• Experiential time : the special world of music therapy composition

      Olsher, Dean (2015)
      Paul Nordoff challenged music therapists to compose original clinical music informed by works of master composers such as Mozart, Schumann, and Debussy. Nordoff’s understanding of idioms was derived from Rudolf Steiner's anthroposophical conception of musical archetypes. The notion of idiom as musical archetype is reframed here according to a cultural rather than mystical framework, to appeal more widely to music therapists of all orientations. This cultural worldview allows the identification of a new clinical idiom based on the gentle jazz piano style associated with children that emerged in American popular culture during the 1960s. Original compositions by the present author were created following Nordoff's process of absorbing music of the past. The new works are modeled on an updated canon of 20th-century American composers including Joplin, Copland, Evans, Guaraldi, Newman, and Waits. The emotional and psychological effects of various compositional procedures--including reharmonization, contrafact, the characteristic piece (Charakterstück), and musical recombination--are analyzed. A case report recounts in detail the creation of a therapeutic song in a clinical setting.
    • Exploring the effects of music therapists working with survivors of sexual trauma

      Greco, Caroline E. (2020-05)
      The purpose of this study is to gain a greater understanding of the experiences of music therapists working with survivors of sexual trauma, and the potential secondary traumatic stress (STS), vicarious trauma (VT), burnout, and/or vicarious resilience (VR) that may arise. Three board-certified music therapists (MT-BC) currently working with survivors of sexual trauma were interviewed to gain an understanding of clinicians’ experiences working with this population, and if/how explored phenomena are experienced within their work. Interviews were coded using In Vivo Coding and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Implications of the results for clinical practice and future direction of music therapy research are discussed. Keywords: music therapy, sexual trauma, secondary traumatic stress, vicarious trauma, burnout, vicarious resilience.
    • Exploring the journey of nontraditional students in the music therapy field: a phenomenological inquiry

      McNally, Sean (2022-05)
      My journey to the field of music therapy was one I initially thought was a random amalgamation of events completely unique to me. I earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in film/video and upon graduation, decided I did not want to pursue a career in the film industry. I shifted to playing music at a professional level. After some time, I began losing passion for the type of late-night work I was doing. I felt an interest in special education after having had some experience lifeguarding for a Special Olympics program in high school. At the suggestion of a friend, I decided to take a daytime job as a teaching assistant at a school for students with developmental delays. During this employment, I was deeply moved to witness the work of music therapists. The social and emotional connections students would achieve in music were moments I viewed as profoundly meaningful. These experiences informed my decision to go to graduate school to pursue a career I found deeply meaningful and fulfilling.
    • Exploring The Relationship Between Oral and Orthographic Skills in Deaf Individuals

      Huie, Molly K. (2010-03-18)
      This study examines the relationship between speech production skills and orthographic skills in deaf readers using behavioral indices of word form processing. The Reicher- Wheeler forced-choiced paradigm was used to measure the word and pseudoword superiority effects, which are considered to be measures of familiarity with specific words in a language and familiarity with the orthographic rules of a language, respectively. Eleven deaf individuals took part in this study. Participants completed a background questionnaire, the Reicher-Wheeler task, a pronunciation task and several other measures of phonological and orthographic awareness. The scores from these tasks were correlated in order to determine the degree of relationship that exists between oral and orthographic systems. Results indicate that a well developed speech production system is not necessary for the development of a sophisticated orthographic system. Implications for reading education of deaf individuals are discussed.
    • Factor structure of OCD: toward an evolutionary neuro-cognitive model of obsessive-compulsive disorder

      Glass, Daniel (2012-06-28)
      Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disorder characterized by its clinical heterogeneity, but also a commonality of symptom clusters that are known as “symptom dimensions.” Previous research among clinical samples using factor analysis has shown that the symptom-structure of OCD falls into four or five of these dimensions. The symptom dimensions can be conceptualized as representing impairment in several discrete brain systems which may meet the criteria for evolved mental “modules.” The current study uses confirmatory factor analysis in a community sample to test several competing models of OCD-like symptoms. These symptoms are discussed from the perspective of adaptive mental modules, and normal functions of OCD-like thoughts and behaviors are discussed. The four-factor model of OCD symptoms proposed in previous research was supported relative to competing one and five-factor models, and a positive correlation between OCD-like symptoms and mating success is demonstrated. Implications are discussed for the understanding and treatment of OCD, as well as our understanding of the brain’s evolved cognitive structure and organization during normal functioning.
    • Factors influencing career longevity of music therapists

      Doxsee, Lauren E. (2020-05)
      This survey study examined the factors that experienced music therapists identified as important in maintaining their careers in music therapy. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into how these music therapists combat burnout and stress to remain practicing in the field for 10 years or longer. Previous studies on burnout and career longevity have focused on whether music therapists have burnout, causes or factors leading to burnout and possible shortened careers, and the length of average careers in music therapy. The survey was sent out to 3,421 board-certified music therapists who were selected for longevity in the profession, 10 years or longer. There were a total of 439 responses with 11 responses meeting the requirements for participation. The survey results indicated that time off of work, exercise, and music are the main methods of self-care utilized by experienced professionals. Respondents also indicated that low salary, self-assessed burnout, and a perception of limited job opportunities were the main factors that could have led practitioners to consider leaving the field.
    • Factors influencing music therapists to join, or not join, the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA)

      Peterson, Sarah (2020-05)
      The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) is the membership organization for music therapists that strives to develop and support the music therapy profession. Professional membership in the AMTA has been declining in recent years, though the number of credentialed music therapists is increasing. The objective of this research study was to determine what factors influence music therapists to join, or not join, the AMTA. The survey consisted of close and open- ended questions to gather the demographics of participants; the factors that influenced their decision to purchase, or not purchase membership; how participants view the benefits that membership in AMTA provides; and what participants want to see AMTA accomplish to increase membership. Out of the 7,958 music therapists that were eligible to participate, 1,262 completed the survey. Current members, and individuals planning on renewing in 2020 accounted for 49.88% of the sample; former members accounted for 43.38% of the sample; and respondents who have never been members of AMTA accounted for 6.74% of the sample. Receiving member benefits was the most common factor that influenced membership for current members, individuals renewing, and former members. Former members and respondents who have never been members cited the cost of membership, the lack of cost-benefit, and the perceived lack of benefits as factors for not renewing, or not purchasing membership.
    • Factors influencing parental investment : does parental financial allocation vary as a function of perceived child sexual orientation?

      Trouton, Grant Thomas (2013-06-26)
      An evolutionary perspective on parental investment suggests that natural selection might have favored mechanisms by which parents can evaluate the likelihood of a given offspring’s chances of successful reproduction. Adopting such a perspective, an online survey-based monetary allocation task was employed to test the hypothesis that parental investment was positively related to likelihood of offspring heterosexuality, such that vignettes describing heterosexual offspring would receive more money than vignettes describing homosexual offspring. Results did not support this hypothesis, as investment in offspring was unrelated to perceived offspring sexual orientation. However, exploratory analyses revealed that increasingly negative attitudes towards lesbians and gays predicted decreased investment in offspring. Such findings could serve to embolden civil rights activists in their struggle for increased LGBT social rights. Future research in this area would benefit from correlational research examining real familial relationships and investment patterns, rather than experimentally simulated relationships, to increase the external validity of findings and to reduce social desirability bias.
    • Family-centered music therapy in the hospitalization treatment of children: a systematic review

      Simpson-Abrams, Eva C. (2018-05)
      A family-centered approach is becoming more widely used in the treatment of hospitalized children. In general, the involvement of the family is becoming more of a focus during the treatment process in music therapy. Medical music therapy research has grown that examines the benefits of using music therapy in medical settings. However, there are few studies that examine the individual perspectives of children and parents experiencing hospitalization, and how family-centered music therapy addresses these specific, expressed needs. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the needs of parents and children in order to support the use of family-centered music therapy care in children’s hospitals and to further family-centered music therapy research. Thorough database searches were used to gather data for this review, which was then synthesized in order to create common themes. These themes reflect how researchers should approach future endeavors to understand the hospitalization experience and how family-centered music therapy studies should be conducted.
    • Feasibility of solar panel production using renewables

      Mazzurco, Anthony (2021-12)
      The purpose of this paper is to cover a range of topics related to the current energy issue that we have at hand. It will cover the foundation of our main energy sources, if we have reached peak oil, energy economics in relation to renewable energy, the rate of consumption of energy, other bi-products of oil that we use in everyday life, and the feasibility of producing solar panels from a completely renewable energy power plant. When most people think of oil, they do not consider that it is our main source of energy that drives society. There are other energy sources that we use that include coal, other forms of oil like substances such as biodiesel, ethanol corn, and renewable energy. In the past twenty years, the growth in solar and wind technologies has grown rapidly. In order to use less fossil fuels, there has also been an increase in electric vehicles. The movement towards solar, wind, and electric vehicles may sound like a viable solution, but the embodied energy in these technologies is not emphasized enough on the engineering side. In energy economics there is a term called Energy Returned On Energy Invested (EROEI, or EROI). This field of economics focuses on the amount of energy it takes to produce an energy source, and what that energy output is in relation to production. While looking into the EROEI for the more popular energy alternatives, it can be seen that solar and wind have various values of return. EROI should also be considered with electric vehicles, but there are many other variables to be considered. We are now realizing that peak oil production will be an issue, so alternative energy and transportation technologies are being focused on. One of the issues is if we use certain types of elements for these fossil fuel alternatives, we will eventually exhaust those resources as well. That being said, we should reconsider better alternatives, and reduce wasteful resource industries.
    • Financial perspectives of emerging adults : similarities and differences between gen-zeds and millennials

      Berg, Hunter J. (2020-05)
      Emerging adults (individuals ages 18-24) today are struggling with finance. In fact, financial factors make up four of the top five stressors of college students today (Sinha et al., 2018) while, at the same time, much research has shown these populations lack the financial skills necessary to make even the most basic financial decisions (Serido & Deenanath, 2016; Shim, Serido, Bosch, & Tang, 2013; Terriquez & Gurantz, 2014). The problem does not seem to be related to a lack of resources, as there are currently more tools to help one improve financial literacy than ever before (Sinha, Tan, & Zhan, 2018). Perhaps roots of the problem stem from development. In 2011, Gudmonson and Danes founded a theory of financial socialization, claiming that financial development stems primarily from implicit and explicit lessons provided by one’s parents or guardians. This study dives into the financial perspectives of Millennials and Generation Z, attempting to cypher out commonalities and differences in financial development, knowledge, value, and anxiety between and within the generations. Major findings include differences between financial perspectives based on gender, social class, and political orientation. Adding to Gudmonson and Danes’ (2011) financial socialization theory, major differences were found in financial literacy and anxiety based on sibling birth order. These results suggest that siblings may directly or indirectly affect one’s financial socialization by influencing or supplementing parents’ explicit and implicit financial lessons. The study concludes with ideas for future research.
    • Finding connections : a case study emphasizing therapuetuic relationship through the lens of relational music therapy

      Artus, Nicole (2017-10)
      This case study examines music therapy with Emily, a young adult female with developmental delays from a relational, intersubjective perspective. Emily’s therapy occurred while I was an intern at a holistic, integrative, residential treatment and education center for adults and children with significant intellectual disabilities, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and multiple disabilities. Six music therapy sessions are described in detail, examining the role that our therapeutic and musical relationship had in optimizing Emily’s clinical goals. The purpose of presenting this case study is to investigate how the core components of humanistic and relational theory, such as vitality (Stern, 2010), unconditional positive regard and empathy (Rogers & Stanford, 1984), intersubjectivity (Trondalen, 2016), relationship based approach (Greenspan & Wieder, 2003), and musicality (Nordoff & Robbins, 1992) impacted Emily’s treatment.
    • Flipped classrooms : advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of a practicing art teacher

      Rivera, Vanessa M. (2016-12)
      The following case study investigates the advantages and disadvantages perceived by a practicing art teacher who has used the “flipped classroom” method. Flipping the classroom is the practice of providing online lectures which students can watch from home as a way to replace lecturing in the classroom. Ideally this practice allows more class time to be dedicated to active learning rather than instruction (Bergmann & Sams, 2014). Proponents of the flipped classroom method believe that it provides many benefits including improvements in classroom efficiency and student engagement; others argue that it is difficult to implement and that unequal access to technological resources disadvantages certain populations (Smith, 2016; Tomlinson, 2015). Despite limitations which restricted the participant to a partially flipped classroom the data was interpreted as generally supportive of flipping. This case study suggests that the advantages of flipped classroom practices outweigh potential disadvantages. It also suggests that issues concerning student access to technology can be successfully mitigated through the use of a partially flipped classroom. In the future a comprehensive study of art teachers who work with different demographics could be conducted to include a wider range of opinions.
    • For weightlessness: a portfolio

      Apuzzo, Alexandra (2021-12)
      Tell me how it feels to be light and have so much time. I know only heaviness. I know only not enough. Not enough time and too few words. I am being crushed. I am being That was what I found in my mother’s notebook after her suicide. I won’t call it a letter – it wasn’t addressed to anyone; it wasn’t signed. She didn’t even finish it. But still I ripped the page out and kept it. It’s in my desk drawer and before I go to bed, I read it; try to read between the lines, to understand. But I can’t even imagine her saying the words. Tell me how it feels to be light.
    • Friends, love, & tinder: an investigation of the effect of auditory social stimulation on sexual and romantic attraction toward potential mates

      Holler, Richard H (2017-07)
      Humans are social apes that adapted to social networks that were no larger than approximately 150 individuals (Dunbar, 1993). Today, the computer and internet provide humans the means to communicate with virtually anyone across the planet. To explore if using online social venues (e.g., tinder) versus physically attending social venues, such as a popular restaurant, facilitate sexual and romantic attraction toward others, participants were exposed to an auditory stimulus while evaluating 10 images of attractive target mates on 3 dependent measures: interest to have sex with target mates (sex-interest), interest to date target mates (date-interest), and sexual attractiveness of target mates. Of the 3 auditory stimuli--social stimulation (ambient sounds of a restaurant), controlled stimulation (sounds of flowing water), and no stimulation (silence)--sounds of flowing water, compared to silence, produced significantly higher date-interest ratings, t(60) = 2.00, p = .05, d = .51 and, marginally, significantly higher sex-interest ratings, t(57) = 2.00, p = .051, d = .52. Average spent hours per day using a computer significantly predicted date-interest and sex-interest among women and men, respectively. Additionally, the Asexual Identification Scale (AIS; Yule, Brotto, & Gorzalka, 2015) was applied to plot participants along the asexual spectrum. AIS scores significantly predicted (1) sex-interest, but only among men, and (2) date-interest, but only among women.
    • Gender beyond the binary: computationally mapping gender to a spectrum using sex differences in the brain

      Williams, Reed (2022-05)
      Biological sex is far more complex than simply two categories: male and female. The mere existence of transgender and intersex individuals displays this complexity clearly on the surface, while the differences between cisgender people within their own respective categories brings this idea to a deeper level. While sex differences reveal themselves in many different scientific disciplines, this study will focus on findings in the field of neuroscience; specifically, it will narrow in on volumetric measurements of brain regions known to have differing trends across the male and female sexes. The construction of a surrogate data set driven by measurements extracted from existing literature will be used to fit a logistic regression model. The resulting probability function will be used to first create a base Biological Sex Spectrum; this refers to a representation of biological sex as a spectrum in the absence of societal influence. This probability function will then be modified to produce a Societally Influenced Gender Spectrum; this refers to a spectrum that has been influenced by the concept of the gender binary and more closely represents our current world. The comparison of these two spectra will reveal the space for an increase in gender diversity as societal views continue shifting further away from restricting gender stereotypes.
    • Gender differences in intelligence theory, achievement, motivation, and attributional style: effects on choice of science, math, and technology careers

      Froehlich, Sharon Walling (2007-09-11)
      This study explores potential reasons for why more females become math avoidant than males during middle and high school and tend to skip all but the most necessary math classes in college, leading to a dearth of women who enter careers in mathematics, science, and technology. This web-based study examines gender differences in the way males and females self report views of their own personal math intelligence, their goal orientation in the mathematics learning environment, their demonstration of either mastery or learned helplessness orientation in the face of failure at a difficult math task, and gender differences in math self-efficacy before and after math failure. The author hypothesized that more females than males would demonstrate a learned maladaptive pattern in the mathematical learning environment. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the above factors will be consistent with females’ decision not to enter scientific and math based careers. Contrary to these predictions, the only significant findings were that women did tend to report lower math self-efficacy than men, and that consistent with previous research (e.g. Betz, 1985), low math self-efficacy is predictive of interest in careers in math, science, and technology. The results will be presented and discussed, along with some limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research in this important area.
    • Generational differences in work life balance attitudes

      Parker, Catherine C. (2008-05-13)
      A study was conducted with 543 SUNY New Paltz alumni representing three generations to determine if there were generational differences in attitudes about work life balance. A paper and pencil survey was mailed to 3000 potential participants containing questions regarding perception of work life balance, engagement in individual initiative behavior and work life balance program usage and perceived risk. Significant differences in engagement in individual initiative behavior, perceptions of risk and program usage were found between Baby Boomers and Millennials. Significant differences in program usage were found between Baby Boomers and Gen X’ers. Some surprising results were found. There were no significant results for gender differences for perceived work life balance across the generations and the result for work life balance by generation only approached significance. This result possibly suggests a more complex relationship between gender, age, and work life balance. Alternative explanations such as age, familial responsibility and gender are discussed. Implications for further research were discussed including possible barriers to usage of work life programs for Baby Boomers and men of all generations.
    • A generative chatbot with natural language processing

      Liebman, David (2020-12)
      The goal in this thesis is to create a chatbot, a computer program that can respond verbally to a human in the course of simple day-to-day conversations. A deep learning neural network model called the Transformer is used to develop the chatbot. A full description of a Transformer is provided. The use of a few different Transformer-based Natural Language Processing models to develop the chatbot, including Generative Pre-Training 2 (GPT2), are shown. For comparison a Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) based model is included. Each of these are explained below. The chatbot code is installed on a small device such as the Raspberry Pi with speech recognition and speech-to-text software. In this way a device that can carry out a verbal conversation with a human might be created. For the GRU-based model a Raspberry Pi 3B with 1GB RAM can be used. A Raspberry Pi 4B with 4GB of RAM is needed to run a chatbot with the GPT2.
    • The Golden Section and Attitudes Towards Mental Illness: How does Stigma Influence Golden Section Ratings?

      Harasym, Melanie T. (2010-03-18)
      Studies have shown that when people are asked to make judgments about others using a list of bipolar adjective pairs, they consistently produce ratings that are approximately 62% positive and 38% negative. The precise proportion of 61.8:38.2, known as the golden section, stems from Pythagorean principles that explain how people organize and make sense of the world around them. The current study examined how a stigmatized view of the mentally ill can affect golden section ratings of various diagnostic labels. One hundred and eighteen participants were tested on: (1) their view of the mentally ill (level of stigma), (2) how much contact they have had with the mentally ill, and (3) their golden section ratings of various medical and psychiatric labels. Results indicated that participants with a less stigmatizing view of the mentally ill did not exhibit a golden section pattern in rating all diagnostic labels, despite what was hypothesized. Participants with a stigmatizing view of the mentally ill did not exhibit a reverse golden section pattern in rating psychiatric labels as expected either. The results of the current study did show, however, that people who have more contact with the mentally ill also have a less stigmatizing view of the mentally ill.