Typha (Cattail) Invasion in North American Wetlands: Biology, Regional Problems, Impacts, Ecosystem Services, and Management
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Laurentian Great Lakes
Prairie Pothole Region
Typha × Glauca
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AbstractTypha is an iconic wetland plant found worldwide. Hybridization and anthropogenic disturbances have resulted in large increases in Typha abundance in wetland ecosystems throughout North America at a cost to native floral and faunal biodiversity. As demonstrated by three regional case studies, Typha is capable of rapidly colonizing habitats and forming monodominant vegetation stands due to traits such as robust size, rapid growth rate, and rhizomatic expansion. Increased nutrient inputs into wetlands and altered hydrologic regimes are among the principal anthropogenic drivers of Typha invasion. Typha is associated with a wide range of negative ecological impacts to wetland and agricultural systems, but also is linked with a variety of ecosystem services such as bioremediation and provisioning of biomass, as well as an assortment of traditional cultural uses. Numerous physical, chemical, and hydrologic control methods are used to manage invasive Typha, but results are inconsistent and multiple methods and repeated treatments often are required. While this review focuses on invasive Typha in North America, the literature cited comes from research on Typha and other invasive species from around the world. As such, many of the underlying concepts in this review are relevant to invasive species in other wetland ecosystems worldwide.
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Coastal sedge/grass meadow restoration in a peri-urban wetland via alteration of environmental filters: can hydrological constraint be trumped?Wilcox, Douglas A.; Amatangelo, Kathryn L.; Leopold, Donald J.; Polzer, Eli L.; The College at Brockport (2018-05-10)Stabilized lake-level influence on Typha x glauca has so diminished the extent and richness of Lake Ontario shoreline sedge/grass meadows that they no longer conform to an historic trajectory. These conditions are not likely to change in the foreseeable future, so novel actions may be required to support their preservation. This research investigated the combined effects of a large-scale restoration overlapping multiple revegetation techniques. Excavated spoils from channel and pothole creation in two Typha-dominated marshes were reconfigured to create habitat mounds capable of supporting sedge meadow taxa. These mounds supported increased sedge/grass meadow taxa survivorship and richness by altering environmental conditions, such as elevation and soil moisture. However, a higher than expected rate of subsidence and rapidly diminishing elevations point to potentially shifting system dynamics that require further exploration.
Methods for restoring sedge/grass meadow community in a Typha-invaded Lake Ontario drowned-river-mouth wetlandWilcox, Douglas A.; Buckler, Kathleen; The College at Brockport (2017-01-19)Water-level regulation has resulted in vegetation changes in Lake Ontario coastal wetlands. The vegetation has shifted from structurally complex sedge/grass meadow communities to communities dominated by invasive Typha, specifically the hybrid cattail Typha x glauca. This study aims to identify control techniques for Typha x glauca to be used in wetlands hydrologically connected to Lake Ontario. The tested control techniques were implemented in a Lake Ontario drowned river-mouth wetland in 2010 and 2011 and were administered along the active invasion zone between a dense Typha stand and remaining sedge/grass meadow. Multiple physical and chemical treatment techniques were implemented over a two-year period at Kents Creek, in northern New York. Treatments included cutting (C), spraying (S) glyphosate (Rodeo) onto cut stalks, and wicking (W) cattail re-sprouts with glyphosate later in the growing season (August). Each treatment method had the following year options: the cut, spray, and wick treatments were applied in year 1 or in both years 1 and 2 (C1S1W1 or C12S12W12). All possible treatments yielded 12 treatment combinations, plus two control plots. Each treatment option was randomly assigned within each of five treatment replicates. All five treatment replicates were located in the invasion zone that had ~25% cover invading Typha and ~75% remaining sedge/grass meadow community. Vegetation sampling occurred in early summer (late June) and again in late summer (August) before treatment in both years. Cattail stem counts and species percent cover data were collected to analyze the effects of each treatment combination. Environmental variables (soil moisture, sediment depth, water-table elevation, soil organic matter, and bulk density) were measured to assist in explaining treatment success or failure and to assess differences among replicates. In addition to looking at the effects that the treatments had on reducing Typha stem density and percent cover, I assessed whether the treatments had an effect on the growth and expansion of existing sedge/grass meadow species, specifically Calamagrostis canadensis and Carex lacustris. Vegetation was sampled again in August 2012 following one full growing season after the second year treatments were applied. Seven treatment combinations: C12, C12W12, C12S, C12SW1, C1W1, C1W12, and C1SW12 significantly reduced cattail stem counts from June 2010 to August 2012. The wick (W) treatment, which was applied to the re-sprouted cattail stems in late August, was the most important treatment, when combined with other treatments (cutting and spraying). Five treatment combinations: C1SW12, C12W12, C12S, C1W12, and C12W1significantly reduced cattail percent cover from June 2010 to August 2012. Although application of the wick treatment in August was the most successful treatment method, the addition of other treatments earlier in the growing season increased Typha stress and led to increased reductions in Typha stems and percent cover. The success of cattails is strongly correlated with stable, high water levels that increase soil moisture. Four of the five replicates were statistically similar in terms of soil moisture throughout the study. Replicate 5 had significantly drier oils than the remaining replicates and had substantially fewer initial Typha stems and lower percent cover, which led to slightly different results in this replicate. For management practices, I suggest using the early summer cutting and late summer wicking treatments, as these two treatments (in combination) were the most effective at reducing Typha stems and percent cover.
Typha Control and Sedge/Grass Meadow Restoration on a Lake Ontario WetlandCzayka, Alex; The College at Brockport (2012-01-01)To identify control techniques for cattails (Typha angustifolia and the hybrid Typha x glauca) in a Lake Ontario drowned-rivermouth wetland, multiple physical and chemical treatment techniques were implemented over two years at Kents Creek, New York. Treatments included cutting (C), spraying (S) glyphosate (Rodeo) onto cut stalks, tilling (T) rhizomes, and wicking (W) cattail re-sprouts later in the growing season (August). Each treatment technique had year options; for example, the cut treatment could be applied in year 1 or in both years 1 and 2 (C1 or C12). All possible treatments yielded 24 treatment combinations, plus two control plots; these were randomly assigned to each of the five treatment replicates established in equivalent stands of cattail. Vegetation sampling occurred in early summer (late June) and again in late summer (August) before treatment in both years. Cattail stem counts and species percent cover data were collected to analyze the effects of the treatments. Environmental variables (soil moisture, sediment depth, water-table elevation, soil organic matter, and bulk density) were measured to assist in the explanation of treatment success and differences observed among replicates. In addition to looking at the direct effects the treatments had on cattails, I assessed how the treatments affected the growth and expansion of sedge/grass meadow community species (Carex lacustris and Calamagrostis canadensis). Treatments combinations C1W1, C1SW1, C1WT, C12SW1, C12W1T, and C12SW1T significantly reduced cattail stem counts from June 2010 to August 2011. The most important treatment technique was the wick (W) treatment, vi which was implemented in August; it was included in every successful treatment for reducing cattails. The C12W1T treatment significantly reduced cattail stem counts the most (mean of 15.9 stems per plot), while treatments C12SW1T (12.9) and C12SW1 (12.2) also caused large reductions in Typha stems. Eight treatments significantly increased the amount of C. lacustris, including C1, C1W1, C1SW1, C1WT, C1SW1T, C12W1, C12SW1, and C12W1T. Five treatments that significantly reduced Typha stems also significantly increased C. lacustris cover. Overall, C. lacustris increased an average of 18% for any plot that had treatments applied. Treatment replicate 3 had some significantly different environmental variables that likely led to more successful treatments. Replicate 3 was positioned at a slightly higher elevation compared to the other replicates, leading to lower soil moisture, which helps control cattails. Although application of the wick treatment in August was the most important treatment method, addition of other treatments earlier in the year increased stress on cattails and led to increased reductions. Reduction of cattails also led to increased growth of Carex lacustris if C. lacustris was present before treatments were implemented. For management implications, I suggest using the cutting (early summer) and wicking treatments (late summer), as these two treatments were the most effective at reducing Typha stems. If funds are available, the tilling treatment combined with cutting and wicking, could be implemented, as it helped increase stress on Typha and led to increased stem reductions.