• Camera Trap Evaluation of Wildlife Use of Culverts in Northern New York

      Garneau, Danielle; Cheeseman, Craig; Rafferty, Alicia; Lauria, Ashley; Lee, Elizabeth (2016)
      Culverts are structured tunnels that are designed to divert water underneath roadways. Wildlife use culverts to connect to other habitat within their home range and their use reduces roadkill mortalities. The goal of this study was to determine the species completing passage through culverts of varied characteristics (e.g., shape, size, surrounding vegetation, construction material), as well as seasonal and diel patterns of usage. Eight cameras were deployed to and monitor bi-weekly to assess wildlife passage at four culverts between Fort Ann and Whitehall, New York. The greatest frequency of successful passage occurred at the box culvert (62 individuals), however the greatest richness of species (n=26) was observed near the circular culvert 7. Raccoons were the most commonly observed species, followed by fisher, red and gray foxes, eastern coyote, beaver, white-tailed deer, river otter, mink, and weasels. The higher water levels in the box culvert facilitated greater passage of aquatic species. The need to reduce wildlife and human damage resulting from roadkill is great, especially as landscapes become more fragmented. It is important to determine ideal culvert characteristics to increase wildlife connectivity through culvert use in the Adirondack Park and across the United States.
    • Camera trap monitoring of wildlife following a wildfire at the Altona Flat Rock forest

      Jaeger, Tristan; Adams, Matthew; Staats, Lloyd; Garneau, Danielle; Lesser, Mark (2020-05-05)
      Forest disturbance can drastically alter wildlife habitat (i.e., cover, forage and prey abundance). Response of wildlife to disturbance events, particularly the timing involved in returning to pre-disturbance conditions, are important aspects of overall ecosystem recovery and resilience. Here, we study wildlife occurrence and usage patterns following a disturbance at a sandstone pavement pine barren in northern NY. This site is dominated by Pinus banksiana (Jack Pine) with an understory largely comprised of Vaccinium angustifolium (Low-bush Blueberry) and Gaylussacia baccata (Huckleberry) serving as a major wildlife resource and fuel for this fire-dependent system. In July 2018, ~220ha of this forest was burned in a wildfire. In fall 2018, eight game cameras were installed along transects traversing a gradient of burn severity as well as an adjacent unburned reference area. Annual and seasonal abundances, and diel wildlife activity were characterized using the camTrap package in R Studio. Over the course of the study, overall species richness in the unburned and burned areas were differed (n= 15 and n= 13 respectively), though total occurrences were higher in the unburned (n = 361) than in the burned area (n = 480). Common species captured on the barren include Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer), Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare), and Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Red Squirrel) which more prevalent in the unburned, while Canis latrans (Coyote) were more common in the burned area. Seasonal trends in wildlife abundance show a clear benefit to being in the unburned area in fall through winter 2018 as it provides resources and hiding cover. In spring, wildlife increased activity within the regenerating burn which remained in high use until summer-fall 2019. Interestingly, Coyote’s use of burned and unburned areas tracks that of their Snowshoe Hare prey and is most pronounced in the burn during spring. At the barren, Snowshoe Hare and Coyote behave nocturnally as compared the diurnal activity of White-tailed Deer. In the unburned area, Coyote appear to shift activity to capture the morning peak of Deer. Further long-term monitoring will elucidate how wildfire affects wildlife community composition, abundance, and distribution on the Altona Flat Rock sandstone pavement barren.
    • Can athletes be tough yet compassionate to themselves? Practical implications for NCAA mental health best practice no. 4

      Stamatis, Andreas; Deal, Paul J.; Morgan, Grant B.; Forsse, Jeffrey S.; Papadakis, Zacharias; McKinley-Barnard, Sarah; Scudamore, Eric M.; Koutakis, Panagiotis (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2020-12-31)
      Recent tragic events and data from official NCAA reports suggest student-athletes’ wellbeing is compromised by symptoms of mental health (MH) disorders. Self-compassion (SC) and mental toughness (MT) are two psychological constructs that have been shown effective against stressors associated with sports. The purpose of this study was to investigate SC, MT, and MH in a NCAA environment for the first time and provide practical suggestions for MH best practice No.4. In total, 542 student-athletes participated across Divisions (Mage = 19.84, SD = 1.7). Data were collected through Mental Toughness Index, Self-Compassion Scale, and Mental Health Continuum–Short Form. MT, SC (including mindfulness), and MH were positively correlated. Males scored higher than females on all three scales. No differences were found between divisions. SC partially mediated the MT-MH relationship, but moderation was not significant. Working towards NCAA MH best practice should include training athletes in both MT and SC skills (via mindfulness).
    • Caring and Control: The Importance of Detachment

      MacLeod, Douglas C. Jr (The Common Good: A SUNY Plattsburgh Journal on Teaching and Learning, 2013)
      Should we be finding ways to detach ourselves from our students, when they so clearly need guidance and direction? Should we be placing ourselves at a distance when students are so desperately trying to find someone to lead them to the right path? “Caring and Control: The Importance of Detachment” uses psychological definitions of the term detachment to help prove that the action is absolutely necessary for a healthy professional relationship to take place, both inside and outside of the classroom; and, that we (as teachers/instructors/professors) should have complete control over our “internal working models,” which the students have hardly any control over.
    • Challenges of Teaching Organic Chemistry during COVID-19 Pandemic at a Primarily Undergraduate Institution

      Sunasee, Rajesh (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-07-28)
      With a sudden move to remote and online teaching due to COVID-19 pandemic, Organic Chemistry became more challenging for both students and educators with the emergence of new technological challenges and instructional strategies. The Organic Chemistry I class at SUNY Plattsburgh was shifted to an online learning model in an attempt to mimic face-to-face teaching as well as maintaining active learning. This communication highlights the instructor’s perspectives on the challenges and insights gained for teaching Organic Chemistry I (lecture component) for the Spring 2020 semester in the time of COVID-19. A combination of asynchronous and synchronous teaching methods was found to be effective for content delivery, active learning, and increasing student’s engagement. Synchronous class attendance was monitored and compared with typical face-to-face class attendance. Synchronous problem-solving exercises had an effect on student’s attendance rate and learning. An exit survey indicated about 64% of students had a preference for face to-face teaching over online teaching of Organic Chemistry.
    • Characterization of Microplastics using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

      Garneau, Danielle; Ashline, Erin (2018)
      Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) is a spectroscopy technique widely used to analyze polymer profiles of particulate at a chemical level. The goal of this study was to assess the polymer composition of microplastics ingested by aquatic organisms from Lake Champlain. Preliminary results suggest fibers are the most prominent particle type in organisms (N = 482). Among these fibers, the most common plastic polymer was polyester [PET] (14.5%), followed by cellulose [20u ave particle size] (11.1%), alpha-cellulose [99.5% pure] (11.0%), and rayon (8.5%). Fragments were the second most prominent particle type (N = 168) and were commonly polyester [PET] (52%), followed by vinal (9%), polypropylene, isotactic (4%), and rayon (4%). Pellets (N = 14) were primarily vinylidene chlorine [200ppm mhdq] (14.2%) and polyethylene, chlorinated 36% chlorine (14.2%), followed by both vinal (7%), and cellulose nitrate (7%). Films (N = 11) were primarily rayon (27%), poly [methylmethacrylate] (27%), followed by poly [1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene terephthalate] (18%), and polypropylene, isotactic (9%). The least common polymer type found were foams (N = 10) comprised of polyethylene, chlorosulfonated (50%), polyethylene, chlorinated 36% chlorine (40%), and alzon [casein] (10%). Overall, polyester [PET] was more abundant as compared to other plastics and derives from synthetic clothing and food and beverage packaging.
    • Chazy and the Miner Institute

      Garneau, Danielle; Gonzalez, Amanda; Trahan, Rosemary (2016)
    • Chrysemys picta (Painted turtle) Demographic and Home Range Patterns in Rural vs. Urban Ponds

      Garneau, Danielle; Drollette, Kelley; Whyte, Cassondra (2014)
      Research suggests that turtle populations are declining and gender ratios are skewed as a result of urbanization. In particular, most turtle populations appear male skewed where anthropogenic disturbance has occurred. In summer/fall 2013, we compared demographic trends in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) in both a rural and urban pond setting near Plattsburgh, NY. An urban golf course pond complex (Plattsburgh, NY) was compared to a rural quarry pond (Chazy, NY). We performed capture-mark- recapture on turtles using hoop traps. Turtles were marked by notching the carapace with a file using a typical 3 letter system. Gender was determined from length of foreclaw and age by size of the turtle. We found that the rural site contained more adults and both sites were female skewed. Program Mark was used to estimate rates of survival, immigration, recapture, and population size (N). The rural had approximately 1.4 times more painted turtles than the urban site. Survival rates were higher at the rural pond. Monthly, home range size fluctuated among female turtles and was largest earlier in the season. The smallest home range occurred the month prior to overwintering, as temperatures declined. Smartphone location-enabled Google forms grossly overestimated home range size, this error reduced when time was taken to sync data when accuracy values were low. This information will help to inform developers, landowners, and biologists alike of the impact of urbanization (e.g., habitat loss, habitat split/fragmentation) on persistence of turtle species.
    • Chrysemys picta (Painted turtle) Demographic Patterns in Rural vs. Urban Ponds

      Garneau, Danielle; Gardner, Brittany; Galante, Desiree (2014)
      Research suggests that turtle populations are declining and gender ratios are skewed as a result of urbanization. In particular, most turtle populations appear male skewed where anthropogenic disturbance has occurred. In fall 2012, we compared demographic trends in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) in both a rural and urban pond setting near Plattsburgh, NY. An urban golf course pond complex (Plattsburgh, NY) was compared to a rural quarry pond and wildlife management area (Chazy, NY). We performed capture-mark-recapture on turtles using hoop traps. Turtles were marked by notching the carapace with a file using a typical 3 letter system. Gender was determined from length of foreclaw and age by size of the turtle. We found that the rural site contained more adults and more males. We found that there were more painted turtles in the rural as compared to urban areas, which may be due to lesser predation and road mortality risks. The results from this local turtle project will become part of a continental-scale survey of turtle population health. This information will help to inform developers, landowners, and biologists alike of the impact of urbanization (e.g., habitat loss, habitat split, habitat fragmentation) on persistence of turtle species.
    • Chrysemys picta (Painted turtle) Demographic Patterns in Rural vs. Urban Ponds: An Ecological Research as Education Network (EREN) project

      Garneau, Danielle; Hilling, Thomas; Busch, Allison; DeSantis, Grace (2016)
      Research suggests that turtle populations are declining and gender ratios are skewed as a result of urbanization. In particular, most turtle populations appear male-skewed where anthropogenic disturbance has occurred. In summer/fall 2015, we compared demographic trends in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) in both rural and urban pond settings near Plattsburgh, NY. An urban golf course pond complex (Plattsburgh, NY) was compared to a rural pond in Point au Roche Park, just north of Plattsburgh, NY. Prior studies (2013-14) focused on a rural pond, Krystal Lake quarry in Chazy. We performed capture-mark-recapture on turtles using hoop traps. Turtles were marked by filing a notch into the carapace scutes using a typical 3 letter system. Gender was determined from length of foreclaw and pre-cloacal tail measurements, and age by turtle carapace size. Program Mark was used to estimate population size (N) and other parameters. The N value was 1.23 X greater at the rural site when compared to the urban site. We found that the rural site contained about the same amount of adults and the urban and rural sites were female and male skewed, respectively. This information will help to inform developers, landowners, and biologists alike of the impact of urbanization (e.g., habitat loss, habitat split/fragmentation) on persistence of turtle species.
    • Climbing Expedition: The Wind River Range and Grand Teton National Park

      Henley, Casey; Soroka, Laurence; Madia, Keith (2012)
      This is a proposal for a rock climbing expedition in the Wind River Mountains and Grand Teton National Park. The Wind River Range is located south of the Tetons in Wyoming. Although these two areas are geographically close in proximity, they offer different climbing culture and experiences. Based on my research, Grand Teton National Park is a smaller mountain range than the Wind River Mountains although it seems to attract a larger amount of visitors. The Tetons are only a short drive from the popular city of Jackson, WY. On the other hand, the Wind River Mountains are large and spread out. It takes a long day hike to get to the Cirque of the Towers, one of the more popular climbing areas in the range, which is the area of the Wind River Range that this proposal is based on. This paper represents the research and thought that has gone into planning an expedition in the two proposed locations. I used a variety of sources, which include credible websites, guidebooks, encyclopedias, and conversations with outdoor professionals. It also represents my own knowledge and processes of planning a climbing expedition. This means that my proposal will demonstrate the step-by-step process of planning a climbing expedition that I've learned through the Expeditionary Studies Program. The main points this proposal will relay are my own goals and reasons for this expedition, the science and history of the areas, technical attributes of a climbing expedition, risk and emergency management, and the itinerary for the expedition. In return, this proposal will validate me and my partner's ability to carry out an expedition in the Teton and Wind River Range. This expedition is the capstone to the Expeditionary Studies Program, which is required for graduation.
    • Cogrowth of Regular Graphs

      Northshield, Sam (Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, 1992)
      Let G be a d-regular graph and T the covering tree of G. We define a cogrowth constant of G in T and express it in terms of the first eigenvalue of the Laplacian on G. As a corollary, we show that the cogrowth constant is as large as possible if and only if the first eigenvalue of the Laplacian on G is zero. Grigorchuk's criterion for amenability of finitely generated groups follows.
    • A Comparison of Language Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

      Kerr, Emily (2016)
      Recently, many studies have been performed to determine the relationship of language deficits of children with autism spectrum disorder and children with specific language impairment (SLI). Both autism and SLI are defined by impairments in one specific area of language; however, overlap in the deficits of these disorders is becoming apparent. While lines have been previously drawn to separate these two disorders, the parameters of impairment between autism and SLI may not be as easily defined as once thought.
    • A Comparison of the Effect of Parkinson's Disease on Verbal and Signed Modalities

      Ball, Nora (2019-05)
      Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in movement. The effects of PD on verbal communicators have long been known, but little is known of its impact on American Sign Language users (ASL). Due to impairments found in the communication of verbal PD communicators, recent studies have investigated impairments found in ASL PD communicators. Studies have shown deficits in prosody, intonation and articulatory approximations created by PD. Possible associations between an ease of articulation and increased difficulties in perception have been theorized. This literature stipulates possible similarities between the effect of PD on verbal and signed modalities. This literature review will analyze the results of previously conducted studies and speculate recommendations for future research.
    • A Comparison of Treatment Approaches for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

      Papin, Jordy (2016)
      Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is defined as a developmental disorder that affects speech motor planning and programming, and leads to disrupted accuracy and consistency of articulatory movements necessary for speech. As most cases are idiopathic, there are a wide range of treatment approaches for CAS. This presentation aims to compare the efficacy of different treatment approaches.
    • Comparisons of Four Riparian Plant Communities on the Little Chazy River, Northern New York

      Becker, D.; Buboltz, A.; Kinicki, D.; Plantrich, R.; Tucker, R.; Adams, K. (Scientia Discipulorum: SUNY Plattsburgh, 2006)
      Riparian zones are transitional plant communities that are important for the protection of stream water quality and biota and they often have high biological diversity within small geographical areas. This study characterized the vegetation and several physical site features within four riparian zones in the Little Chazy River watershed located in Clinton County, NY. A total of 110 plant species were sampled in the overstory, understory, and groundcover at these study sites. Average species richness in the 1m2 groundcover plots ranged between 7.0 at the agricultural riparian zone to 17.8 at one of the forested riparian zones. Species diversity values ranged between 1.23 at the agricultural riparian zone to 2.32 at one of the forested riparian zones. In this study, the riparian zone with active agricultural activity had no overstory or understory and the least diverse groundcover. Ordination of groundcover data showed both between-site and within-site separations, indicating large differences in species composition can occur on a small spatial scale. No relationship was found between nutrient availability and disturbance intensity of the riparian zones. The abundance of non-indigenous plant species was directly related to disturbance history of the riparian zones. Best management practices (BMP's) for agriculture and forestry in the Lake Champlain Valley should include guidelines for the preservation of natural riparian ecosystems without producing severe economic consequences for landowners. BMP's should be specific to each type of riparian ecosystem found in northeastern New York.
    • Complex Descartes Circle Theorem

      Northshield, Sam (American Mathematical Monthly, 2014)
      We present a short proof of Descartes Circle Theorem on the curvature-centers of four mutually tangent circles. Key to the proof is associating an octahedral configuration of spheres to four mutually tangent circles. We also prove an analogue for spheres.