• Death is the Beginning of Infamy: Robespierre and a Legacy of Misconceptions

      Irizarry, Estrella (2016-04-30)
      This paper seeks to explain and dismantle the negative reputation French Revolutionary Maximilien Robespierre has accrued over the last three hundred years. Though considerable efforts have been made to improve his legacy since his execution in 1794, stereotypical portrait of Robespierre as an unfeeling dictator has maintained popularity for centuries. Historians hostile to Robespierre have routinely relied upon dubious sources and political bias in order to justify their depictions of Robespierre as everything from a bloodthirsty murderer to an unfeeling ideologue. This paper reexamines and critiques these representations, as well as the gendered ways in which Robespierre is often interpreted in academic and popular history. Largely ignored by even his greatest supporters, the persistent portrayal of Robespierre as abnormally effeminate has allowed historians to reimagine his revolutionary worth in ahistoric and homophobic ways detrimental to the study of the French Revolution.
    • Decomposition Rates of Typha Spp. in Northern Freshwater Wetlands over a Stream-Marsh-Peatland Gradient

      Ruppel, Rachel; Setty, Karen; Wu, Meiyin (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2004)
      Decomposition rates in wetlands vary with the composition of the biotic community and the physical and chemical environment. Variations in the process of decomposition in turn affect the overall rate of nutrient cycling within the wetland, affecting both primary productivity and general wetland health. This short-term study took place in northern New York within the Little Chazy River watershed. The effects of wetland factors including nutrient status, dissolved oxygen, and pH value on decay rate were measured over a freshwater stream-marsh-peatland gradient. Litterbags were utilized and collected weekly from three separate sites within or near the Altona Flat Rock ecosystem. Soil and water parameters, as well as colonization by macroinvertebrates, were studied in order to link decay rates with specific wetland characteristics. Decomposition rates for Typha spp. were evaluated using the change in dry biomass, and percent nitrogen content of the plant litter. Dry biomass reduction took place most rapidly in the stream site and least rapidly in the peatland site, while fluctuations of percent nitrogen content did not show a distinct trend. A high level of dissolved oxygen corresponded to a higher decay rate, while a low pH value corresponded to a lower decay rate.
    • Definition of the Situation in Live Bluegrass Music Concert Performance: Sound Engineers and Musicians

      Light, Stephen (2016-08-20)
      This paper examines definitions of the situation held by musicians and sound engineers participating in live bluegrass music concerts in a concert hall setting using sound reinforcement. Successful production of a live bluegrass music concert requires cooperation between the musicians who perform on stage and the sound mix engineer who is responsible for operation of the sound reinforcement system in the concert space. Cooperation between these key actors facilitates the creation of a shared definition of the situation that defines parameters of the roles they expect each other to play. Fundamental to the creation of an effective shared definition of the situation is communication between the musicians and sound engineer. Also basic to situational definitions are musicians' and sound engineers' background assumptions, including whether the sound engineer is primarily a support person or whether he or she makes use of expert knowledge before and during the show and thus takes on the role of creative artist. To examine these interactional processes the author administered a 51-question interview instrument consisting of closed-ended and open-ended questions to a sample of 28 bluegrass musicians and sound engineers in 2015 and 2016. Results of the interviews are analyzed and illustrative excerpts from the respondents comments are highlighted. The author discusses implications of these preliminary findings for interactional processes in a live performance setting.
    • Developing Scientific Womanpower: Gender and the Cold War-Era Science Fair

      Adams, Ellen E.; Beatty, Joshua F. (2014-05-24)
      This paper examines the intersection of gender and science in the U.S. during the Cold War by looking at girls' participation in science fairs. Official rhetoric encouraged both boys and girls to develop their skills in science and technology in the interest of national security, and in the years after World War II science fairs became popular vehicles for the display and promotion of science. Although boys participated in larger numbers than girls, young women were visible participants in science fairs, both at the local level and in national competitions such as the Westinghouse Science Talent Search (established in 1942) and the National Science Fair (begun in 1950).
    • Digital Commons as a Tool for Outreach

      Beatty, Joshua F. (2013)
      This presentation describes SUNY Plattsburgh’s use of Digital Commons to increase outreach to faculty and students. I explain the origins of this approach, discuss how librarians work with faculty to co-administer series, provide examples of this collaboration, and, finally, examine a particular setback that sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the outreach approach.
    • Do Executive Skills or Language Skills Best Predict Social Competence?

      Hungerford, Suzanne; Gonyo, Katharine; Whitford, Shasta; Bassendowski, Nancy (2009)
      Research has shown that children with developmental language impairment are at high risk for social and behavioral problems, although the reasons for this relationship are not entirely clear. Some have proposed that language impairment leads to social and behavioral problems, while others have suggested that there is some other mediating factor. In this study, executive dysfunction was found to be a powerful predictor of social skills and problem behaviors, while language alone was not.
    • Does income inequality negatively affect GDP growth? A panel study

      Nguyen, Ha (2021)
      Ricardo’s Distribution theory (1817) proposes that, as the economy faces diminishing profits/returns on capital, there would be an increasing shortage of investments. Income inequality exacerbates this problem, by causing income not to be reinvested back in production timely. Therefore, the result is a stagnant economy, where economic growth is significantly slowed down. Literatures on the relationship between income inequality or overall inequality, and economic growth, which is usually measured by GDP growth, have revealed different and robust results. Forbes, 2000 and Partridge, 1997 found a significantly positive correlation between income inequality and GDP growth. However, Tabellini et al, 1994 produced a significant and negative correlation. Interestingly, Squire et al, 1998 found no significant relationship between aggregate inequality and GDP growth, but a significantly negative relationship between poverty and GDP growth. More recently, Brueckner and Lederman, 2017 found a significantly negative impact of income inequality on GDP transitional growth in countries with high initial incomes. Nonetheless, overall, recent literature has been leaning towards the hypothesis that the relationship between income inequality and GDP growth is non-linear. This paper is going to empirically study 146 countries in the world over 27 years from 1992 to 2018, to confirm that the relationship between income inequality and GDP growth is non-linear as suggested in recent literature. Moreover, this research will show that the effects of income inequality on GDP growth is heterogeneous; the impact of income inequality on economic growth is more positive on high income countries than on lower income countries. The method used is regression that aims to explain the GDP movements of countries, in terms of consumption, export, capital formation, poverty, and GINI coefficient. This research is at preliminary level; there can be further improvements to the model.
    • The Double D: A Review of Dementia Symptoms in Adults with Down Syndrome and the Validity of Assessment Tools

      Fishman, Lior (2017)
      Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic disorder. Individuals with DS experience cognitive and functional deficits, rapid aging and have an increased risk of dementia diagnosis. Dementia results in intellectual difficulties and disturbance to memory and language. It has been reported that approximately 70% of individuals with DS will develop dementia. Due to varying cognitive abilities, concrete diagnosis is challenging. Dementia Scale for Down Syndrome, Dementia Screening Questionnaire for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities, and the Adaptive Behavior Scale are used for dementia diagnosis in individuals with DS. As life expectancy continues to rise and the prevalence of dementia diagnosis is increasing it is important to make early concrete diagnosis in order to provide early treatment. The purpose of this review is to determine the validity of assessment tools used for dementia diagnosis in adults with Down syndrome and recognize symptoms that may be indicators to allow for diagnosis.
    • Eagle Buddies: An Evaluation of a Peer Mentoring Program

      Charette, Laci; Rainis, Dana (2016)
      The present study evaluated a peer mentoring program (Eagle Buddies) in a rural K-12 school to assess its effects on the academic achievement of student participants. Several types of data were collected: standardized ELA and Math scores were obtained over time, the students were interviewed about their experiences, and teachers were surveyed for suggestions of ways to improve the program. Results showed that academic scores significantly increased over time and the overall opinion of the program from both students and teachers was positive. Several limitations of the design of this program evaluation will be discussed.
    • The Ecological Value of Cemeteries and Historical Places

      Moriarty, Melissa; Zborowski, Daniel; Garneau, Danielle (2018)
      Habitat loss and fragmentation is a common conservation threat in the United States. Land in urban areas is at a premium for biodiversity preservation and historic landmarks and cemeteries are green spaces that undergo limited disturbance. Historic and sacred sites, such as those designated by historical markers and listed as cemeteries often contain remnant old growth trees, native species and potentially rare or endangered flora. Old growth trees are often considered a ‘keystone structure’, providing resources that are crucial for other species and/or a ‘foundational species’, essential in forest ecosystems providing food and shelter for wildlife. These mature trees are more prone to environmental factors such as competition with invasive plants, climatic extremes, air pollution, disease/pets and habitat fragmentation, therefore it is crucial to evaluate these historical places to assess their ecosystem service roles. A rapid decline of old foundational trees will have major impacts on the ecosystem services reported in this study. Using a citizen science survey approach and the iNaturalist smartphone app, as well as i-Tree Eco software, we surveyed trees at cemeteries and various historical places in Clinton County, NY. Tree species, diameter at breast height, tree height, percent crown dieback, as well as signs of disease, and woodpecker damage were recorded. The survey found that the most common tree species were Picea abies (Norway spruce), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), and Picea pungens (blue spruce). Black locust sequesters the most carbon ≈ (525 kg/yr), while Norway spruce reduces runoff (≈75 m3). Annually, mature foundational trees combined annually removed ≈ 57.03 kg ($870/yr) of pollution, stored ≈ 148.7 tons ($21,300) of carbon, ≈ sequestered 1.302 tons ($186.00/yr) of carbon, and produced ≈ 3.472 tons of oxygen. Locally, Riverside Cemetery annually sequestered the most carbon (0.4 tons), produced ≈ 1.2 tons of oxygen, and stored ≈ 1.5 tons of CO2, followed by Gilliland Cemetery. Interestingly, Gilliland Cemetery was found to be a monoculture of the invasive species black locust; more research could provide insight as to ecosystem functioning prior to the invasion. Further research is needed to help provide a stronger ecological value to these historical and sacred spaces.
    • Economic, Strategic, and Rhetorical: Justifications for U. S. Hegemony in Cuba

      Reagan, Ben (2016-04-30)
      "Economic, Strategic, and Rhetorical: Justifications for U.S. Hegemony in Cuba" is about the depictions of Cubans in American popular culture before the Spanish-American War to after the First World War. Cuba has been seen in a number of ways including a market and a potential addition to the United States. The depictions of Cuba are very important. To justify its economic control over Cuba, the United States used the rhetoric and representation of race, culture and gender to control Cuba and ensure it was firmly within the American sphere of influence. Not only is this important from the historical perspective but also from the perspective of current politics. Some of the depictions of Cubans continued to be used when Castro took power in Cuba. That means that while many Americans may have forgotten that part of history, Cuba's leadership has not. One of the most prolific writers on the topic is Louis A. Perez. His book, "Cuba in the American Imagination: Metaphor and the Imperial Ethos", was a valuable source for this project. The book is about the evolution of the perceptions of Cuba in the United States. It also talks about the goals the United States had in the country and how they changed.
    • Educating in and for uncertainty: climate science, human evolution and the legacy of Arne Naess as guidance for ecological practice

      García-Notario, Margarita (Informa UK Limited, 2021-03-12)
      This paper reflects on how the issue of climate change and the general state of our planet is, among other causes, a main factor in the paralyzing divisions ailing Western societies. This situation, while unsettling to democracies, is promoting a kind of education in and through fear and I question if education can succeed under these circumstances without becoming indoctrination. This paper does not try to diminish the urgency and the importance of current environmental problems but rather expands today´s perspectives and incorporates research in more constructive ways of thinking and doing. I use scientific contributions in climatology, evolution, environmental conservation, economics, and neuroscience to bring new light to today’s investigations about the human and the non-human world. Finally, I propose Deep Ecology’s principles of deep questioning, deep experience and deep commitment, as a guide for new educational and ecological practices.
    • The Effect of Advanced Parental Age on Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder

      Hanlon, Abigail (2018-05)
      Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by varying deficits in social communication and social interactions, and/or restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The origin of ASD has long been studied and speculated. There is an increased interest in the risks associated with development of ASD. In recent years, parental age has been studied as a possible contributing factor to the development of autism. Studies are investigating the link between maternal and paternal age and autism. Possible associations have been speculated to be increase gene mutations, genetics, high risk pregnancy and lifestyle. This literature to date indicates possible associated factors, but is not yet definitive. This literature review will discuss the results of several studies and the recommendations for future research.
    • The Effect of Bilingualism on the Aging Brain

      Czirr, Caitlin (2015)
      The aging brain undergoes structural changes negatively impacting its function. However, the extent of these pathologies may be experience dependent. Researchers have found evidence of bilingualism as a neuroprotective agent in the aging brain. This poster reviews structural differences and functioning of the aging bilingual brain to assess a potential link between the bilingual experience and cognitive reserve.
    • Effect of electric vehicle sales on the price of oil

      Arnob, Archi (2021)
      The primary goal of this study is to observe the relationship between the fluctuation of the oil price and the increasing number of sales of electric vehicles based on data from 20 developed and developing countries. As the number of electric vehicles on the market is growing, the demand in the world oil market is declining slightly and, as a result, oil prices are also declining due to several factors. Consumer theory tells us that oil prices could decline due to a rise in the number of electric vehicles sold. Electric vehicles can minimize carbon dioxide emissions and pollutants even when considering indirect emissions from power production and battery generation. Soon, the world may start banning regular gasoline vehicles as a part of the solution to climate change which has already started in Norway. The result shows us there is a slight negative relationship between the oil price and sales of electric vehicles. I can expect that the sales of electric vehicles will keep increasing and after a certain time, it will become a perfect substitute for regular gasoline vehicles.
    • The Effect of Prosthetic Devices on Speech Intelligibility in Individuals with Cleft Lip and Palate

      Hughes, Alyssa (2015)
      Individuals with cleft lip and palate usually undergo surgery in infancy. Individuals who are not able to receive the proper reconstructive may benefit from a prosthetic device. This poster reviews the various options, their candidacy, and their effectiveness.
    • Effects of an Ice Storm on Fuel Loadings and Potential Fire Behavior in a Pine Barren of Northeastern New York

      Sargis, Gregg; Adams, Kenneth (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2004)
      Ecological effects of natural disturbances depend on the disturbance type, frequency, intensity and spatial scale. Of the major natural disturbances in the Northeast, ice storms are more frequent than fires or wind storms. Affecting nearly ten million hectares, the ice storm of January, 1998 was probably the most intense and widespread natural disturbance in the Northeast during the 20th Century. Some of the areas heavily impacted by this ice storm were sandstone pavement pine barrens of northeastern New York, among the rarest ecological communities in New York State. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) is the dominant tree species in the barrens. Ice storm damage to pine trees resulted in estimates of woody debris averaging 18 tons/ac (40 tonnes/ha) at the eight sites sampled in this study. These unusually high fuel loadings increase the probability for catastrophic wildfire. Predictions of fire behavior and fire intensity in these ice storm-damaged stands were made using the TSTMDL subsystem of BEHAVE. Estimates of fire behavior in these ice storm-damaged stands include flame lengths between 10 and 17 ft (3 and 5 m) and fireline intensities between 900 and 2600 Btu/ft/sec (3175 and 9400 kW/m). Fires of these intensities would be very difficult to suppress and would cause adverse ecological effects, including destruction of seeds contained in the slash. Further research is necessary to customize fuel models used to predict fire behavior in northeastern forests affected by disturbances.
    • The Effects of Childhood Apraxia of Speech on the Development of Phonological Awareness

      Boyea, Stephanie (2014)
      Research shows that childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is not only a disorder of motor planning for articulation, but is characterized by an impoverished phonological representation system. This presentation investigates the breakdown of the phonological representation system and its effect on the development of phonological awareness. The effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness intervention program for children with CAS is also investigated.
    • The Effects of Ganciclovir and Valganciclovir Antiviral Treatments in Children with Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection

      Centola, Allyson (2016)
      Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is one of the leading causes of non-hereditary newborn hearing losses. Typically children with a hearing loss would receive amplification to help combat the loss; however, new research has shown that children who have cCMV can receive antiviral treatments in lieu of amplification. Ganciclovir and valganciclovir are the antiviral treatments that are currently being used. These antiviral treatments help eliminate the viral load in the blood and thus improve the child’s hearing loss.