• Field and Molecular Survey of Lyme Disease in Northern New York

      Garneau, Danielle; Provost, Alexandra; Bowman, David; VanBrocklin, Hope (2015)
      The black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis), which is the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) vector, is prevalent in northern New York. By parasitizing small animal reservoirs, the black-legged tick infects the host species and creates the ecological cycle of the Lyme bacterium. Ixodes scapularis tick drags were performed weekly from May to July at three different regional sites. At each site, ticks were sampled from 5 different microhabitats (e.g., disturbed, forest edge, forest interior, grassland, and wetland). Tick abundance was greatest in Ausable/Chesterfield and the Plattsburgh area, and rare at the Watertown site. DNA extractions were performed, followed by nested PCR to detect the (Borrelia burgdorferi) Lyme spirochete bacterium. A total of (n = 170) ticks were collected at all sites, with 61% of those ticks testing positive for Lyme disease. A majority of the total ticks (n = 109) were collected during the month of June. The forest edge ticks, which were collected predominantly in the Ausable/Chesterfield, had the highest occurrence (79%) of Lyme disease. In contrast, the average Lyme prevalence for the other surveyed microhabitats was 53%. Of the microhabitats, the grassland had the lowest prevalence (44%) of Lyme disease. These differences could result from habitat suitability of important hosts (Peromyscus leucopus and Tamias striatus), which might occur in higher abundance in the Ausable/Chesterfield region, possibly reflecting the prevalence of oak (Quercus spp.) and their acorn mast. Several of these sites have undergone timber management, which can enhance acorn abundance in pitch pine/oak barren habitat (Ausable/Chesterfield). Temporally, only a third of the ticks from the month of May tested positive, which then increased to 58% in June, likely reflecting seasonal nymph activity. This preliminary study suggests that Lyme disease is common in the northern New York, with the occurrence of Lyme disease in black-legged ticks being the highest in those inhabiting forest edge microhabitat of the Champlain Valley during the month of June.
    • Field and Molecular Survey of Lyme Disease in Northern New York in 2015

      Garneau, Danielle; Paulo de Mattos, Adolfo Jr; Smith, Matthew (2016)
      The black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis), which is the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) vector, is prevalent in northern New York. By parasitizing small animal reservoirs, the black-legged tick infects the host species and creates the ecological cycle of the Lyme bacterium. Ixodes scapularis tick drags were performed weekly from May to July at nine different regional sites. These sites comprised 5 different microhabitats (e.g., disturbed, forest edge, forest interior, grassland, and wetland). Tick abundance was greatest in Wickham Marsh Forest Edge and the Plattsburgh disturbed area, and rare at the Residential sites. DNA extractions were performed, followed by nested PCR to detect the (Borrelia burgdorferi) Lyme spirochete bacterium. A total of (n = 126) ticks were collected at all sites, with 92% of those ticks testing positive for Lyme disease. A majority of the total ticks (n = 80) were collected during the month of June. The forest edge ticks, which were collected predominantly in Wickham Marsh, had the highest occurrence (94.5%) of Lyme disease. In contrast, the average Lyme prevalence for the other surveyed microhabitats was 83.3%. Of the microhabitats, the wetland had the lowest prevalence (0%) of Lyme disease. These differences could result from habitat suitability of important hosts (Peromyscus leucopus and Tamias striatus), which might occur in higher abundance in the Wickham Marsh region, possibly reflecting the prevalence of oak (Quercus spp.) and their acorn mast. This study has the purpose to add new insights to the study of last year in relation to different habitats and urbanized areas, assessing the prevalence of ticks and lyme that is common in the northern New York, with the occurrence of Lyme disease in black-legged ticks being the highest in those inhabiting forest edge microhabitat of the Champlain Valley during the month of June.
    • Field and Molecular Survey of Northern and Southern Flying Squirrels in Northern New York

      Waldron, Alexis; Bliss, Amanda; Thone, Gretchen (2014)
      In northern New York, there are 2 sympatric species of flying squirrel, the northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (Glaucomys volans). Recent research suggests that the boundaries between the northern and the southern flying squirrels have been shifting northward, in part due to climate change affecting resource availability. As a result, northern New York would now be the southern terminus for northern, and the northern terminus for the southern flying squirrels. The goal of our research is to develop a molecular survey of the two species that can be compared to morphological measurements made in the field to better confirm species in our area. As weather permits, we are establishing an arboreally mounted trapline and recovering scat, hair, and other tissue samples for DNA extraction, polymerization chain reaction (PCR), and restriction digests to determine species. The molecular assay has been optimized; however the harsh winter has limited our trapping success for tissue collection in the field. Determining frequency of capture will assist in predicting where the boundary of these species lies in Clinton County.
    • Fifteen-year Forest Structure Changes in a Sandstone Pavement Barren

      DellaRocco, Thomas; Straub, Jacob (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2016)
      The Altona Flatrock sandstone pavement barren is a rare fire-dependent ecological community geographically located at the narrow overlap of jack pine and pitch pine species ranges. We studied fifteen year post-ice storm plant community change at the Altona Flatrock pine barren in Clinton County, New York. Prior research predicted plant community changes in the barren due to fire exclusion. Our study is the first to examine long-term changes in plant species composition of this pine barren community. In the overstory, pitch pine basal area and density remained similar (i.e., < 20% ) between 1999 and 2014, while density and basal area of red maple increased 67% and 109%, respectively. Jack pine overstory mortality was 100% between 1999 and 2014 in our plots. Few jack pine saplings (12.5 stems/ha) and no pitch pine saplings were present in our plots. However, a great density of red maple saplings (1,950 stems/ha) existed. Ground cover was dominated by huckleberry, Sphagnum spp., and Schreber's big red stem moss. With an absence of fire and the subsequent decreases in jack and pitch pine, this post-ice storm pine barren is developing into a boreal heath barren dominated by huckleberry in the understory with an overstory comprised mostly of red maple. In the absence of fire, or a suitable management alternative, this rare ecological community type may become extirpated from this Region. Further research could focus on successfully regenerating fire dependent pines to provide a more complete understanding of the ecological requirements and traits in this sandstone pavement barrens ecosystem in Clinton County.
    • Forest pests and wood pellets: A literature review of the opportunities and risks in the United States’ northeastern forests

      Neidermeier, Alex; Danks, Cecilia; Coleman, Kimberly; Wallin, Kimberly (Elsevier BV, 2020-11)
      As interest in alternatives to fossil fuels increases, low quality timber may become more attractive as feedstock material for biomass energy. This low-quality timber, referred to here as salvage wood, can be used to manu- facture wood pellets, a densified biomass energy product which can be used for electricity and heating. The process of converting wood to pellets also results in total pest mortality in the final product, an important consideration given wood pellet’s international market and global concerns about phytosanitation, or the risk of pest spread. However, there is still potential to spread pests in the wood pellet supply chain. To better under- stand the potential benefits for forest health and the phytosanitary risks of the use of salvaged wood in the wood pellet supply chain, our study systematically reviews the literature published between 2000 and 2018, gleaning applicable considerations for the northeastern United States (US), a region already affected by the highest density of damaging forest pests in the country and an up-tick in wood pellet use. Our review focuses on three pest species likely to incur considerable change in northeastern US forests: emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis or EAB; an exotic, invasive species), hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand, or HWA; an exotic, invasive species), and southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, or SPB, a native species). Our review finds that wood pellets are being recognized as phytosanitary in their final form and that the forest health opportunities for the use of salvaged wood exist are beginning to be acknowledged in the region. However, our results also indicate that the spread of pests is still possible in the feedstock pre-treatment supply chain, which have yet to be directly addressed in US-related scientific literature. Our review concludes that further research and action on the phytosanitary risks in the supply chain focus on individual pest species behavior during harvesting, on-site comminution of feedstock material, and local processing at facilities within USDA APHIS (United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) quarantine zones for maximum mitigation. The results of these considerations can accrue benefits for forest health, mitigate the spread of forest pests, and support the use of an alternative energy to fossil fuels in a changing climate.
    • Frequency of missing legs in the cave cricket, Hadenoecus subterraneus

      Chandoo, Mohammed; Lavoie, Elizabeth; Pandey, Utsav; Thirunavukarasu, Suganthi; Lavoie, Kathleen; Wolosz, Thomas (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2013)
      The cave cricket (Hadenoecus subterraneus) is a keystone species in maintaining biological diversity in cave communities in Mammoth Cave National Park. Crickets must leave the cave to forage on nights when conditions are favorable, which puts them at considerable risk of predation. Invertebrates have developed defenses for predation, including autotomy (voluntary loss of a limb). We hypothesize that missing legs are a sign of predation pressure on the crickets, and may be vary in different environments. We used a visual census to record the sex-specific frequency of missing legs among adult cave crickets at eight different cave entrances. We expected males to be missing legs more than females because they must leave the cave refuge to forage more frequently than females; however, we found that males and females were missing legs in equal numbers. The hind leg was missing with greater frequency than other limbs, likely the result of cricket predator avoidance behavior (jumping), which puts the larger hind limb closest to the predator. The frequency of crickets with missing limbs varied among cave entrances from a low of 6.6% to a high of nearly 40%, with abundance varying yearly. In Frozen Niagara, which consistently had a high proportion of crickets missing legs, the percentage missing legs was highest in crickets roosting closer to the entrance (30.8%) than deeper (18.7%) into the cave. The goal of this survey was to study the pattern and implications of limb loss on foraging and predator avoidance.
    • Geodesics and Bounded Harmonic Functions on Infinite Graphs

      Northshield, Sam (1991)
      It is shown there that an infinite connected planar graph with a uniform upper bound on vertex degree and rapidly decreasing Green's function (relative to the simple random walk) has infinitely many pairwise finitely-intersecting geodesic rays starting at each vertex. We then demonstrate the existence of nonconstant bounded harmonic functions on the graph.
    • Georeference Inventory of SUNY Plattsburgh's Taxidermy Collection

      Garneau, Danielle; Van Splinter, Jessica (2014)
      In the midst of global climate change, invasive species, habitat loss/fragmentation, and pollution, which leads to local extirpation and extinction, taxidermy collections are essential in educating the public on the importance of natural history. Documentation of where specimens are collected is critical to understanding mammal range shifts in this time of global change. The goal of this inventory was to georeference SUNY Plattsburgh's taxidermy collection to assess whether there were some regional hotspots of collection that might be sources of sampling in the future. Georeferencing included noting species name, collection site, morphological measurements, as well as other information on the voucher specimen tag and importing that into GIS. Approximately, half of all the voucher specimens in the collection were unmarked, 35% were collected from Clinton County (19% Plattsburgh), and 10% from Essex County (3% Lewis). All specimens documented were collected from New York State. Several unique specimens were documented including a bobcat (Lynx rufus), black bear (Ursus americanus), fisher (Martes pennan), red (Vulpes vulpes) and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteous). Small mammals, including deer mice and white-footed mice (Peromyscus spp., 15%), red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonious, 10%), and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus, 8%) were among the most abundant voucher species. The importance of continued sampling in these same voucher collection sites, might prove helpful when tracking range expansions as climate changes over the next century. SUNY Plattsburgh's snowshoe hare voucher specimens correspond to the southern edge of the historic range of the species and span the border of that range across four counties (e.g., Clinton, Essex, Warren, Ulster). Future implications for this information may include documentation of shifts in their southern range boarder as local conditions change in response to anthropogenic effects.
    • Gloriana's First Scandal: The Thomas Seymour Incident

      Doren, Anna (2016-04-30)
      As a young princess, Elizabeth Tudor had a precarious position at court. Elizabeth was on her own in defending her honor when her position was put in jeopardy by rumors surrounding her and Thomas Seymour. Their relationship was questioned because of stories that circulated publicly and privately. These stories cast doubt on the character of the teenage Elizabeth and the investigations that followed looked at the involvement she and her household had in Thomas Seymour's plans to marry the princess and her encouragement of his flirtatious advances. Kat Ashley provided accounts that suggested she had been plotting with Seymour on her lady's behalf, and these same accounts show how Elizabeth discouraged his advances. Elizabeth vehemently denied her part in any marriage plans that Seymour may have concocted, though admits her governess's part in the gossip. "Kat. Aschlylye tolde me, after that my Lord Admiralde was married to the Quene, that if my Lorde might have his owne Wil, he wolde haue me " . Historians examine this scandal as a key part of Elizabeth's formative years. Some more speculative than others, such as Gregorio Leti who, in 1693, recorded inaccurate details of the scandal that have been often mistaken for fact. The accounts of William Cecil, Lord Burghley in the state papers detail a princess who was abused by those in power who wanted to remove her from the succession. With the support of her household, Elizabeth defended herself well and maintained her honorable reputation.
    • The Graph Theoretical Approach to Bankruptcy Prediction

      Choe, Kwangseek; Garas, Samy (2021)
      This paper examines the applicability of the graph theoretical approach to bankruptcy prediction. Various statistical techniques have been used to predict bankruptcy including univariate analysis, multivariate discrimination analysis, logit model, probit model, and neural networks. This paper employs the graph theoretical approach to bankruptcy prediction. The empirical findings confirms the validity of the proposed method for predicting bankruptcy. The proposed method in this paper provides an insight into the development of a new approach to the assessment of financial solvency of a company. This paper contributes to the literature by introducing a new approach to bankruptcy prediction.
    • Group Environments and Visuospatial Attention in Patients with TBI

      Freedberg, Michael; Lynch, Joseph; Ryan, Jeanne (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2011)
      Maintaining the attention and focus of patients with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a concern of many rehabilitation clinics that work with this population. The novel use of interactive video games to combat the problem of requiring attention to improve attention was utilized in the present study. It has been noted in several studies that video games can have a positive effect on one's focus and attention. The use of games such as Rockband and Guitar Hero have been observed to maintain the focus and attention of patients with TBI for prolonged periods of time. Additionally group environments have been observed to enhance the performance and focus of patients with TBI. Positive group environments are used often in clinics as a means of improving cognitive functioning. Patients with TBI and a control group (undergraduates of SUNY Plattsburgh) engaged in two one-hour sessions one month apart. During these sessions participants performed the task of playing Guitar Hero and completing the Trail Making Test (TMT), Symbols Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and Paced Auditory Serial Assessment Test (PASAT). Each participant completed one session in the presence of a positive social environment and one control session (only an experimenter was present). A positive social environment was induced by utilizing positive feedback from trained confederates. Results provide evidence disfavoring the use of interactive video as a means of attention therapy. In contrast there is evidence to suggest that a positive social environment is a significant form of attention therapy.
    • Habitat Usage by Birds at the Lake Alice Wildlife Management Area Chazy, New York

      Juneau, Kevyn; Adams, Kenneth (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2006)
      The Lake Alice Wildlife Management Area (LAWMA) in northern Clinton County, New York is a popular location for birding enthusiasts. However, this study is the first comprehensive survey of bird species within major habitat types at LAWMA in more than 20 years. Birds were identified by sight and sound in four habitats at LAWMA between June 2 and July 22, 2003. Relative abundance and diversity were calculated for bird species in the forest habitat, and the forest-field, forestwetland and wetland-field ecotones. Thirty-one residential species were observed during the summer, with between 14 and 21 species per habitat type. The highest diversity indices were in the forest ecotones. Recommendations were made for habitat management projects to enhance bird species richness at LAWMA and increase the populations of bird species that are either threatened or of special concern status in New York.
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      Squires, Allison (2016)
      Synopsis: Based on fact. In 1942, Amsterdam begins to feel the clutch of German Nazi reign. Miep Gies, recently married and working as a secretary, must make the choice between values and security to save the family of her boss and friend, Otto Frank. Rationale: My inspiration for this short story came from taking the class "Anne Frank: The Adolescent Self" with Dr. Carol Lipszyc last spring. While the class detailed Frank's writing and her growth as an artist and young adult during her family's time in the attic, I found myself fascinated and saddened by the war's atmosphere in Europe at the time. The general feeling of gloom and anxiety was so much less sprightly than Anne's writing. Nazi forces had entered Holland by 1940, and slowly began implementing more and more rules designed to oppress and identify the country's Jewish population. The rest, narrowly saved by birth or marriage, stood directly in the face of a choice between speaking out or staying silent, and for many, certainly, silence was safer. Yet some brave souls could not be silenced -- so they worked as quietly as they could to save their neighbors and friends from a horrible fate. The story of such heroes as Miep and Jan Gies, who helped to hide the Frank family for more than two years, is one of the greatest instances of human kindness I have ever heard of, and one that moved and inspired me to illustrate the enormous decision made in one small Amsterdam kitchen.
    • High-Intensity Interval Exercise Performance and Short-Term Metabolic Responses to Overnight-Fasted Acute-Partial Sleep Deprivation

      Papadakis, Zacharias; Forsse, Jeffrey S.; Stamatis, Andreas (MDPI AG, 2021-04-01)
      People practicing high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) fasted during the morning hours under a lack of sleep. Such a habit may jeopardize the health benefits related to HIIE and adequate sleep. Fifteen habitually good sleeper males (age 31.1 ± 5.3 SD year) completed on a treadmill two isocaloric (500 kcal) HIIE sessions (3:2 min work:rest) averaged at 70% VO2reserve after 9–9.5 h of reference sleep exercise (RSE) and after 3–3.5 h of acute-partial sleep deprivation exercise (SSE). Diet and sleep patterns were controlled both 1 week prior and 2 days leading up to RSE and SSE. HIIE related performance and substrate utilization data were obtained from the continuous analysis of respiratory gases. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with the baseline maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body fat percentage (BF%) as covariates at p < 0.05. No difference was observed in VO2max, time to complete the HIIE, VE, RER, CHO%, and FAT% utilization during the experimental conditions. Whether attaining an adequate amount of sleep or not, the fasted HIIE performance and metabolism were not affected. We propose to practice the fasted HIIE under adequate sleep to receive the pleiotropic beneficial effects of sleep to the human body.
    • History of Wilcox Dock and the Georgia Pacific Paper Company

      Garneau, Danielle; Ramsdell, Connor; Hastings, Emily (2016)
    • Ideologically Driven Loyalists: The Values that Defined Loyal Colonists in the American Revolution

      Cloutier, Cassandra (2016-04-30)
      The American Revolution is typically viewed as a war for independence between two groups, the revolutionaries and their oppressors, the British. Little is known about another party: the Loyalists. This group of people was set apart from the other players in the Revolution. They were men, and supporting women, who opposed the Revolution, unified by their politics and paternalistic values. These ideologies appealed to a wide array of people. Liberal constitutionalism, a political ideology in which one is open to change within the law of the constitution, generated a population of Loyalists who were white males that had held these views prior to the Revolution. Paternalism ushered in a vast range of other Loyalists, such as women and African Americans, because of their adherence to following the male authority, which in this case was the king. Using evidence from Peter Oliver's manuscript and accounts from various secondary sources, this paper argues that Loyalists were a group defined by their politically moderate and paternalistic values.
    • The Impact of CEOs’ Incentives for Risk-Taking or Risk-Aversion on Corporate Performance: Using CEO Vega and CEO Delta as Incentive Measures

      Garas, Samy; Kienpin, Tee; Lee, Chuo-Hsuan (2022)
      This article has a two-fold purpose. First, we investigate whether the CEOs’ risk-taking incentives are associated with better concurrent firm performance. Second, we examine the impact of gender on the aforementioned relationship. We find solid empirical evidence that CEOs’ risk-aversion incentive, as represented by a higher CEO delta, can be linked to better concurrent firm performance such as return on assets (ROA) and Market-to-Book Value (MTB) ratio. By contrast, we find that the risk-taking incentive, as represented by CEO vega, has no significant impact on ROA, but has a significant impact on MTB ratio only among the group of CEOs with larger share ownerships. Furthermore, we research on the same incentives using only female CEOs in our sample. Our panel-data findings indicate that female CEOs on average possessed a lower CEO delta (low risk aversion) and a lower CEO vega (risk-taking incentive) in their compensation packages when compared with their male counterparts. Taken together, these two risk incentives; are linked to a lower concurrent ROA and MTB value. Our findings also indicate that the aforementioned positive relationship between CEOs’ risk- aversion incentive (as measured by CEO delta) and firm performance (as measured by ROA) are less pronounced when a CEO is female. This implies that a female CEO is less likely to increase the firm’s ROA relative to a male CEO, given the same sensitivity of personal wealth to stock price change (i.e., the same CEO delta).
    • The Impact of Ruling Family Board Members on the Performance of Commercial Banks

      Kienpin, Tee; Garas, Samy (Association for Accountancy & Business Affairs, 2021)
      We examine the impact of royal family involvement in the ownership and strategic management of commercial banks within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. Existing finance literature has examined the impact of board members with political connections on bank performance to find mixed evidence of whether such connections have a positive or negative impact. However, such empirical studies have not been applied to the commercial banks of the GCC region. Our empirical analysis uses four separate metrics of performance to examine what influence board membership, board chairmanship and bank ownership shares by a royal family member has on bank performance. Our panel data analysis of GCC commercial bank data across six countries from 2013 to 2018 reveals that all three potential royal family roles exert a positive influence over GCC commercial bank performance. We derive these empirical results using relevant control variables at both the firm level and the industry level. Furthermore, we apply a system generalized moments of methods specification to our sample and find that these results are invariant to various specification robustness checks. Our results appear to support the Resource Dependency Theory (RDT), where the commercial banks rely on external resources to enhance financial performance.