• Three sides to a story: different perspectives toward the deaf community

      Quinlan, Jada (2017-12)
      When looking into Deafness the medical perspective and the perspective of those in the Deaf community are taken into account. However there is also a societal aspect to Deafness that should be taken into account. This study considers the aspects and perspectives of the hearing, medical, and Deaf communities that determine the views of Deaf people. The study will also compare the Deaf community of the United States to that of Ethiopia. In conclusion, it may be shown how the different perspectives may effect the way the Deaf community is viewed.
    • Weak State caused long duration of insurgency between 1995 to 2016

      Abukosi, Vincent (2017-12)
      Saddam Hussein’s government and the Taliban regime were both toppled in the early months of U.S. invasion. Nevertheless, the U.S. and coalitions’ supported government in both Iraq and Afghanistan have been battling insurgencies since the U.S. invasion. To be exact, the U.S. has been conducting counterinsurgency campaigns in Afghanistan since 2002, and in Iraq since 2003. Why would such operations last so long despite U.S. military might? Many scholars have argued differently on the causes of long duration insurgencies but none has given an argument that can explain all cases of prolonged insurgencies. In this paper, I used the theory of political opportunity structure which posits that “repertoires for protest have traditionally been seen as influenced by political opportunity structure, consisting of both a formal, institutional aspect and an informal, cultural one (Porta 2008, 223)” to argue that weak states caused long duration insurgency between the years of 1995 to 2016. My argument gives another alternative argument that can explain the causes of long duration insurgencies. Using 66 cases of insurgency, from the Global Terrorism dataset, I showed that state weakness caused long duration insurgency between the periods of 1995 to 2016, but the only indicators of state weakness that are statistically significant to the duration of insurgency are security effectiveness score and security legitimacy score. Therefore, my policy recommendation is that for states to carry on successful Counterinsurgency campaigns they need to focus on improving the capability of their security forces, and seek public approval of their security apparatus .
    • Neuroplasticity: the impact of age and injury

      Celentano, Alexis M. (2017-12)
      Background: Neuroplasticity is an ongoing process of the brain that allows for learning, changing, and adapting to every day changes as well as to trauma. As we age, the rate of neuroplasticity (that combats the ramifications of brain injury) starts to decline. This has been seen throughout many different species and is the justification for why adult systems have more devastating deficits from injury than children. The brain can spontaneously recover from injury but for improved long-term results, speech and language therapy in conjunction with spontaneous recovery is ideal for maximal recovery of function and language. Purpose: In this review, the primary goal is to discuss past and present research on neuroplasticity, neural aging and the effects of injury on the language centers of the brain. Results: I have discussed neuroplasticity and peak neuroplasticity in children known as the critical periods and sensitive periods, discussion of normal aging on neuroplasticity, the results of prenatal strokes in comparison to the results of adult strokes, and the different types of recovery that occurs post-stroke/traumatic brain injury (TBI).
    • Manic? : a play in two acts

      Rausch, Zachary (2017-12)
      This thesis is about the power of story. All medical systems throughout the world are based upon specific stories which they believe about the nature of human existence. Oftentimes, it is easy to lose ourselves in the narratives we know, claiming them to be ultimately true. I will explore and compare two distinct medical narratives, Western and Tibetan Buddhist psychiatry, in order to explore deeper questions about the nature of human suffering. I will take you on this exploration through my own personal narrative as I straddled these two worlds to find grounding and purpose in life. We will explore how these traditions conceptualize mental illness, personal identity, human nature, purpose, and health. We will explore their underlying assumptions and values that are often unquestioned. When we speak of medical narratives, we cannot separate them from our lived experiences. These narratives are not static, do not exist in a vacuum, and may be experienced differently by one person to the next. Therefore, I am only expressing one perspective of infinite. But these are the stories I know and these are the stories that I can genuinely share. I have a fundamental understanding by studying and analyzing the primary texts of the two psychiatric systems: The Fifth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the rGyud Bzhi . I also have a basic understanding of Tibetan Buddhist psychiatry through four months of study in Bodh Gaya and Darjeeling, India and four months of research of Western psychiatric and psychological history and thought.
    • English literacy in deaf education

      Ackerman, Celina (2018-01)
      The purpose of this paper is to discuss the factors influencing the English literacy development of signing deaf children. The literacy rates of deaf high school graduates have been consistently reported as equivalent to that of an average 3rd or 4th grade hearing child (Mayer, 2009, p. 326). The factors contributing to this gap in literacy rates revolve around language acquisition and development. Issues in first language access, exposure and quality as well as differences in deaf and hearing language development are discussed. Theories of bimodal language and literacy development show unique qualities of ASL-English bilingual-bimodal that may begin to explain the cause of difficulty in English literacy skills among signing deaf children in the academic setting. Further research much be conducted in order to further develop educational programs for literacy development that are effective for deaf students.
    • Bilingual language acquisition & development and how bilingualism is addressed in the American school system

      Hartop, Nora Elizabeth (2018-05)
      In this paper I will define the various types of bilingualism in the specific contexts of Spanish-English bilingualism in the United States. I will discuss the benefits of a bilingual education. I will explore theories of bilingual language acquisition relating to language growth over time and the ability to distinguish speech sounds of languages. I will discuss brain development of a bilingual individual and the role of code switching as a key process in language acquisition. I will emphasize the importance of bilingual education programs such as dual language and immersion schools and how these schools function. I will also discuss the importance of linguistic diversity as it connects to cultural identity. I will discuss the implication of least-biased assessment in the field of speech-language pathology for bilingual students and the topic of standardized testing in multiple languages. Overall, I propose goals to make bilingual education a sustainable model for the future of bilingual language education in the American school system.
    • Constructing Jewish bodies in Germany through physical culture and racial pseudo-science

      Alperin, Marissa (2018-05)
      As industrialization heightened in Europe, so did science and technological innovation. The expanded focus on human biology, evolution and genetics coincided with the growth of racism in Europe. In Germany, one group of people who were subjugated, was the Jewish population. Since, Jewish racism was a phenomenon in Europe during the physical culture movement, scientific “findings” were used in Germany to suggest that the intellectual abilities and physical beauty of Jews were inferior to the Nordic race. As a result of social, political, economic, religious, and cultural factors, Jewish bodies were projected as being abnormal. Thus, pseudoscience was used as a tool for reinventing/protecting the German nation by preserving the blood of the glorious bodily conception of the German people.
    • Strangers in a strange land: visualizing Syrian refugees in U.S., Canadian, and Lebanese newspapers

      Dellas, Mary (2018-05)
      Although news photographs of refugees are often perceived as objective representations of reality, they are actually the product of subjective decisions made by photographers and editors. These subjective realities are reinforced by captions when they are published in newspapers. Using a quantitative content analysis method, this study aims to understand how Syrian refugees were framed visually and lexically in the online editions of national newspapers from the United States, Canada and Lebanon from 1 September 2015 to 31 March 2017. Photographs, accompanying captions and headlines were collected from the New York Times (United States), the Globe and Mail (Canada) and Annahar (Lebanon). Eighteen variables were designed and adapted from previous research to code the sample. The results of this study complement previous research on framing of the current refugee crisis, much of which focuses on European newspapers. This paper provides valuable insight into how representation of Syrian refugees in Anglophonic newspapers compares to that of Lebanese newspapers.
    • Far too radical, then and now: an examination of women’s body autonomy through the work of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Margaret Sanger

      Mercer, Scout (2018-05)
      In this paper, I plan on showing the extraordinary and radical lives to two progressive feminists, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Margaret Sanger, and how their platforms for women’s body autonomy are still valuable and necessary as women’s bodies are continuously dragged into politics. This paper will explore just how politicized women’s rights to their own bodies has been, through the necessity of combating legal and social codes targeting women. I plan on comparing Stanton and Sanger, in their lives and activism, to see what aspects of their work made them valuable for the women’s rights movement. I will also bring the history of women’s reproductive rights into the present, and how similar Stanton and Sanger’s arguments for autonomy to the modern political climate concerning women’s autonomy.
    • Second language acquisition in immigrant groups in Germany

      Cagar, Nicole (2018-05)
      After the fall of the Nazi regime, Germany’s immigration policy drastically changed. The need for guest workers (Gastarbeiter) was high in order to rebuild German infrastructure, with a majority of the guest workers coming from Turkey. Prior to and after the fall of the Berlin Wall, ethnic German Russians (Aussiedler) repatriated back to Germany, representing a second major wave of immigrants in the postwar era. The contemporary international crisis in Syria has led to an influx of refugees and Arabic speaking populations in Germany. As a result of these historical shifts in the latter half of twentieth century Germany to the present, Germany has taken language acquisition more seriously and consequently sees itself as an immigration nation. This is an overview of scholarship informing the context for second language acquisition among immigrants in Germany. This study explores language acquisition among these groups and finds that Turkish people do the best at learning German.
    • Creating a model of integrated restorative justice and treatment for juvenile sex offenders

      Quinn, Caitlin (2018-05)
      The current United States criminal justice system uses a strictly punitive approach in handling cases of sex offenses committed by juveniles. This paper addresses the failures of the current system and analyzes the positive and negative aspects of three alternative models: restorative justice, multisystemic therapy, and the Good Lives Model. Drawing on sociological, criminological, and feminist literature, crime databases, and interviews with professionals in the fields of restorative and juvenile justice, it is shown that no single model meets the needs of stakeholders in juvenile sex offense cases. Instead, I will propose an integrated holistic model of restorative justice and multifaceted treatment that utilizes the most effective aspects of existing alternative models and adds program components related to sexuality and consent would be most beneficial for use with juvenile sex offenders.
    • Fire and ice: a memoir on grief and self-discovery

      Cassone, Kelsea (2018-05)
      A collection of poems and nonfiction combined in three parts that work to understand the grief that comes with losing my father to suicide and how to overcome it. Separated in three parts, the first part works to define grief in a personal matter. Most poems simply circle around the feeling of depression. The two nonfiction pieces describe memories of the last time I saw my father and when I was told he had passed away. The second part takes place within a few years after the loss, trying to understand what happened and working through depression and grief so I can move on with my life. Poems typically work with confusion and a feeling of loss, while nonfiction pieces are recounts of lucid dreams. Third part works through moving on and what that means. Poems are more centered around myself and how I feel up to current date, six years later. One nonfiction piece is a memory of realizing my father will always be with me. The second nonfiction piece is a meditation-like piece in which I work through my thoughts, understanding what I have been through and coming to understand that life goes on whether I want it to or not and so I should do my best to live up to my expectations. While there was no closure found in doing this project, I do feel relieved to have gotten such strong emotions released onto paper.
    • A novel experience: how writing my own novel prepared me for a job in publishing

      Mason, Amber (2018-05)
      In order to understand the editing process more intimately, I decided to write a speculative/dystopian novel under the guidance of Professor Carr, whose extensive experience in the publishing industry makes him the perfect mentor for this project. We moved through every stage of the writing process from idea conception to outlining to chapter drafting. During individual meetings, we discussed how to edit the piece; I paid special attention to the kinds of feedbacks and suggestions that an editor needs to be equipped to give. In the end, I will understand the process of getting a book published from both sides of the equation—the writer and the editor.
    • Heterogeneous implementation of an artificial neural network

      Carvino, Anthony; Coppola, Thomas (2018-05)
      Reconfigurable logic devices, such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), offer ideal platforms for the dynamic implementation of embedded, low power, massively parallel neuromorphic computing systems. Though somewhat inferior to Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) with regard to performance and power consumption, FPGAs compensate for this small discrepancy by providing a versatile and reconfigurable fabric that is capable of implementing the logic of any valid digital system. Using the Xilinx ZYNQ 7 Series All Programmable System on Chip, as actuated and exposed by the PYNQ-Z1 Development Environment, the present work aims to provide a demonstration of the efficacy of the heterogeneous approach to neuromorphic computing. We expose a hardware implementation of a configurable neural layer to the processing system as a software module and handle its data and parameter flow at the productivity level using Python. Results indicate a nearly negligible increase (3%) in dynamic power consumption over that consumed by the processing system alone. Further, by specifically utilizing the embedded Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and memory blocks of the ZYNQ device, we employ a relatively large percentage of these resources (13% and 11%, respectively), but consume only 5% of the Lookup Table (LUT) fabric, preserving the vast majority of resources for the implementation of other, perhaps complementary systems. Although the successfully completed heterogeneous system demonstrates that it possesses the capacity to learn, the proper training of neuromorphic systems such as this Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a project in and of itself, and so the focus herein is more on the heterogeneous system engineered than on the prototypical application selected, which is text-independent speaker verification using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) and log-filterbank energies as features. Fast, low power, small footprint neuromorphic systems are desirable for embedded applications that might improve the state of their art by exploiting applied artificial intelligence. Systems such as the configurable neural layer developed herein – which make use of the naturally versatile, low power, and high-performance FPGA in conjunction with a microprocessor control system – seem not only technologically viable, but well suited for handling intelligent embedded applications.
    • Spectroscopic analysis of supernovae expansion

      Brogan, Dany (2018-05)
      In many ways, supernovae are some of the most fascinating events in the Universe. These titanic explosions can shine as bright as galaxies, and it’s theorized they’re responsible for the nucleosynthesis of more than half of the naturally occurring elements on the periodic table. 1 Their nature gives insight on the origins of the star clusters, galaxies, and beyond. While they are bright, supernovae are incredibly far away, making it impossible to study hands on, but there is a signature of sorts that supernovae leaves behind, which can be studied. All luminous objects have spectra, supernovae included. Specifically, a luminous explosion of stellar ejecta will give off an absorption spectrum as the light passes through the stellar matter escaping into space. One straightforward problem is quantifying how fast a supernova expanding through space. That expansion rate is found through spectroscopic analysis. In this process, it is detailed how this analysis can be performed at the Smolen Observatory at SUNY New Paltz.
    • Reactions to behaviors: the role of education on people’s perceptions of body-focused repetitive behaviors

      Scarimbolo, Katrina (2018-05)
      Reactions to body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs) (trichotillomania, excoriation disorder, onychophagia, and trichophagia) were measured by evaluating people's reactions on a Likert scale. A total of 221 participants completed the survey. It was predicted that educating people about those conditions would produce more positive ratings. However there was no difference between the experimental and control group that received no information. It was found that trichophagia was viewed most negatively followed by trichotillomania, excoriation disorder, and then onychophagia which was viewed most positively. These findings suggest that information presented in a quick and limited format did not impact the views of participants. However, it is seen that attention needs to be directed toward promoting a greater understanding of these disorders in order to minimize the negative perceptions of people with these conditions.
    • Engineering with a purpose: nontraditional perspectives

      Gangewere, Megan (2018-05)
      In this thesis, a short film titled “Engineering with a Purpose: Nontraditional Perspectives” is produced. A film written, edited, and produced by a mechanical engineering undergraduate was something outside of the norm for a final report. In order to successfully create a film, research on the types and style of films was performed. Movavi Editor software was utilized for purposes of editing. This film challenges perspectives and opens eyes to the cross-disciplinary skills engineering requires while drawing attention to the lessons engineers can learn from other disciplines. The meaning, history and stereotypical views that engineering possesses is expressed. The correlations between philosophy and engineering are filmed with an Ancient Greek Socratic lens. The challenges women must overcome in a predominantly male field are conveyed. Inspirational and telling clips to encourage young women considering engineering concludes this portion of the film. Art and engineering is also expressed through the opportunities 3D manufacturing provides. The film is concluded with multiple languages to open the audience eyes that the basis of engineering, problem solving, is nondiscriminatory. The film’s mission is to inspire non-engineers about how they can relate to engineering practice while motivating current engineers to never give up. It also draws attention to the role an engineer plays in society for progress and future development. Creating a film was a whole design process that required countless iterations. Motivation for this film stemmed from professional opportunities with a mechanical engineering degree and the potential positive impacts and purposeful work engineering requires.
    • Engagement levels on social media: a case study of Sojourner Truth Library’s Instagram

      Maiorano, Julianna (2018-05)
      Recently, libraries have begun utilizing social media to market their materials and services to the general public. Identifying best practices that lead to increased engagement between followers and library social media accounts can assist libraries to welcome more patrons. This study sought to identify what libraries can do to increase the amount of engagement with followers. This research explores the amount of engagement on Sojourner Truth Library’s social media. Amount of engagement was determined by the number of likes and comments per post. Using data compiled from the library’s social media, the relationship between amount of engagement and the content of posted photos was examined. Findings suggest that featuring human faces on Instagram affects the amount of engagement positively. Overall, it was found that featuring human faces in a social media post will increase engagement levels.
    • What to do about planet earth: a visionary approach to consumption, energy, and structure

      Buckheit, Donna (2018-05)
      In this paper, I seek to establish that what the consequences of climate change are, which activities contribute to it the most, what types of resources are being used to carry out these activities, and who participates in these kinds of activities the most. I will gather this information from census data and peer reviewed experimental results. Based on these assessments, I will then propose three solutions: 1. Adjustment of physical aspects of the environment and structure we live in, including the use of bike paths, passive solar architecture, and hexagons in construction. 2. Implementation of a carbon tax to curtail carbon dioxide emissions and prevent resource exploitation by corporations. 3. Installation of a universal “solar grid” that utilizes the most efficient solar technology in order to provide a clean, sustainable source of energy.
    • A growing American identity within a Jewish community: Kingston, New York, 1880-1960

      Ehrlich, Miriam (2018-05)
      In the 19th and 20th centuries, many Jewish people immigrated to America to escape anti-semitism in Eastern Europe. Frank Reher was one of these immigrants. He opened up a successful Jewish bakery in Kingston, New York, where there was a growing Jewish population. His family provides a case study of one family who developed an American identity, largely through Americanizing events in their synagogues. However, they never lost touch with their Jewish identities.