan around from the abyss. Fortunately for the United States military and members of the U.S. diplomatic corps, such a counterinsurgency plan need not require generals to limit the manpower, and equipment from an Iraq operation that is continuing to strengthen the country's democratic hopes. Recent calls for a large troop deployment to Afghanistan in the hopes of diminishing the violent Taliban insurgency may be appropriate for a short-term American success story, but such a move would be drastically counterproductive to the immense progress already accomplished with respect to Iraqi sovereignty: progress that, to this date, has helped stem the violence associated with Islamic extremism and promoted accountability of Iraq's national parliament. What the United States should focus on in Afghanistan is building trust among the Afghan citizenry, raising the levels of economic opportunity, by establishing third-party structures to make a true democratic system work. Doing so would result in the Taliban-led insurgency falling short of its ambitions. Through a re-prioritization of objectives, the U.S.- Afghanistan mission will be restored, America's overall image will benefit, and its successful developmental and reconstruction effort will put a major blow in the sides of terrorist networks throughout the Middle Eastern region.
    • Is There a Relationship Between Art and Theory of Mind? A Review of Findings

      Phillips, Dale; Brucker, Christina (2017)
      Art interpretation, or perception of art, reflects the intrapersonal relationship to emotions, thoughts, and seductions that a person experiences while viewing artwork (Barret, 2002). Alongside the importance of artwork interpretation, Theory of Mind (ToM) can be defined as the capacity to imagine or form opinions about the cognitive states of others (Pam, 2016). Together, art interpretation and the measure of one's Theory of Mind could provide further insight into those with weaker ToM abilities. The purpose of this research is to discover whether a relationship between Theory of Mind and art interpretation exists for future directions such as art therapy or ToM interventions.
    • Knowledge and Perceptions of Response to Intervention Among Graduate Students Enrolled in Education-Related Programs

      Charette, Laci; Bucci, Giovanina (2015)
      The purpose of this study is to illuminate the knowledge and perceptions of Response to Intervention (RtI) among graduate students enrolled in SUNY Plattsburgh education-related programs. RtI, a tiered system designed to provide universal support and interventions to students based on a spectrum of needs, was first introduced in 2004. The system continues to evolve within schools as stakeholders (i.e. administrators, educators and specialists) navigate their roles, expectations, and understanding of the realm and structure of RtI. Programs represented in this study following the collection of surveys include: Adolescent Education, Childhood/Special Education, Special Education, and School Psychology. An overview of how subscription to and training within a particular program correlates to knowledge and perceptions of RtI is used as grounds for discussing the implications for the systemsâ success.
    • Landau-Kleffner Syndrome and Regressive Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Symptomatology Comparison

      Drake, Ashley (2014)
      The different symptoms of Landau-Kleffner Syndrome and Regressive Autism Spectrum Disorder are compared, with particular attention to the overlap of symptoms. In addition, a subset of children with Regressive Autism Spectrum Disorder who experience abnormal epileptic activity is also discussed.
    • Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome: Associated Symptoms, Anomalies, and Management

      Gartner, Alex (2014)
      Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (LVAS) is a congenital disorder in which the vestibular aqueduct is larger than normal. As a result, patients with LVAS experience a sudden and progressive sensorineural hearing loss in early infancy or childhood. There are several ways to attempt to manage this progressive hearing loss, but as of yet there are no treatments.