• Neuroplasticity: the impact of age and injury

      Celentano, Alexis M. (2017-12)
      Background: Neuroplasticity is an ongoing process of the brain that allows for learning, changing, and adapting to every day changes as well as to trauma. As we age, the rate of neuroplasticity (that combats the ramifications of brain injury) starts to decline. This has been seen throughout many different species and is the justification for why adult systems have more devastating deficits from injury than children. The brain can spontaneously recover from injury but for improved long-term results, speech and language therapy in conjunction with spontaneous recovery is ideal for maximal recovery of function and language. Purpose: In this review, the primary goal is to discuss past and present research on neuroplasticity, neural aging and the effects of injury on the language centers of the brain. Results: I have discussed neuroplasticity and peak neuroplasticity in children known as the critical periods and sensitive periods, discussion of normal aging on neuroplasticity, the results of prenatal strokes in comparison to the results of adult strokes, and the different types of recovery that occurs post-stroke/traumatic brain injury (TBI).
    • Three sides to a story: different perspectives toward the deaf community

      Quinlan, Jada (2017-12)
      When looking into Deafness the medical perspective and the perspective of those in the Deaf community are taken into account. However there is also a societal aspect to Deafness that should be taken into account. This study considers the aspects and perspectives of the hearing, medical, and Deaf communities that determine the views of Deaf people. The study will also compare the Deaf community of the United States to that of Ethiopia. In conclusion, it may be shown how the different perspectives may effect the way the Deaf community is viewed.
    • Manic? : a play in two acts

      Rausch, Zachary (2017-12)
      This thesis is about the power of story. All medical systems throughout the world are based upon specific stories which they believe about the nature of human existence. Oftentimes, it is easy to lose ourselves in the narratives we know, claiming them to be ultimately true. I will explore and compare two distinct medical narratives, Western and Tibetan Buddhist psychiatry, in order to explore deeper questions about the nature of human suffering. I will take you on this exploration through my own personal narrative as I straddled these two worlds to find grounding and purpose in life. We will explore how these traditions conceptualize mental illness, personal identity, human nature, purpose, and health. We will explore their underlying assumptions and values that are often unquestioned. When we speak of medical narratives, we cannot separate them from our lived experiences. These narratives are not static, do not exist in a vacuum, and may be experienced differently by one person to the next. Therefore, I am only expressing one perspective of infinite. But these are the stories I know and these are the stories that I can genuinely share. I have a fundamental understanding by studying and analyzing the primary texts of the two psychiatric systems: The Fifth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the rGyud Bzhi . I also have a basic understanding of Tibetan Buddhist psychiatry through four months of study in Bodh Gaya and Darjeeling, India and four months of research of Western psychiatric and psychological history and thought.
    • Weak State caused long duration of insurgency between 1995 to 2016

      Abukosi, Vincent (2017-12)
      Saddam Hussein’s government and the Taliban regime were both toppled in the early months of U.S. invasion. Nevertheless, the U.S. and coalitions’ supported government in both Iraq and Afghanistan have been battling insurgencies since the U.S. invasion. To be exact, the U.S. has been conducting counterinsurgency campaigns in Afghanistan since 2002, and in Iraq since 2003. Why would such operations last so long despite U.S. military might? Many scholars have argued differently on the causes of long duration insurgencies but none has given an argument that can explain all cases of prolonged insurgencies. In this paper, I used the theory of political opportunity structure which posits that “repertoires for protest have traditionally been seen as influenced by political opportunity structure, consisting of both a formal, institutional aspect and an informal, cultural one (Porta 2008, 223)” to argue that weak states caused long duration insurgency between the years of 1995 to 2016. My argument gives another alternative argument that can explain the causes of long duration insurgencies. Using 66 cases of insurgency, from the Global Terrorism dataset, I showed that state weakness caused long duration insurgency between the periods of 1995 to 2016, but the only indicators of state weakness that are statistically significant to the duration of insurgency are security effectiveness score and security legitimacy score. Therefore, my policy recommendation is that for states to carry on successful Counterinsurgency campaigns they need to focus on improving the capability of their security forces, and seek public approval of their security apparatus .
    • English literacy in deaf education

      Ackerman, Celina (2018-01)
      The purpose of this paper is to discuss the factors influencing the English literacy development of signing deaf children. The literacy rates of deaf high school graduates have been consistently reported as equivalent to that of an average 3rd or 4th grade hearing child (Mayer, 2009, p. 326). The factors contributing to this gap in literacy rates revolve around language acquisition and development. Issues in first language access, exposure and quality as well as differences in deaf and hearing language development are discussed. Theories of bimodal language and literacy development show unique qualities of ASL-English bilingual-bimodal that may begin to explain the cause of difficulty in English literacy skills among signing deaf children in the academic setting. Further research much be conducted in order to further develop educational programs for literacy development that are effective for deaf students.
    • Fire and ice: a memoir on grief and self-discovery

      Cassone, Kelsea (2018-05)
      A collection of poems and nonfiction combined in three parts that work to understand the grief that comes with losing my father to suicide and how to overcome it. Separated in three parts, the first part works to define grief in a personal matter. Most poems simply circle around the feeling of depression. The two nonfiction pieces describe memories of the last time I saw my father and when I was told he had passed away. The second part takes place within a few years after the loss, trying to understand what happened and working through depression and grief so I can move on with my life. Poems typically work with confusion and a feeling of loss, while nonfiction pieces are recounts of lucid dreams. Third part works through moving on and what that means. Poems are more centered around myself and how I feel up to current date, six years later. One nonfiction piece is a memory of realizing my father will always be with me. The second nonfiction piece is a meditation-like piece in which I work through my thoughts, understanding what I have been through and coming to understand that life goes on whether I want it to or not and so I should do my best to live up to my expectations. While there was no closure found in doing this project, I do feel relieved to have gotten such strong emotions released onto paper.
    • A growing American identity within a Jewish community: Kingston, New York, 1880-1960

      Ehrlich, Miriam (2018-05)
      In the 19th and 20th centuries, many Jewish people immigrated to America to escape anti-semitism in Eastern Europe. Frank Reher was one of these immigrants. He opened up a successful Jewish bakery in Kingston, New York, where there was a growing Jewish population. His family provides a case study of one family who developed an American identity, largely through Americanizing events in their synagogues. However, they never lost touch with their Jewish identities.
    • Engineering with a purpose: nontraditional perspectives

      Gangewere, Megan (2018-05)
      In this thesis, a short film titled “Engineering with a Purpose: Nontraditional Perspectives” is produced. A film written, edited, and produced by a mechanical engineering undergraduate was something outside of the norm for a final report. In order to successfully create a film, research on the types and style of films was performed. Movavi Editor software was utilized for purposes of editing. This film challenges perspectives and opens eyes to the cross-disciplinary skills engineering requires while drawing attention to the lessons engineers can learn from other disciplines. The meaning, history and stereotypical views that engineering possesses is expressed. The correlations between philosophy and engineering are filmed with an Ancient Greek Socratic lens. The challenges women must overcome in a predominantly male field are conveyed. Inspirational and telling clips to encourage young women considering engineering concludes this portion of the film. Art and engineering is also expressed through the opportunities 3D manufacturing provides. The film is concluded with multiple languages to open the audience eyes that the basis of engineering, problem solving, is nondiscriminatory. The film’s mission is to inspire non-engineers about how they can relate to engineering practice while motivating current engineers to never give up. It also draws attention to the role an engineer plays in society for progress and future development. Creating a film was a whole design process that required countless iterations. Motivation for this film stemmed from professional opportunities with a mechanical engineering degree and the potential positive impacts and purposeful work engineering requires.
    • The farming chronicles: a guide to agriculture and your food

      Falco, Victoria (2018-05)
      Food is fundamental for survival. It is important for us to be conscious of the choices that we make on what is consumed. The Farming Chronicles is an education workbook that was created for children to talk about what they eat, where it comes from, and why it matters. It concerned me that in some areas in the United States agricultural education is not a core subject. The premise of this project is to introduce the fundamentals of agriculture and inspire children and their families to take an active role in understanding how food gets to the table. I created #beyourownfarmer to emphasize that you do not need to own acres of land to be defined as a farmer. There are many other opportunities for one to engage in agricultural activities and be a part of a greater community. Some examples include tending your own family garden, visiting your local farmer’s market or state and county fairs, and joining a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) Farm Share program.
    • Drift

      Epstein, Dani (2018-05)
      By altering the form and function of traditional objects, I create a looser interpretation of familiar forms. The resulting objects propose to shift and change with the user’s needs; this constant engagement is meant to create a long lasting and changing relationship between object and owner. I create forms that are abstract enough to allow new meanings and uses to be invented; extending beyond my vision and initial intentions for each piece.
    • Answers in the abstract

      Carpentieri, Austin (2018-05)
      Answers in the Abstract (AiA) is an unfinished work of fiction by Austin Carpentieri. AiA is a work of fiction which aims to put on display the inner minds of the characters. The story centers around a group of friends in high school, and their opinions of each other and what they each mean to each other. Exploring events of loss and tragedy, and how we move onwards and find beauty after them, AiA is a deeply personal work which is meant to be emotionally and intellectually provoking. Grief, joy, ecstasy, and yearning fuel the characters and pages developed here. Also included is a brief analysis by the author of influential works during the writing of this manuscript. AiA is by no means a finished product.
    • Acoustical test chamber

      Cabuk, Cansu (2018-05)
      The purpose of this project is to create an acoustical test chamber for use by students and faculty of the Division of Engineering Programs at SUNY New Paltz. An acoustical test chamber is a controlled environment that is instrumented with a microphone array. This allows the user to perform accurate acoustical measurements on sound sources without outside interference while also dampening internal sound. These measurements will help the user determine vital sound parameters and display information relating to the sound signal. The properties of sound that are measured include sound intensity and sound frequency. Sound frequency information is plotted and displayed using a spectrogram. In addition, a sound localization feature using time difference of arrival estimation was implemented into the chamber’s functionality. The sound is measured using four electret microphones, then transferred to a computer utilizing stereo microphone inputs. The computing environment, MATLAB, and its functions were utilized by establishing a user friendly, interactive interface between the sensor hardware and the test environment. MATLAB’s functions and Graphical User Interface (GUI) feature, proved to be critical tools in simplifying the data acquisition, algorithmic and display processes. Before final construction, the sound location feature produced results with an average of 17% error. While after final construction, the number of trials that produced feasible results decreased drastically. This may be down to slight changes in the array geometry during the chamber’s construction process. This project is important as it provides engineering students at SUNY New Paltz, an opportunity to further enhance their exposure to acoustical testing techniques. The sound chamber will be used to verify analysis techniques learned in the classroom, in addition to providing research opportunities to students. However, the sound location feature is inadequate and still needs development.
    • Bilingual language acquisition & development and how bilingualism is addressed in the American school system

      Hartop, Nora Elizabeth (2018-05)
      In this paper I will define the various types of bilingualism in the specific contexts of Spanish-English bilingualism in the United States. I will discuss the benefits of a bilingual education. I will explore theories of bilingual language acquisition relating to language growth over time and the ability to distinguish speech sounds of languages. I will discuss brain development of a bilingual individual and the role of code switching as a key process in language acquisition. I will emphasize the importance of bilingual education programs such as dual language and immersion schools and how these schools function. I will also discuss the importance of linguistic diversity as it connects to cultural identity. I will discuss the implication of least-biased assessment in the field of speech-language pathology for bilingual students and the topic of standardized testing in multiple languages. Overall, I propose goals to make bilingual education a sustainable model for the future of bilingual language education in the American school system.
    • The appeal of the radical-right: authoritarian attitudes of the “Democratic” voter

      Enia, Peter R. (2018-05)
      As the 21st century progresses, we are experiencing a revival in radical right-wing parties in the western world. Generally, we only refer this term to European politics; however, with the rise of the Tea Party and the election of Donald Trump, America now faces this issue too. The influence of these parties even affect German politics as well since their Alternative for Deutschland is now the third largest party in their government. Many factors can cause this phenomenon – including immigration, economy, and political corruption. However, authoritarianism can link all these variables together since they all share universal values. Authoritarianism defines individuals as being fearful of change since they value their traditional social structures. Thus, with the evolving political and economic landscapes of the western world, these voters are afraid of losing their values that have been in place for centuries. Therefore, we predict that if a voter has attitudinal beliefs towards authoritarianism, it will likely predict their vote and their opinions on immigration, economy, and political corruption.
    • Facilitating post traumatic growth in survivors of disasters

      Schrufer, Jessica L. (2018-05)
      Natural and man-made disasters can be typified by loss and destruction. There is a need for mechanisms to promote positive outcomes to such events. Means aiming towards goals of Posttraumatic Growth can lead to successful recovery of an individual and a larger community in the aftermath of a disaster. In turn, resilience from experiencing the event and successive losses can prepare one for future difficulties. Psychological challenges in grief that arise after a traumatic event can mediate posttraumatic growth and recovery. Social Cognitive Theory posits that perceived self-efficacy in coping leads to positive results in posttraumatic recovery. Mortality Salience, a factor of Terror Management theory, also proposes that reduction in distress related to one’s own death anxiety may increase self-efficacy, resulting in growth. Through Terror Management and Social Cognitive means, the current research aims to promote Narrative Reconstruction as an important coping mechanism in relation to Posttraumatic Growth, for individuals as well as community-level bereavement in disasters.
    • Constructing Jewish bodies in Germany through physical culture and racial pseudo-science

      Alperin, Marissa (2018-05)
      As industrialization heightened in Europe, so did science and technological innovation. The expanded focus on human biology, evolution and genetics coincided with the growth of racism in Europe. In Germany, one group of people who were subjugated, was the Jewish population. Since, Jewish racism was a phenomenon in Europe during the physical culture movement, scientific “findings” were used in Germany to suggest that the intellectual abilities and physical beauty of Jews were inferior to the Nordic race. As a result of social, political, economic, religious, and cultural factors, Jewish bodies were projected as being abnormal. Thus, pseudoscience was used as a tool for reinventing/protecting the German nation by preserving the blood of the glorious bodily conception of the German people.
    • Climate change and childhood communication disorders: a literature and policy analysis

      Dittus, Andrew (2018-05)
      In conclusion, climate change and its threats are becoming and increasingly impending problem for everyone on earth. All professional disciplines will have to come to terms with such problems, as they will affect aspects of all fields in different and unprecedented ways. That being said, communication disorders will have its own unique issues it will have to deal with as climate change ramifications grow more common. Manifesting from problems associated with heat, hydrological stress, and weather hazards, all of our patients (most particularly children) will experience new threats to their speech and language production and development. This is why it is growing exigent for communication disorders professionals to consider how climate change ramifications will affect our practice, and what we can thus do as professionals to deal with said ramifications. The approach outlined in this paper uses the “Action Model” to do just that. Once it is understood how climate change will affect us, the Action Model gives us the ability to use policy and government based approaches to solve our prospective issues. Using past policies as examples, such as the IPCC 5th Assessment Report, we can see policy and government as a route to best meet our clients’ needs. Taking the steps outlined in the “Action Model” can thus be seen 32 as one way communication disorders professionals can help adapt to prospective climate vacillations, and find ways to best help their patients moving toward the future.
    • Far too radical, then and now: an examination of women’s body autonomy through the work of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Margaret Sanger

      Mercer, Scout (2018-05)
      In this paper, I plan on showing the extraordinary and radical lives to two progressive feminists, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Margaret Sanger, and how their platforms for women’s body autonomy are still valuable and necessary as women’s bodies are continuously dragged into politics. This paper will explore just how politicized women’s rights to their own bodies has been, through the necessity of combating legal and social codes targeting women. I plan on comparing Stanton and Sanger, in their lives and activism, to see what aspects of their work made them valuable for the women’s rights movement. I will also bring the history of women’s reproductive rights into the present, and how similar Stanton and Sanger’s arguments for autonomy to the modern political climate concerning women’s autonomy.
    • Heterogeneous implementation of an artificial neural network

      Carvino, Anthony; Coppola, Thomas (2018-05)
      Reconfigurable logic devices, such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), offer ideal platforms for the dynamic implementation of embedded, low power, massively parallel neuromorphic computing systems. Though somewhat inferior to Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) with regard to performance and power consumption, FPGAs compensate for this small discrepancy by providing a versatile and reconfigurable fabric that is capable of implementing the logic of any valid digital system. Using the Xilinx ZYNQ 7 Series All Programmable System on Chip, as actuated and exposed by the PYNQ-Z1 Development Environment, the present work aims to provide a demonstration of the efficacy of the heterogeneous approach to neuromorphic computing. We expose a hardware implementation of a configurable neural layer to the processing system as a software module and handle its data and parameter flow at the productivity level using Python. Results indicate a nearly negligible increase (3%) in dynamic power consumption over that consumed by the processing system alone. Further, by specifically utilizing the embedded Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and memory blocks of the ZYNQ device, we employ a relatively large percentage of these resources (13% and 11%, respectively), but consume only 5% of the Lookup Table (LUT) fabric, preserving the vast majority of resources for the implementation of other, perhaps complementary systems. Although the successfully completed heterogeneous system demonstrates that it possesses the capacity to learn, the proper training of neuromorphic systems such as this Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a project in and of itself, and so the focus herein is more on the heterogeneous system engineered than on the prototypical application selected, which is text-independent speaker verification using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) and log-filterbank energies as features. Fast, low power, small footprint neuromorphic systems are desirable for embedded applications that might improve the state of their art by exploiting applied artificial intelligence. Systems such as the configurable neural layer developed herein – which make use of the naturally versatile, low power, and high-performance FPGA in conjunction with a microprocessor control system – seem not only technologically viable, but well suited for handling intelligent embedded applications.
    • Trumponomics in post-industrial America: understanding the causes of deindustrialization and its role in the emergence of right-wing populist economics

      Greenman, David A. (2018-05)
      Since 2001, the American economy has swiftly shed over six million manufacturing jobs. To this day, large swaths of the American rural working class are left struggling to compete with domestic and external forces that are driving American labor away from the production process altogether. Much of the political rhetoric surrounding this economic phenomenon is dominated by politicians pointing fingers across the Pacific towards China and their ‘unfair’ trade practices. This technique of political and economic scapegoating was heralded by Donald J. Trump who emerged onto the American political stage with the immediate incrimination of China in the economic woes of the American working class. Although the American trade deficit with China is an often cited cause of American deindustrialization, are there other factors at play? To what extent can the increasingly widespread variables of automation and service growth explain the “hollowing out” of the American manufacturing sector? Additionally, to what degree is Donald Trump’s anti-globalist and economic nationalist rhetoric responsible for his shocking electoral win in 2016? I explore these topics together and illustrate the troubling recent shifts in the American labor force as well as the American electorate.