Sub-communities within this community

Recent Submissions

  • Digital and Social Media Marketing Strategies of American and Canadian Restaurants in a Pandemic

    Gultek, Mark (Journal of Marketing Management, 2021)
    This paper examines the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on restaurant marketing practices and outlines a two-pronged approach of analyzing digital marketing and social media platforms that restaurants use to market their product. The presence of COVID-19 information and practices in these marketing platforms is explored in a comparison model of restaurants between the United States and Canada. Understanding the marketing impact of these practices during a global pandemic can provide actionable insights to promote development and sustainability in the restaurant industry. Since very little research has examined the marketing strategies of restaurants during a pandemic as well as exploring a country comparison model to shed light on the global aspects of it, this paper is one of the frontier studies looking critically at the potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the restaurant industry.
  • Manipulating Chladni Patterns of Ferromagnetic Materials by an External Magnetic Field

    Podolak, Kenneth R.; Wickramasinghe, Vihan A.W.; Mansfield, Gareth A.; Tuller, Alex M. (Sound & Vibration, 2021)
    Ernst Chladni is called the father of acoustics for his work, which includes investigating patterns formed by vibrating plates. Understanding these patterns helps research involving standing waves and other harmonic behaviors, including studies of single electron orbits in atoms. Our experiment vibrates circular plates which result in well-known patterns. Alternatively to traditional experiments that used sand or salt, we use magnetic materials, namely iron filings and nickel powder. We then manipulate the patterns by applying a localized external magnetic field to one of the rings that moves a segment of the magnetic material in that ring to the next inner ring. The results show a significant decrease in magnetic field necessary to move the magnetic material at higher frequencies as well as a significant decrease in the magnetic field required to move the magnetic material as nickel powder is substituted for iron filings while keeping the mass constant.
  • "Equitable Environmental Literacy: Investigating Interventions to Increase Environmental Literacy among BIPOC Students "

    Kara, Jillian; Coleman, Kimberly; Walls, Leon; Alldred, Mary (2022-05-05)
    The theme of my poster is Equitable Environmental Literacy among BIPOC students. Environmental literacy has four main components, knowledge, affective attitudes, cognitive skills, and behavior. There is currently inequitable education occurring within natural resources. There is an increasing need to create an environmentally literate society that is prepared to address demanding and emerging environmental issues worldwide. Educational programming is not equipping BIPOC communities with the knowledge to participate in planning, management, and decision making processes. At its core, this is environmental injustice. To further investigate gaps in natural resources, we created a survey to measure student interest in the environment. A pilot survey was conducted during the summer of 2021 and UB students from both PSU and UVM were surveyed on pre-watershed science initiatives. We hypothesized that BIPOC students were less likely to select “agree” and “strongly agree” when answering questions related to having an environmental job and pursuing environmental education in college. The surveys were conducted via google forms and the students identity was kept anonymous. We then combined all answers into a large data set and the analysis was conducted in R. We created bar graphs which show each question asked and the breakdown of the student demographics. The pilot survey indicated that BIPOC students did not rate “agree” or “strongly agree” when answering the questions “I plan to study the environment in college” and “I plan to work in an environmental field”. This further validates current research that indicates BIPOC students are less likely to pursue environmental interests. The next steps in this research are to conduct the same survey during the summer of 2022. During the summer, students will participate in a wide variety of watershed science initiatives. It is our hope that this will stimulate natural resource interest among students in the program.
  • Creating, Implementing, and Assessing Equitable Environmental Education Among Students who Identify as Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC)

    Kara, Jillian (2022-12-12)
    This thesis investigates interventions to increase environmental literacy among Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) students and examines the systemic racism that has been embedded throughout the field of natural resources and environmental education (EE). I took a case study approach to research environmental literacy among northern New York and Vermont high school students who qualify as coming from “modest income households” and whose parents did not obtain a four-year degree. I conducted qualitative analysis on student observations and pre- and post-survey data to understand student’s levels of environmental stewardship, connectedness to nature, and environmental career aspirations. The results are organized into four chapters: an introduction chapter, two manuscripts intended for stand-alone publication (Chapters 2-3), and a conclusion chapter. Chapter 2 reports on the current state of the field of natural resources and the development of an equitable survey tool which indicated that students across similar socio-economic backgrounds have similar levels of environmental interest yet career paths shift in BIPOC youth. Chapter 3 discusses strategies for increasing stewardship, connectedness to nature, and environmental career aspirations among students. Finally, Chapter 4 synthesizes the findings from Chapters 2-3. These results provide useful information about the current state of environmental education and provides recommendations on how environmental education can be more inclusive.
  • A Data Minimization Algorithm for Fast and Secure Transfer of Big Datasets Using Fourier Analysis

    Sharafatmandjoor, Shervin; Balan, Cristian (2022-10-21)
    Today’s increased demand for fast and secure transfer of big data applications and files has motivated researchers to develop novel algorithms within the framework of existing protocol limitations. Transferring big data datasets (e.g. Big Genomic Datasets) over the network has always been an interesting and challenging research area. This is because all data transfer protocols, such as HTTP and FTP, use the standard content-encoding schemes, namely ASCII, which offer little or no compression or data minimization. The purpose of this work is to design and implement a novel Fourier-based data minimization algorithm to decrease the required time to transfer multi-dimensional big datasets over conventional networks. In addition, we increased security in the event of a data breach. Moreover, it will introduce a generic concept that can be used by cloud-based applications to secure data that is being exchanged remotely. One and two-dimensional results show how the method could effectively be used in different data minimization scenarios.
  • A Data Minimization Algorithm for Fast and Secure Transfer of Big Datasets Using Fourier Analysis

    Sharafatmandjoor, Shervin; Balan, Cristian (2022-10-14)
    Transferring big data datasets over the network has always been an interesting topic. This is because all data transfer protocols, such as Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and File Transfer Protocol (FTP), use the standard content-encoding schemes, such as the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). On the other hand, today’s increased demand for fast and secure transfer of big data applications and files, has motivated researchers to develop novel algorithms within the framework of existing protocol limitations. The purpose of this presentation is to design and implement a novel Fourier-based data minimization algorithm to decrease the required time to transfer multi-dimensional big datasets over conventional networks. In addition, we increased security in the event of a data breach. Moreover, it will introduce a generic concept that can be used by cloud-based applications to secure data that exchange remotely.
  • Effects of Landscape Context on Painted Turtle Population Structure in Northern New York

    Garneau, Danielle; Mahoney, Ian; Morgenroth, Rhiannon; Gennosa, Katherine "Ky"; Garneau, Danielle (2022-12-11)
    Painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) are a widely distributed freshwater turtle common in northern New York wetlands. Turtles provide ecosystem services that include redistributing nutrients, dispersing seeds, serving as prey to predators, and modifying wetland habitat. With ongoing threats due to climate change, disease, and losses in wetland habitat, painted turtle population health can reflect ecosystem health. We aimed to evaluate demographic and microbiome trends among painted turtle populations along an urbanization gradient in northern New York. In fall 2022, we set 10 hoop traps for 3 consecutive days at both an urban (Barracks golf course), Plattsburgh, NY and rural (Lake Alice Wildlife Management Area, Chazy, NY site. Following established Ecological Research as Education (TurtlePop 2.0) protocols. Gender and age structure of each individual was determined and each was uniquely marked using carapace scute notching techniques. We also evaluated Salmonella sp. presence on turtle’s at each pond by collecting both carapace and cloacal swabs. Site-specific characteristics were also noted at each pond including abundance of basking sites, pond area, water and air temperatures, pH, and conductivity. The greater abundance of turtles at the urban site could be explained by the presence of plentiful basking logs. Contrary to our hypotheses both urban and rural sites are female and adult skewed, which could be explained by site-specific mesopredator guild differences. Morphologically there were no major size differences noted between the urban and rural populations. Additionally, there were no significant differences in water quality between the pond complexes. Painted turtle carapace and cloacal microbiomes were dominated by Pseudomonas sp. and no salmonella bacteria were detected via Sanger sequencing. More long-term research needs to be done in order to determine the effects of urbanization on painted turtle populations as our findings appear in line with findings of the EREN network, but contrary to those of the larger body of turtle conservation research.
  • Comparing Herpetofauna Microbiome Diversity Across Northern New York

    Garneau, Danielle; Lorenzetti, Owen; Monroe, Gabrielle; Stone, Riley; Garneau, Danielle; Lester, Sara (2022-12-11)
    Several threats to herpetofaunal species such as habitat loss and the increase of diseases have decreased their global populations. Climate change is projected to shift many species of plants and animals into cooler regions. Within the last century there has been an ~80% decline in species due to habitat loss, climate change, and disease. Most notably is chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which keratinized the skin of herpetofauna. Microhabitat complexity is linked to their microbiome diversity and fitness. Our study was designed to evaluate the influence of both macro- and microhabitat on herpetofaunal epidermal microbiome. At three sites (Rugar Woods, Paul Smiths Visitor’s Interpretive Center, and Lewis Preserve Wildlife Management Area), we surveyed herpetofauna using hand capture techniques and collected microbial samples by swabbing the skin of individuals. Bacteria were plated to determine morphotype richness and serial dilutions were made in order to isolate the most prominent colonies. Microbial DNA was extracted, followed by a 16s rRNA polymerization chain reaction (PCR), and Sanger sequencing to confirm microbial species. Herpetofauna epithelial microbiome included Serratia sp., Pantoea sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Sphingobacteria. Herpetofaunal richness was the same across all macro-sites (S=3), with red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) being ubiquitous and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum), leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens), spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), American toads (Anaxyrus americanus), and garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) being rare. The most common microhabitat under which herpetofauna were found was coarse woody debris (CWD) and in terms of silviculture, single tree cuts and control sites had more animals than did other treatments such as clearcuts. Bacterial morphotype richness was greatest at Lewis Preserve and among red-backed salamanders and leopard frogs. Our bacterial species were common to herpetofaunal microbiomes and many support antifungal activity. Our findings suggested that a minimally managed wildlife management area with mature mixed forest, extensive floodplain, and riparian edge will support a diverse herpetofaunal community with high bacterial morphotype richness, affording greater defense against disease.
  • Assessing Small Mammal Richness and Abundance Following Wildfires

    Garneau, Danielle; Bargabos, Meghan; Cooper, Shannon; Hart, Zach; Garneau, Danielle (2022-12-01)
    As with all disturbance, wildfire transforms the abiotic and biotic features of the landscape. The Altona Flat Rock is a globally rare sandstone pavement pine barrens ecosystem dominated by an overstory of Pinus banksiana (jack pine) and understory of ericaceous shrubs including Vaccinium augustifolium (blueberry). In summer 2018, a wildfire burned approximately 225 hectares of the jack pine barrens, a fire-dependent ecosystem. The small mammal community provides essential ecosystem services as seed predators, dispersers, and as prey for higher trophic levels. We aimed to determine the abundance and diversity of the small mammal community at two sites, specifically 1) the recent 2018 wildfire versus 2) a regenerated forest that burned in 1957. As part of an on-going mark-recapture study at the Flat Rock, small mammal live trapping was conducted over a six-week period in fall 2022. Each individual was uniquely marked with an ear tag and body metrics (length, weight) and gender were collected. Data from the 2022 field season was combined with previous years which showed that the small mammal abundance has declined over time and the reference (1957) site had higher community diversity including insectivores, while the recent burn (2018) had a higher overall abundance of the dominant generalist Peromyscus sp.. Results from this on-going study, can inform more effective management strategies in fire-dependent ecosystems by optimizing small mammal habitat and benefiting the ecosystem as a whole to better support the larger wildlife community and regenerating forest.
  • Microplastics in Lake Champlain Fishes: Characterization and New Techniques

    Garneau, Danielle; Sinisgalli, Angelo; Garneau, Danielle (2022-12-01)
    Microplastics, defined as being <5mm in size, have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern. Concerns have arisen due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to alter physiology and behavior that reduces reproduction and survival. As this is an emerging threat, the potential damage posed by microplastics to freshwater ecosystems has not yet been fully investigated and best practices for characterization are being developed. The purpose of this study was to learn the process of microplastics characterization in Lake Champlain and pilot the use of Nile red stain for quantification. In fall 2022, I dissected three fish (2 tench (Tinca tinca), 1 rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus)), isolated microplastics using wet peroxide oxidation, and characterizing them under the microscope. All particulate in fish were characterized as microfibers of small size (125-355um). Fiber load in tench, a larger fish, was 26% greater than that of rudd. Moving forward we plan to record this process for educational purposes and further develop a Nile Red staining procedure to expedite microplastic quantification.
  • Biota of Chazy Lake: The Legacy of Invasive Species and other Abiotic Stressors

    Garneau, Danielle; Mordecki, Kolby; Kotezle, Andrea Grace; Garneau, Danielle (2022-12-01)
    Freshwater systems are threatened with poor water quality and invasive species, affecting their overall health. Chazy Lake is an oligotrophic impounded freshwater lake in Clinton County, New York approximately 1,800 acres in size and surrounded by mountains. Invasive species have become an increasing threat to the lake and include Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), Chinese mystery snail (Cipangopaludina chinensis), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Abiotic stressors, such as road salt, are also major concerns. Over the course of four weeks in fall 2022, we surveyed the lake for fish and turtle community composition. At each site, hoop traps (n=2 minnow, n=1 turtle) were set at two reference (South Inlet, Pump station) and two disturbed (Dam, Seine Bay) sites. We created a Survey123 project to remotely georeference sites, curate images, and answer form questions. Water samples were collected to evaluate abiotic factors such as conductivity and pH. The species richness of the fish community was 5 and included 17 individuals including creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Our hypothesis was not entirely supported as the majority of our fish were caught at the pump station (n=10) and disturbed Seine Bay (n=7) sites. None of the fish surveyed displayed disease phenotypes and no turtles were observed. Abiotic factors were surprising, as high conductivity (512 uS/cm) levels aligned with the Seine Bay, a site adjacent to a major roadway, while other sites averaged (94 uS/cm). Water chemistry revealed similar pH levels across sites 7.28-7.75. Non-profit organizations are addressing these threats with management efforts including lake drawdowns and seasonal watermilfoil removal. Long-term water quality monitoring has afforded residents opportunities to discuss alternatives and ways to minimize use of road salt. The lack of fish and turtles found in Chazy Lake may be just one sign of on-going threats associated with invasive species and pollution.
  • Wingin’ It: A Survey of Bat Populations in Varying Habitats in Northern New York

    Garneau, Danielle; Bushey, Devan; Doell, Caley; Steckler, Eric; Garneau, Danielle (2022-12-01)
    Bats are taxonomically and ecologically diverse species who provide many ecosystem services. They are also sensitive to many anthropogenic stressors (e.g., urbanization, water quality, changes in climate), so changes in bat populations have historically been early sentinels of disturbance, facilitating focused conservation efforts. Unfortunately, following the introduction of white-nose syndrome (WNS) in 2006 in New York, the nation has seen variable but drastic declines in bat populations. The relationship between bats and their habitats is not well understood because they are wide-ranging and require multiple critical habitat types, but research is needed in order to meet conservation targets. In fall 2022, we assessed the abundance and diversity of bat species between forested, rural, and urban habitat types in northern New York. Each site was surveyed once using an ultrasonic bat detector thirty minutes after sunset, the most active feeding time for bat species. We hypothesized that bat abundance would be highest in the urban setting, with infrastructure providing increased roosting opportunity. However, highest species abundance and richness were both found at the forested site, likely because it was surveyed the earliest in the season. It was also the route with the most suitable habitat based on prior research suggesting bats need water for feeding and forests for roosting. The forested and rural sites showed 28.6% similarity, the rural and urban sites showed no similarity, and the forested and urban sites had 50% similarity. Understanding the disproportionate value that forest habitats provide for bat populations, we suggest considering conservation efforts which prioritize these ecosystems and link them to important riparian corridors.
  • Assessing Plethodon cinereus (Red-backed Salamander) Skin Microbiome Differences Across Northern NY

    Wojotowecz, Chase; Bricetti, Luke; Ankrah, Nana Y. D.; Garneau, Danielle (2022-08-24)
    The role of global climate change in increasing the prevalence of amphibian disease, including chytridiomycosis, is well known. The skin microbiome is considered an important component of the amphibian immune system. Specific bacterial taxa and high skin microbial diversity are factors that are known to boost amphibian disease resistance. In this study, we explored the impact of environmental conditions on Plethodon cinereus (Red-backed Salamander) skin microbial abundance and diversity at a variety of different sites in New York’s North Country. We surveyed P. cinereus specimens from 5 sites varying in elevation and dominant vegetation type. Salamander skin microbiomes were subsequently sampled via sterile swab, plated and characterized by visual inspection of colony morphology. We performed DNA extractions and PCR to prepare samples for genetic sequencing to determine bacterial species identity. In total, 31 unique bacterial taxa were collected from the 5 sites. The highest and lowest bacterial diversity were observed at the Paul Smiths’ Visitor Interpretive Center’s Forest Ecosystem Research and Demonstration Area (FERDA) sites single tree and control silviculture stands, respectively. Beta diversity tests also indicated that the skin microbial communities at these 2 sites were most similar to each other and noticeably different from that of the Altona Flat Rock and Rugar Woods sites. These results indicate that site conditions are important determinants of P. cinereus skin microbial community diversity patterns. Although the identity of bacterial species (pathogenic, non-pathogenic) are yet to be confirmed, this study has added support to the concept that environmental conditions alter salamander skin microbiomes, which in turn can influence salamander disease resistance.
  • Oh deer, what do we have here? Monitoring stand and landscape-level changes in wildlife habitat use in northern New York

    Cave, Hannah; Rascoe, Liam; Garneau, Danielle; Lesser, Mark (2022-08-24)
    Forest composition and structure is a primary determinant of wildlife community patterns. However, disturbances such as selective harvesting, wildfires, and maple-sugaring operations, along with seasonal changes in habitat, may also influence wildlife species richness and abundance at the landscape-level. The Altona Flat Rock, a sandstone pavement barrens, contains Pinus rigida (Pitch Pine)- and Pinus banksiana (Jack Pine)-dominated forest types nested within the largely northern hardwood dominated landscape of upstate New York. Sections of these forest types have undergone recent disturbance (i.e., wildfire in the Jack Pine, maple sugaring and harvest in the northern hardwoods), changing structure and/or composition in those areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate wildlife habitat use over time and space across these adjacent, but very different, forests. Since spring 2018, we have used game cameras to continuously monitor wildlife in the hardwood-dominated forests surrounding the Flat Rock (n = 12). Concurrently, we have also been monitoring wildlife use in the Pitch Pine (n = 4) and Jack Pine barrens (n = 8). The most ubiquitous herbivore across all 3 sites was Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer), while Canis latrans (Eastern Coyote) and Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare) were most abundant in the Jack Pine forest type. Interestingly, Sciurus carolinensis (Gray Squirrel) and Sciurus vulgaris (Red Squirrel) were found almost exclusively in either the hardwood or Jack Pine forests, respectively, suggesting differences in dietary needs/preferences. Species richness varied dramatically across forest types, with northern hardwood, Jack Pine, and Pitch Pine richness values of 20, 31, and 2, respectively. Disturbance in the Jack Pine stand initially decreased richness, however, over the duration of the study there was little difference between the disturbed (26 species) and undisturbed (22 species) Jack Pine stands. We have observed slightly lower species richness in the mature hardwood forest (13 species) versus the young hardwood forest (19 species). Further analysis will determine temporal (seasonal and diel) wildlife diversity patterns. This study will provide wildlife and forest managers insights into the influence of forest type, and impacts of disturbance and management practices, on wildlife habitat.
  • Effect of COVID-19 on stock prices

    Case, Connor (2022-05-14)
    The purpose of this study was to dissect the impact of COVID-19 cases on stock price of the largest public companies by market capitalization in each of the 11 Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) sectors, from March 9th, 2020, until December 27th, 2021. This topic is so interesting considering the behavior of the S&P 500 index for example, which rose 58.50% while COVID-19 cases soared well over one hundred thousand new cases per week throughout the same period. Research done on a pandemic’s effect on stock markets have had the opposite response, at least for a year or so until the markets stabilize, including the Spanish Flu (1918-1920), Asian Flu (1957-1958), and more recently the SARS virus (2003). This study was conducted using panel regression analysis, and using observations gathered on a weekly occurrence. This study concluded that there is a highly significant positive relationship between the closing price of the 11 companies with new weekly COVID-19 cases, meaning that every time there was an increase in COVID-19 cases by 1%, the closing price of the 11 companies would increase by 1.9%. The outcome can be explained by an increased number of people having time to day trade due to layoffs or working from home, COVID-19-related stimulus packages offering the average American more funds to invest, or the most likely – investors looking past the catastrophic event to eventually return to normality as the reason to invest.
  • Educational factors and their effect on college tuition in private institutions across the United States

    Decker, Matthew J. (2022-05-16)
    To date, educational and economic factors have caused significant variation of tuition prices of private universities for the 2019 and 2020 fiscal educational year. This paper offers a cross-sectional model observing the causation of increasing college costs across the United States with underlying support from the human capital theory of education. The analysis at hand focuses on educational and institutional variables and their effects on the associated tuition costs for only private institutions. A series of STATA econometric tests were completed in order to determine a model, which further tests were then run for deeper analysis.
  • Pontifications on power

    Blaise, Butterfly; Balzac, Fred (2022-05-10)
    Written as a "reflection" on a weekend course at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Plattsburgh, "Sexuality, Power & Relationships," taken in the spring of 2018 and led by Prof. Butterfly Blaise and students in the Department of Gender and Women's Studies, this essay contrasts attitudes toward and behaviors involving such topics as sex, sexuality, gender identity, and relationships in the 1960s and 70s, when the author, Fred Balzac, was coming of age, and the late 2010s. The essay links these changed interpersonal attitudes and behaviors to such global and national challenges as climate change, rising economic inequality and the impoverishment of half the population, despair and alienation as evidenced by the opioid crisis and neglect of veterans returning from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, and the decaying of American democracy, arguing that ruthless corporatism and unrestrained capitalism are at the root of many of the social problems discussed in the course at SUNY Plattsburgh. Contending that while the contemporary focus on issues such as gender identity and intersectionality encompass important and necessary struggles for the freedom and empowerment of all peoples, the essay concludes that, to address the global/national as well as the interpersonal problems they face, the younger generations—including Balzac's then-23-year-old son and his peers in the weekend course—will have to take on the corporate-capitalist power structure.
  • The Use of Voice to Empower Community Building

    Richards, Julie; Chisholm, Nydia; Smith, Siera (2022-02-18)
  • The Impact of CEOs’ Incentives for Risk-Taking or Risk-Aversion on Corporate Performance: Using CEO Vega and CEO Delta as Incentive Measures

    Garas, Samy; Kienpin, Tee; Lee, Chuo-Hsuan (2022)
    This article has a two-fold purpose. First, we investigate whether the CEOs’ risk-taking incentives are associated with better concurrent firm performance. Second, we examine the impact of gender on the aforementioned relationship. We find solid empirical evidence that CEOs’ risk-aversion incentive, as represented by a higher CEO delta, can be linked to better concurrent firm performance such as return on assets (ROA) and Market-to-Book Value (MTB) ratio. By contrast, we find that the risk-taking incentive, as represented by CEO vega, has no significant impact on ROA, but has a significant impact on MTB ratio only among the group of CEOs with larger share ownerships. Furthermore, we research on the same incentives using only female CEOs in our sample. Our panel-data findings indicate that female CEOs on average possessed a lower CEO delta (low risk aversion) and a lower CEO vega (risk-taking incentive) in their compensation packages when compared with their male counterparts. Taken together, these two risk incentives; are linked to a lower concurrent ROA and MTB value. Our findings also indicate that the aforementioned positive relationship between CEOs’ risk- aversion incentive (as measured by CEO delta) and firm performance (as measured by ROA) are less pronounced when a CEO is female. This implies that a female CEO is less likely to increase the firm’s ROA relative to a male CEO, given the same sensitivity of personal wealth to stock price change (i.e., the same CEO delta).
  • Does income inequality negatively affect GDP growth? A panel study

    Nguyen, Ha (2021)
    Ricardo’s Distribution theory (1817) proposes that, as the economy faces diminishing profits/returns on capital, there would be an increasing shortage of investments. Income inequality exacerbates this problem, by causing income not to be reinvested back in production timely. Therefore, the result is a stagnant economy, where economic growth is significantly slowed down. Literatures on the relationship between income inequality or overall inequality, and economic growth, which is usually measured by GDP growth, have revealed different and robust results. Forbes, 2000 and Partridge, 1997 found a significantly positive correlation between income inequality and GDP growth. However, Tabellini et al, 1994 produced a significant and negative correlation. Interestingly, Squire et al, 1998 found no significant relationship between aggregate inequality and GDP growth, but a significantly negative relationship between poverty and GDP growth. More recently, Brueckner and Lederman, 2017 found a significantly negative impact of income inequality on GDP transitional growth in countries with high initial incomes. Nonetheless, overall, recent literature has been leaning towards the hypothesis that the relationship between income inequality and GDP growth is non-linear. This paper is going to empirically study 146 countries in the world over 27 years from 1992 to 2018, to confirm that the relationship between income inequality and GDP growth is non-linear as suggested in recent literature. Moreover, this research will show that the effects of income inequality on GDP growth is heterogeneous; the impact of income inequality on economic growth is more positive on high income countries than on lower income countries. The method used is regression that aims to explain the GDP movements of countries, in terms of consumption, export, capital formation, poverty, and GINI coefficient. This research is at preliminary level; there can be further improvements to the model.

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