• “And the Word was God”: rejection, consideration, and incorporation of spiritual motivations in modernist literature

      Boyle, Katherine R. (2021-05)
      As existing scholarship demonstrates, the modernist period in literature (during the first half of the twentieth century) is generally considered to be a period marked by rationality, secularity, and persistent atheism. With the technological advances of the 1900’s, revolutions in science (such as the work of Charles Darwin), and new political priorities that valued dearly the separation of church and state, it is generally thought that the motifs and commitments of traditional, organized religion were long gone, especially within the literary world. In this project, I set out to demonstrate the ways in which three modernist authors – E.M. Forster, Virginia Woolf, and Jorge Luis Borges – reimagine and reincorporate, in their literature, traditional religious motivations. Specifically, I will examine how the “word” of God (exalted in Judeo-Christian doctrine) is utilized and examined by the three authors in order to imagine a new code of significance for language and communication during modernism. With this, I hope to demonstrate the ways in which the modernist period was not simply a rejection or forgetting of a more orthodox religious tradition, but a reimagination and relocation of spiritual experience within interpersonal communication and linguistic ecstasy.
    • Baseball: truly an all-American sport

      Courtney, India (2019-05)
      Baseball is recognized as an “All-American sport” specific to the United States, but in reality it's a transnational game that is imbedded into the cultures of several nations all over the world. It was used as a vehicle for Latinos in Cuba and the Dominican Republic to express nationalism and challenge their oppressors. It provided social mobility to the poor and middle class, broke down class barriers, established local attachments to the community, and fostered newfound nationalism in both countries that made baseball more than just a game. Although Latinos originally found the sport in the United States, they recreated it for themselves at home.
    • A call for immigration reform: a response to the northern triangle epidemic

      Tejada, Michelle (2020-05)
      The current immigration crisis is a global humanitarian crisis. As members of the United Nations, the United States of America has a responsibility to provide aid to those seeking refuge from dangerous conditions in their home countries. In recent decades, however, the United States’ response to an influx in immigration has walked a fine line on constitutionality. This paper discusses the causes of migration to the United States with particular emphasis on the Northern Triangle of Central America (NTCA) which consists of the following countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, where the majority of immigrants seeking asylum in the United States are coming from. It analyzes the United States’s response to this humanitarian crisis, as the U.S. has failed to adequately provide refuge to immigrants from the NTCA. It exposes the discriminatory policies that exist in the United States, the racialization of the United States’s approach, and the malpractices of U.S. immigration agencies such as Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). This study ultimately questions the constitutionality of these laws and practices, critiques them, and offers a more humane approach while still maintaining national security.
    • Different types of social protection and progress on SDG 1: no hunger - an examination of social protection coverage across programs in Latin America using SDG Indicator 1.3.1.

      Tipu, Ahmad (2019-05)
      The alleviation of poverty in Latin America has largely relied upon social protection programs in the form of conditional cash transfers. SDG 1 provides a space for such programs to be considered as part of the global sustainable development effort within its own Indicator 1.3.1 which measures social protection coverage. This paper uses that framework as a model to examine programs in Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, and Panama on the basis of poverty alleviation as defined by Indicator 1.3.1. By using the UNECLAC’s database of Non-Contributory Social Protection Programs in conjunction with the World Bank Atlas of Social Protection I narrowed down my focus to a change in percent coverage over time which is constructed using variables from the aforementioned databases. The ensuing results show gradual increases in coverage for Brazil’s Bolsa Familia, Mexico’s Oportunidades/Progresas, and Panama’s Red de Oportunidades accompanied by decreases in coverage for Argentina’s Jefas y Jefes and Chile’s Solidario. Although these results show a commitment to poverty alleviation as per SDG 1 the overall picture is mixed due to incomplete databases, limited range of disaggregated data, and the lack of consensus on a capability-based definition of poverty. Keywords: International Relations, Social Protection, Social Welfare, Latin America, Sustainable Development Goals, SDG, United Nations, Bolsa Familia, Brazil, Chile, Solidario, Mexico, Oportunidades/Progresa, Panama, Red de Oportunidades, Argentina, Jefes y Jefas de Hogar, conditional cash transfer, integrated anti-poverty program, poverty, poverty alleviation, World Bank, UNECLAC, International Labour Organization
    • Why there are no black Dominicans: how anti-Haitian sentiment in the era of Trujillo and the deeply rooted black history of the island of Hispaniola affects how Dominicans racially identify in New York today

      Frasco, Melissa (2020-12)
      Within the island of Hispaniola are two countries: the Dominican Republic and Haiti. In 1808 the island was split into two distinct areas and today remains segregated geographically and culturally. Haiti is often associated with poverty, corrupt governments, and blackness, while the Dominican Republic is associated with tropical vacations, baseball, and the Caribbean. By considering the role of socio-political, historical, and ethno-cultural factors in Dominicans’ racial self-identification, this study examines why some Dominicans may not identify as “Black” despite the history of the African slave trade across the island. Using a snowball sampling method to identify study participants, I interviewed Dominican individuals about their racial self- identification and the cultural factors that influenced them. The view of race will be recognized as both a construct and as a significant factor in one’s identity. My research provides insights into how Dominicans in New York identify ethnically, racially, and culturally. Dominicans have a complicated relationship with race, partially due to the thirty-year reign of General Rafael Trujillo, whose promotion of a racial ideology associates blackness with Haitians rather than Dominicans, the historical colonization of the island, post-coloniality, and migration. Dominicans have a notoriously complicated relationship with blackness, when referred to as Black (in the United States) some Dominicans are quick to retort back phrases such as “I’m not Black, I’m Dominican!”. The Dominican racial identity and its relationship with the country of Haiti cannot be explained by the simplicity of the United States racial binary of Black or white. However, Dominicans have historically migrated to states such as New York, New Jersey, and Florida and continue to straddle racial imaginaries spanning from Latin America and the Caribbean to the receiving country.