• The dangers of plastic

      DePaola, Nicole (2019-12)
      Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to make plastics and has been found to be a xenoestrogen. Planaria (Girardia tigrina), regenerating flatworms, were exposed to BPA and deuterated BPA (D8-BPA). Phenotypic effects of BPA on the planaria were recorded during exposure and BPA was then extracted to quantify the amount absorbed by the flatworms. Deuterated BPA (D8-BPA) was used to distinguish added BPA from BPA already present in the organism from supply-chain contamination. A control experiment tested whether the multiple washes performed after incubation removed physisorbed BPA from planaria. Additional analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, reverse phase). Improvements in HPLC method to analyze BPA and D8-BPA resulted in better separation between BPA and D8-BPA peaks. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS) was used to quantify BPA/D8 BPA. It is concluded that planarian regeneration is negatively affected by exposure to 20 M concentrations of BPA/D8-BPA, planaria absorbed BPA and D8-BPA from solution, the washing method removed most physisorbed BPA, and decreasing the HPLC pump flow rate improved peak separation. This section describes studies done by other researchers to explore detrimental effects of BPA on humans, including miscarriage, infertility, obesity, and sexual dysfunction. The detrimental environmental effects of excessive plastic use, plastic alternatives, and solutions to reducing the damage of plastic are also described.
    • A defense of a Mandevillean conception of virtue

      Brydges, Caitlin (2019-05)
      Bernard Mandeville stood in dire opposition to the 18th century Augustinian moral tradition with his work The Fable of the Bees in which he argued that private vices can be public benefits. In response to his paradox, many of his contemporaries responded with resistance and criticism. In my thesis I respond to two such criticisms; one is by George Berkeley, and the other is by Francis Hutcheson. Each of their critiques represents a large body of other criticisms of Mandeville, and I defend Mandeville’s writing against both these responses on account of their misunderstandings of his work. Both of these criticisms attempt to evade the ultimatum Mandeville implicitly puts forth in his poem: embrace a rigorous standard of virtue at the cost of industry or abandon virtue in pursuit of economic prosperity. I attempt to reconcile the ultimatum with a Mandevillean reframing of virtue. This conception rejects the rigorous standard of virtue insofar as it does not require complete and total self-denial as a prerequisite for virtue; virtuous actions in this conception can have a self-regarding element. Through this reframed understanding, society can maintain virtuous conduct and economic prosperity.
    • Designing novels for a visual audience: font psychology, digital text, and the value of printed books

      Gay, Lauren (2020-05)
      In early book design, printed text was defined by production demands and economic pressures. The standard of book design that most people are familiar with reflects traditional needs for communication. Now that modern society has evolved beyond the need for printed text and relies primarily on digital media to receive information, book design must reach a new standard of artistic and personal value to remain relevant. This paper analyzes the history of printed books and their transition from a primary source of information into an art form, as well as the differences between digital and printed texts, font psychology, and the necessity of defining print and digital reading as separate experiences. The primary outcome of this study is a redesign of the classic novel Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë that highlights the central moments of the novel in a way that is visually appealing and more understandable to a large audience.
    • The devil can cite scripture for his purpose: Shakespeare’s use of the parable of the Prodigal Son in ​Henry IV, The Merchant of Venice, King Lear​, and ​The Tempest

      Almeyda, Dariana (2020-05)
      Scholars have long identified the Bible as one of William Shakespeare’s main sources of inspiration. An extension to “The Devil Can Cite Scripture for His Purpose: Shakespeare’s Use of Biblical Allusions in ​The Merchant of Venice,”​ this paper explores Shakespeare’s implementation and reimagining of the parable of the Prodigal Son in ​Henry IV, The Merchant of Venice, King Lear,​ and ​The Tempest.​ His manipulation of the parable creates a universal sense of morality for the characters in each play and serves as a common ground for audiences of his time to understand and better relate to his works. To modern readers, his reworkings of the parable also serve as a social commentary on sixteenth-century English society steeped in religious conflicts and motifs. He creates several characters that act like prodigals, a term socially recognized by its relation to the parable found in Luke 15, but also universally understood as both an adjective and noun to mean “spending money or resources freely and recklessly; wastefully extravagant. / A person who spends money in a recklessly extravagant way” (“Prodigal”). ​Shakespeare’s various reworkings of this parable prompt a conversation about the price of forgiveness, love, and whether or not grace and mercy are truly free.
    • Different types of social protection and progress on SDG 1: no hunger - an examination of social protection coverage across programs in Latin America using SDG Indicator 1.3.1.

      Tipu, Ahmad (2019-05)
      The alleviation of poverty in Latin America has largely relied upon social protection programs in the form of conditional cash transfers. SDG 1 provides a space for such programs to be considered as part of the global sustainable development effort within its own Indicator 1.3.1 which measures social protection coverage. This paper uses that framework as a model to examine programs in Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, and Panama on the basis of poverty alleviation as defined by Indicator 1.3.1. By using the UNECLAC’s database of Non-Contributory Social Protection Programs in conjunction with the World Bank Atlas of Social Protection I narrowed down my focus to a change in percent coverage over time which is constructed using variables from the aforementioned databases. The ensuing results show gradual increases in coverage for Brazil’s Bolsa Familia, Mexico’s Oportunidades/Progresas, and Panama’s Red de Oportunidades accompanied by decreases in coverage for Argentina’s Jefas y Jefes and Chile’s Solidario. Although these results show a commitment to poverty alleviation as per SDG 1 the overall picture is mixed due to incomplete databases, limited range of disaggregated data, and the lack of consensus on a capability-based definition of poverty. Keywords: International Relations, Social Protection, Social Welfare, Latin America, Sustainable Development Goals, SDG, United Nations, Bolsa Familia, Brazil, Chile, Solidario, Mexico, Oportunidades/Progresa, Panama, Red de Oportunidades, Argentina, Jefes y Jefas de Hogar, conditional cash transfer, integrated anti-poverty program, poverty, poverty alleviation, World Bank, UNECLAC, International Labour Organization
    • Dissecting space

      Pellechia, Emily (2021-05)
      I have always found comfort in the smaller parts of nature. For as long as I can remember, as much as I love the bigger picture, the details are what make it even more beautiful. It reminds me that everything has an impact and all of the world is connected on a deeper level. When I see rain droplets on leaves, I think about the water cycle, I think about how that tree was planted, how its roots have taken hold in the ground and become a home to so many other organisms. My thesis work has taken me on an exploration into what connects us with nature; how we are the same and where we differ from one another.
    • Diversity in education: a dialogue or monologue?

      Kwan, Karina (2019-05)
      Classrooms grow increasingly diverse yearly and encouraging an inclusive environment may be difficult as time is rapidly changing. When mirroring the pedagogies teacher candidates are learning, it is important for them to continuously encourage diverse perspectives in their own classrooms. Learning should be done through many collective lenses of multicultural education to allow debate and differential opinions to enhance learning beyond the classroom. Addressing hard topics and stereotypes to learners in an appropriate way can be difficult. It is important for teacher candidates to lead by example when it comes to diverse thinking and promoting self-discovery. Comparing materials that teacher candidates have to read and looking at many educational leaders’ work like Wayne Au and Lisa Delpit, can help in understanding different aspects of multicultural education and raises the question of how can teacher candidates accurately and effectively address diversity in their classroom.
    • Don’t keep it bottled up: an analysis of black glass wine bottles at Historic Huguenot Street New Paltz, NY

      Slater, Reuben (2019-05)
      Historic Huguenot Street in New Paltz New York has been a site of human activity stretching back well over nine thousand years, including the Native American Munsee speakers and the French Huguenots who settled New Paltz in 1677. Archaeological excavations over the past twenty years have helped to uncover the rich prehistory and history at the site. In this paper I introduce and examine seventeenth century English black glass wine bottles, as objects of analysis that help illuminate the material culture and foodways of these early Huguenots. Furthermore, I demonstrate how an analysis of this material culture and their foodways, excavated from Historic Huguenot Street builds a data set on the social and economic lives of the Huguenots that the written record does not. This paper will draw heavily from the theoretical framework of Louis Binford’s trinomic categorization of artifacts into the ideotechnic, sociotechnic and technomic spheres to analyze the artifacts in question and gain insight on the interaction between the Huguenots and the world around them.
    • Dream catchers

      LaSita, Emily (2020-05)
      Laurel is a fifteen-year-old who has grown up in foster-care, moving from home to home. She considers herself to be fairly normal, aside from the small fact that she keeps having dreams of dead people she doesn’t know, asking for their dying wishes. When her caseworker, Gina, brings Laurel to her new rich foster-family, where she must attend a new school with privileged kids, she begins to uncover the mysteries of their lives as well as her own. Some things aren’t as they seem and what might happen to her new friends, the memory of her “clients” and Gina if these secrets are exposed?
    • Drift

      Epstein, Dani (2018-05)
      By altering the form and function of traditional objects, I create a looser interpretation of familiar forms. The resulting objects propose to shift and change with the user’s needs; this constant engagement is meant to create a long lasting and changing relationship between object and owner. I create forms that are abstract enough to allow new meanings and uses to be invented; extending beyond my vision and initial intentions for each piece.
    • The economics of stress and education for the low income area schools of the USA

      Randazzo, Peter (2018-05)
      Economics, racism, and education all play a very important part in today’s society. The history of these themes in America have determined a state of existence for many minority and low income neighborhoods. This thesis attempts to show that because of inequality in America, schools in low income communities suffer, and thus the students themselves suffer. In order to completely change this negative feedback loop, where low income area students go into underprivileged schools to experience classrooms which lacks resources and low graduation rates come out to a racist and strife ridden community, we need to give more federal funding to low income area schools. Low income areas suffer high rates of stress as well which also diminish low income test scores and graduation rates. In order to help these communities from the inside out, improved federal funding targeting these struggling schools can even the playing field, and lower rates of stress.
    • The effect of concussions in professional sports with a focus on the National Football League: a meta-analysis

      Neville, Kerri (2019-12)
      This study reviews what concussions are, how they affect the brain, and how professional sports, specifically the NFL, put athletes at risk of obtaining traumatic brain injuries. To find this the reasoning behind why concussions are more prevalent in the NFL and the different ways a concussion could happen during different plays to specific positions are examined as well. The long-term effects that concussions have on athletes is permanent and life-threatening, as athletes are getting stronger and faster each year, concussions have been on an upward trend. Revealing the social and physical effects of concussions on professional athletes is a needed meta-analysis that has not been done, there are a lot of studies about concussions in the NFL that reveal different information. By researching this topic and bringing similar data and information from published studies together, there is a stronger report that reveals the truth. This study opens a light to the dangers of football, and sports in general, and provokes a change in the professional sporting policies.
    • The effect of poverty on child education (K-12) in public schools: what schools and the government can do to help student achievement

      Hunter, Hydia (2018-05)
      According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR, 1948), everyone has the right to pursue an education which includes children. Whether or not everyone is receiving a quality education is debatable. There are a few different school systems, such as public, charter, private, catholic, gender strict schools, magnet and even homeschooling. Children are considered to be the most vulnerable population, especially in the United States (Azzi- Lessing, 2017). When it comes to the child welfare system in the United States, the needs of children are not adequately being met. Azzi- Lessing (2017) states that the United States biggest downfall is the government’s lack of concern for poor families. The lack of intervention contributes to trauma and the deprivation of the needs and well-being of children (Azzi-Lessing, 2017). Additionally, this includes the quality of education children in public schools receive, more specifically those living in poverty...In the United States, it is considered neglect if parents or guardians keep their children from attending school. Even if parents send their children to school, children living in poverty are more likely not attending schools that are adequately educating and providing their students with the tools needed for success. A good quality of education is not always something that is seen a right and in some cases a financial burden. What is the point of children attending school if the education is not engaging and allowing students to reach their full potential? There are many families in the world that are affected by poverty but 2.2 billion children worldwide are currently living in poverty (McKinney, 2014). One of the factors that definitely affects the quality of education a child receives is poverty. There is a clear educational achievement gap between those living in poverty compared to those children not living in poverty.
    • An empirical study and simulation of EHR software in light of COVID-19

      Ali, Ayman (2021-05)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for attention directed towards accurate and accessible disease surveillance. As eighty-five percent of all health data is now processed in electronic form, the healthcare industry is increasingly becoming dependent upon patient healthcare data to facilitate well-coordinated and efficient decisions in a timely manner. Electronic health records can be crucial in unearthing the health disparities found among disadvantaged communities in terms of treatment and patient care. By creating a cloud-based software solution, electronic health records will not only be able to share patient health information to multiple healthcare settings, but also provide earlier disease detection and intervention. While implementing telemedicine is proving to be advantageous in reducing physical contact and maintaining social distancing guidelines, much of the dismay from clinicians has been towards the challenges with clinical documentation and patient flow. The CDC has stressed the importance of sending electronic health record case reports to public health officials on countless occasions. The software that vendors create are by no means perfect. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to focus on minimizing disruptions and COVID-19 related errors when using the software. In order to devise software aimed at mining sufficient data and providing tools solely directed at patient care, medical practitioners and software vendors are in endless communication. Implementing the necessary features best suited to support the general population requires eradicating any sort of configuration that can contribute to patient harm. This research will look into the role of EHRs in improving data tracking and collection and whether or not this software can be relied upon in the current climate.
    • Engagement levels on social media: a case study of Sojourner Truth Library’s Instagram

      Maiorano, Julianna (2018-05)
      Recently, libraries have begun utilizing social media to market their materials and services to the general public. Identifying best practices that lead to increased engagement between followers and library social media accounts can assist libraries to welcome more patrons. This study sought to identify what libraries can do to increase the amount of engagement with followers. This research explores the amount of engagement on Sojourner Truth Library’s social media. Amount of engagement was determined by the number of likes and comments per post. Using data compiled from the library’s social media, the relationship between amount of engagement and the content of posted photos was examined. Findings suggest that featuring human faces on Instagram affects the amount of engagement positively. Overall, it was found that featuring human faces in a social media post will increase engagement levels.
    • Engineering with a purpose: nontraditional perspectives

      Gangewere, Megan (2018-05)
      In this thesis, a short film titled “Engineering with a Purpose: Nontraditional Perspectives” is produced. A film written, edited, and produced by a mechanical engineering undergraduate was something outside of the norm for a final report. In order to successfully create a film, research on the types and style of films was performed. Movavi Editor software was utilized for purposes of editing. This film challenges perspectives and opens eyes to the cross-disciplinary skills engineering requires while drawing attention to the lessons engineers can learn from other disciplines. The meaning, history and stereotypical views that engineering possesses is expressed. The correlations between philosophy and engineering are filmed with an Ancient Greek Socratic lens. The challenges women must overcome in a predominantly male field are conveyed. Inspirational and telling clips to encourage young women considering engineering concludes this portion of the film. Art and engineering is also expressed through the opportunities 3D manufacturing provides. The film is concluded with multiple languages to open the audience eyes that the basis of engineering, problem solving, is nondiscriminatory. The film’s mission is to inspire non-engineers about how they can relate to engineering practice while motivating current engineers to never give up. It also draws attention to the role an engineer plays in society for progress and future development. Creating a film was a whole design process that required countless iterations. Motivation for this film stemmed from professional opportunities with a mechanical engineering degree and the potential positive impacts and purposeful work engineering requires.
    • English literacy in deaf education

      Ackerman, Celina (2018-01)
      The purpose of this paper is to discuss the factors influencing the English literacy development of signing deaf children. The literacy rates of deaf high school graduates have been consistently reported as equivalent to that of an average 3rd or 4th grade hearing child (Mayer, 2009, p. 326). The factors contributing to this gap in literacy rates revolve around language acquisition and development. Issues in first language access, exposure and quality as well as differences in deaf and hearing language development are discussed. Theories of bimodal language and literacy development show unique qualities of ASL-English bilingual-bimodal that may begin to explain the cause of difficulty in English literacy skills among signing deaf children in the academic setting. Further research much be conducted in order to further develop educational programs for literacy development that are effective for deaf students.
    • Entitlement, masculinity, and violence? an analysis of New York Times reporting and Twitter discourse on US school shootings

      Condelles, Eleanor (2019-05)
      A handful of salient factors are consistently omitted in public discourse surrounding school shootings in the United States. Uniformity of shooters’ race and gender persists across almost all of these events, as perpetrators of US school shootings have overwhelmingly been white boys and men. Following the work of previous scholars, I assert that the production and perpetuation of hegemonic masculinity and aggrieved entitlement play a pivotal role in school shootings. Today’s world relies heavily on the media for information dissemination, which in turn shapes our understanding of major events, social issues, and cultural values .I collected reports of recent US school shootings from the New York Times and later collected tweets that allowed for a comparison of how traditional (NYT) vs new social media (Twitter) frame these events. My research suggests that conversations surrounding the role of racialized/toxic masculinity and school shootings are occurring in some spaces rather than others, and has generated findings that could assist future scholars/activists in identifying how to effectively disseminate discourse surrounding this factor.
    • Epigraphic decoration of three time periods:
 case studies on the connection of written language and visual culture

      Cooke, Sophie (2020-05)
      This paper analyzes the connection of written language and artistic expression, through three case studies on epigraphy. Written language is secondary to spoken word and has been given various forms, even within the same culture. I aim to addresss the significance of written language in the cultural purpose of an object. Through three case studies I will analyze the way in which the artists are conveying a message to the viewer through written language. First is pectoral necklaces of Ancient Egypt, which are artistically produced and communicate a sentence in hieroglyphs. Second is the study of Greek funerary epigraphic decoration on tombstones which utilize first person narrative. First is pectoral necklaces of Ancient Egypt, which are artistically produced and communicate a sentence in hieroglyphs. First is the use of Pseudo-Arabic in the Italia Renaissance, particularly in paintings of religious subjects. Three very different cultures all carefully using language to convey political power, autonomy in death, and cultural literacy / connections to early Christianity, respectively. I will back up these connections with specific artistic objects, paying close attention to their purpose and cultural origins. I will convey the importance of the analysis of written language in an art historical sense, and its significance in the analysis of visual art.