• An Evolutionary Analysis of Partner Perceptions within Mateships: The Beauty and the Beast Effect, the Role of Trait Factors, and the Nature of Mate Settling

      Dillon, Haley Moss (2011-12)
      Evolutionary psychology brings new interest and excitement to old topics. The study of human mating systems has always been on the academic landscape, but evolutionary theory has recently revived the study of mating strategies through the lens of adaptive qualities. Darwin first explained some traits of mating through the lens of sexual selection, and since his time researchers have sought to further explain the human mating strategy. The current work explores the tenets of evolutionary theory and their application to mate value. The concept of mate settling – a lack of equity within a pair bond is examined through mate value reports as well as mate value discrepancy within couples.The current work examined mate value through the use of the Mate Value Inventory (Kirsner, Figueredo, & Jacobs, 2003) as well as a subjective physical attractiveness item, and an objective physical attractiveness item. Mate value was shown to be affected by biological sex, mating intelligence, narcissism, life history strategy, and operational sex ratio.
    • Evolutionary mismatch and online dating

      Chapleau, David (2015-09)
      This study aimed to identify how individuals advertised themselves to socially familiar and socially anonymous audiences using online dating profiles. It was demonstrated that when male participants advertized themselves to a socially anonymous audience they placed a much higher emphasis on traits and qualities related to status than either males advertizing themselves to a socially familiar audience or females advertising themselves to either a socially familiar or socially anonymous audience. Additionally, males emphasized their creativity and emotional awareness more so than females regardless of audience type. In contrast female participants showed a tendency to emphasize traits and qualities related to faithfulness much more prominently than male participants. This effect was exaggerated when female participants advertized themselves to a socially familiar audience. It was also shown that male participants who advertized themselves to an anonymous audience emphasized their physical fitness and attractiveness more so than any other group. Together these findings suggest that audience and gender have profound influence over self-presentation in terms of romantic courtship.
    • Examining gender salience in preschoolers through a category formation task

      Planke, Julie A. (2019-08)
      Ample evidence exists suggesting children as young as 2-years-old can successfully classify colors, various objects, and people into stereotypical male and female categories. However, it is unknown if gender categories are perceived as important and meaningful. While children have sufficient gender knowledge to categorize by gender, do they in fact perceive their environments through a gendered lens? In order to investigate gender salience, a category formation, or free-sorting, methodology was developed using highly gender-typed toys. The central focus of this thesis was to examine the usefulness of the free-sorting task as a measure of conceptual categorization abilities and gender salience (i.e., how gender schematic a child is). Additionally, measures of gender constancy and gender-related beliefs were expected to shed light on children’s sorting behaviors. In Study 1, 44 adult participants (6 males, 38 females) completed the task as well as gender-related dispositional measures to assure the validity of the toy stimuli. Preschool-aged participants were then recruited from local preschool centers and included 12 children (7 males, 5 females) ranging in age from 3 to 5 years (M = 57.17 months, SD = 5.47 months). Results of the free-sorting task revealed preschool-age children are able to utilize conceptual categorizes while sorting. Moreover, through spontaneously sorting the toys by gender, the majority (2/3) of children demonstrated that gender was indeed salient while viewing the stimulus set. These findings begin to elucidate the individual variability in the perceived importance and social awareness of gender as a social category in early childhood development.
    • Examining the relationship between music skills and reading skills

      Arco, Nicole M. (2019-05)
      Word recognition in English has the flexibility to be processed at the lexical level (i.e., whole word) or at the sub-lexical level (e.g., focusing on phonological subunits). With this flexibility, recent research suggests that there are individual differences in reading style that rely more on lexical or sub-lexical processing. However, it is still under investigation as to what contributes to these individual differences or what the differences mean for overall reading procedures. The current study examined musical training as a potential correlate of individual differences in reading style. It is well documented that music, language, and reading share similar cognitive processes, and there is evidence that individuals who have musical training background have better reading outcomes. However, there are still gaps in understanding differences in how musicians process words compared to nonmusicians. In this study, measures of subskills in music and reading were collected, in addition to carrying out tasks that tap into correlates of reading style. Results suggest that while there were no differences in word identification, there was some evidence that musicians have better phonological awareness compared to nonmusicians. Furthermore, results suggest that this enhanced skill could be linked to experience with fine-grain timing required in musical training. Taken together, findings suggest that musical training may indeed be related to improved phonological awareness, but that does not necessarily translate to better word reading, per se.
    • The experience of music therapists working with clients with schizophrenia

      Earl, Brittany (2020-05)
      The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experience of music therapists who work with clients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The main focus of this study was the music therapists’ perceptions of how music therapy impacted these clients. The data was collected through individual, semi-structured interviews that occurred in person and via telephone conversations. The participants were four board-certified music therapists who worked with this population within the last five years. The interviews were coded and analyzed, revealing two overarching categories and four themes. The first category was The Perceived Impact of Music Therapy on Clients. This category contained the themes: Growth Reported by Music Therapists a nd Growth Reported by Clients . The second category was Experiences in Music Therapy . This category contained the themes: Personal Experiences of Music Therapists and Perceptions of Client Experiences . All four participants reported that their clients have experienced growth as a result of music therapy. These reports were from the perspectives of the participants, as well as the perspectives of their clients. The participants described that their overall experience in working with this population was enjoyable, and that their clients seemed to have positive experiences in music therapy.
    • Experiential time : the special world of music therapy composition

      Olsher, Dean (2015)
      Paul Nordoff challenged music therapists to compose original clinical music informed by works of master composers such as Mozart, Schumann, and Debussy. Nordoff’s understanding of idioms was derived from Rudolf Steiner's anthroposophical conception of musical archetypes. The notion of idiom as musical archetype is reframed here according to a cultural rather than mystical framework, to appeal more widely to music therapists of all orientations. This cultural worldview allows the identification of a new clinical idiom based on the gentle jazz piano style associated with children that emerged in American popular culture during the 1960s. Original compositions by the present author were created following Nordoff's process of absorbing music of the past. The new works are modeled on an updated canon of 20th-century American composers including Joplin, Copland, Evans, Guaraldi, Newman, and Waits. The emotional and psychological effects of various compositional procedures--including reharmonization, contrafact, the characteristic piece (Charakterstück), and musical recombination--are analyzed. A case report recounts in detail the creation of a therapeutic song in a clinical setting.
    • Exploring the effects of music therapists working with survivors of sexual trauma

      Greco, Caroline E. (2020-05)
      The purpose of this study is to gain a greater understanding of the experiences of music therapists working with survivors of sexual trauma, and the potential secondary traumatic stress (STS), vicarious trauma (VT), burnout, and/or vicarious resilience (VR) that may arise. Three board-certified music therapists (MT-BC) currently working with survivors of sexual trauma were interviewed to gain an understanding of clinicians’ experiences working with this population, and if/how explored phenomena are experienced within their work. Interviews were coded using In Vivo Coding and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Implications of the results for clinical practice and future direction of music therapy research are discussed. Keywords: music therapy, sexual trauma, secondary traumatic stress, vicarious trauma, burnout, vicarious resilience.
    • Exploring the journey of nontraditional students in the music therapy field: a phenomenological inquiry

      McNally, Sean (2022-05)
      My journey to the field of music therapy was one I initially thought was a random amalgamation of events completely unique to me. I earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in film/video and upon graduation, decided I did not want to pursue a career in the film industry. I shifted to playing music at a professional level. After some time, I began losing passion for the type of late-night work I was doing. I felt an interest in special education after having had some experience lifeguarding for a Special Olympics program in high school. At the suggestion of a friend, I decided to take a daytime job as a teaching assistant at a school for students with developmental delays. During this employment, I was deeply moved to witness the work of music therapists. The social and emotional connections students would achieve in music were moments I viewed as profoundly meaningful. These experiences informed my decision to go to graduate school to pursue a career I found deeply meaningful and fulfilling.
    • Exploring The Relationship Between Oral and Orthographic Skills in Deaf Individuals

      Huie, Molly K. (2010-03-18)
      This study examines the relationship between speech production skills and orthographic skills in deaf readers using behavioral indices of word form processing. The Reicher- Wheeler forced-choiced paradigm was used to measure the word and pseudoword superiority effects, which are considered to be measures of familiarity with specific words in a language and familiarity with the orthographic rules of a language, respectively. Eleven deaf individuals took part in this study. Participants completed a background questionnaire, the Reicher-Wheeler task, a pronunciation task and several other measures of phonological and orthographic awareness. The scores from these tasks were correlated in order to determine the degree of relationship that exists between oral and orthographic systems. Results indicate that a well developed speech production system is not necessary for the development of a sophisticated orthographic system. Implications for reading education of deaf individuals are discussed.
    • Factor structure of OCD: toward an evolutionary neuro-cognitive model of obsessive-compulsive disorder

      Glass, Daniel (2012-06-28)
      Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disorder characterized by its clinical heterogeneity, but also a commonality of symptom clusters that are known as “symptom dimensions.” Previous research among clinical samples using factor analysis has shown that the symptom-structure of OCD falls into four or five of these dimensions. The symptom dimensions can be conceptualized as representing impairment in several discrete brain systems which may meet the criteria for evolved mental “modules.” The current study uses confirmatory factor analysis in a community sample to test several competing models of OCD-like symptoms. These symptoms are discussed from the perspective of adaptive mental modules, and normal functions of OCD-like thoughts and behaviors are discussed. The four-factor model of OCD symptoms proposed in previous research was supported relative to competing one and five-factor models, and a positive correlation between OCD-like symptoms and mating success is demonstrated. Implications are discussed for the understanding and treatment of OCD, as well as our understanding of the brain’s evolved cognitive structure and organization during normal functioning.
    • Factors influencing career longevity of music therapists

      Doxsee, Lauren E. (2020-05)
      This survey study examined the factors that experienced music therapists identified as important in maintaining their careers in music therapy. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into how these music therapists combat burnout and stress to remain practicing in the field for 10 years or longer. Previous studies on burnout and career longevity have focused on whether music therapists have burnout, causes or factors leading to burnout and possible shortened careers, and the length of average careers in music therapy. The survey was sent out to 3,421 board-certified music therapists who were selected for longevity in the profession, 10 years or longer. There were a total of 439 responses with 11 responses meeting the requirements for participation. The survey results indicated that time off of work, exercise, and music are the main methods of self-care utilized by experienced professionals. Respondents also indicated that low salary, self-assessed burnout, and a perception of limited job opportunities were the main factors that could have led practitioners to consider leaving the field.
    • Factors influencing music therapists to join, or not join, the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA)

      Peterson, Sarah (2020-05)
      The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) is the membership organization for music therapists that strives to develop and support the music therapy profession. Professional membership in the AMTA has been declining in recent years, though the number of credentialed music therapists is increasing. The objective of this research study was to determine what factors influence music therapists to join, or not join, the AMTA. The survey consisted of close and open- ended questions to gather the demographics of participants; the factors that influenced their decision to purchase, or not purchase membership; how participants view the benefits that membership in AMTA provides; and what participants want to see AMTA accomplish to increase membership. Out of the 7,958 music therapists that were eligible to participate, 1,262 completed the survey. Current members, and individuals planning on renewing in 2020 accounted for 49.88% of the sample; former members accounted for 43.38% of the sample; and respondents who have never been members of AMTA accounted for 6.74% of the sample. Receiving member benefits was the most common factor that influenced membership for current members, individuals renewing, and former members. Former members and respondents who have never been members cited the cost of membership, the lack of cost-benefit, and the perceived lack of benefits as factors for not renewing, or not purchasing membership.
    • Factors influencing parental investment : does parental financial allocation vary as a function of perceived child sexual orientation?

      Trouton, Grant Thomas (2013-06-26)
      An evolutionary perspective on parental investment suggests that natural selection might have favored mechanisms by which parents can evaluate the likelihood of a given offspring’s chances of successful reproduction. Adopting such a perspective, an online survey-based monetary allocation task was employed to test the hypothesis that parental investment was positively related to likelihood of offspring heterosexuality, such that vignettes describing heterosexual offspring would receive more money than vignettes describing homosexual offspring. Results did not support this hypothesis, as investment in offspring was unrelated to perceived offspring sexual orientation. However, exploratory analyses revealed that increasingly negative attitudes towards lesbians and gays predicted decreased investment in offspring. Such findings could serve to embolden civil rights activists in their struggle for increased LGBT social rights. Future research in this area would benefit from correlational research examining real familial relationships and investment patterns, rather than experimentally simulated relationships, to increase the external validity of findings and to reduce social desirability bias.
    • Family-centered music therapy in the hospitalization treatment of children: a systematic review

      Simpson-Abrams, Eva C. (2018-05)
      A family-centered approach is becoming more widely used in the treatment of hospitalized children. In general, the involvement of the family is becoming more of a focus during the treatment process in music therapy. Medical music therapy research has grown that examines the benefits of using music therapy in medical settings. However, there are few studies that examine the individual perspectives of children and parents experiencing hospitalization, and how family-centered music therapy addresses these specific, expressed needs. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the needs of parents and children in order to support the use of family-centered music therapy care in children’s hospitals and to further family-centered music therapy research. Thorough database searches were used to gather data for this review, which was then synthesized in order to create common themes. These themes reflect how researchers should approach future endeavors to understand the hospitalization experience and how family-centered music therapy studies should be conducted.
    • Feasibility of solar panel production using renewables

      Mazzurco, Anthony (2021-12)
      The purpose of this paper is to cover a range of topics related to the current energy issue that we have at hand. It will cover the foundation of our main energy sources, if we have reached peak oil, energy economics in relation to renewable energy, the rate of consumption of energy, other bi-products of oil that we use in everyday life, and the feasibility of producing solar panels from a completely renewable energy power plant. When most people think of oil, they do not consider that it is our main source of energy that drives society. There are other energy sources that we use that include coal, other forms of oil like substances such as biodiesel, ethanol corn, and renewable energy. In the past twenty years, the growth in solar and wind technologies has grown rapidly. In order to use less fossil fuels, there has also been an increase in electric vehicles. The movement towards solar, wind, and electric vehicles may sound like a viable solution, but the embodied energy in these technologies is not emphasized enough on the engineering side. In energy economics there is a term called Energy Returned On Energy Invested (EROEI, or EROI). This field of economics focuses on the amount of energy it takes to produce an energy source, and what that energy output is in relation to production. While looking into the EROEI for the more popular energy alternatives, it can be seen that solar and wind have various values of return. EROI should also be considered with electric vehicles, but there are many other variables to be considered. We are now realizing that peak oil production will be an issue, so alternative energy and transportation technologies are being focused on. One of the issues is if we use certain types of elements for these fossil fuel alternatives, we will eventually exhaust those resources as well. That being said, we should reconsider better alternatives, and reduce wasteful resource industries.
    • Financial perspectives of emerging adults : similarities and differences between gen-zeds and millennials

      Berg, Hunter J. (2020-05)
      Emerging adults (individuals ages 18-24) today are struggling with finance. In fact, financial factors make up four of the top five stressors of college students today (Sinha et al., 2018) while, at the same time, much research has shown these populations lack the financial skills necessary to make even the most basic financial decisions (Serido & Deenanath, 2016; Shim, Serido, Bosch, & Tang, 2013; Terriquez & Gurantz, 2014). The problem does not seem to be related to a lack of resources, as there are currently more tools to help one improve financial literacy than ever before (Sinha, Tan, & Zhan, 2018). Perhaps roots of the problem stem from development. In 2011, Gudmonson and Danes founded a theory of financial socialization, claiming that financial development stems primarily from implicit and explicit lessons provided by one’s parents or guardians. This study dives into the financial perspectives of Millennials and Generation Z, attempting to cypher out commonalities and differences in financial development, knowledge, value, and anxiety between and within the generations. Major findings include differences between financial perspectives based on gender, social class, and political orientation. Adding to Gudmonson and Danes’ (2011) financial socialization theory, major differences were found in financial literacy and anxiety based on sibling birth order. These results suggest that siblings may directly or indirectly affect one’s financial socialization by influencing or supplementing parents’ explicit and implicit financial lessons. The study concludes with ideas for future research.
    • Finding connections : a case study emphasizing therapuetuic relationship through the lens of relational music therapy

      Artus, Nicole (2017-10)
      This case study examines music therapy with Emily, a young adult female with developmental delays from a relational, intersubjective perspective. Emily’s therapy occurred while I was an intern at a holistic, integrative, residential treatment and education center for adults and children with significant intellectual disabilities, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and multiple disabilities. Six music therapy sessions are described in detail, examining the role that our therapeutic and musical relationship had in optimizing Emily’s clinical goals. The purpose of presenting this case study is to investigate how the core components of humanistic and relational theory, such as vitality (Stern, 2010), unconditional positive regard and empathy (Rogers & Stanford, 1984), intersubjectivity (Trondalen, 2016), relationship based approach (Greenspan & Wieder, 2003), and musicality (Nordoff & Robbins, 1992) impacted Emily’s treatment.
    • Flipped classrooms : advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of a practicing art teacher

      Rivera, Vanessa M. (2016-12)
      The following case study investigates the advantages and disadvantages perceived by a practicing art teacher who has used the “flipped classroom” method. Flipping the classroom is the practice of providing online lectures which students can watch from home as a way to replace lecturing in the classroom. Ideally this practice allows more class time to be dedicated to active learning rather than instruction (Bergmann & Sams, 2014). Proponents of the flipped classroom method believe that it provides many benefits including improvements in classroom efficiency and student engagement; others argue that it is difficult to implement and that unequal access to technological resources disadvantages certain populations (Smith, 2016; Tomlinson, 2015). Despite limitations which restricted the participant to a partially flipped classroom the data was interpreted as generally supportive of flipping. This case study suggests that the advantages of flipped classroom practices outweigh potential disadvantages. It also suggests that issues concerning student access to technology can be successfully mitigated through the use of a partially flipped classroom. In the future a comprehensive study of art teachers who work with different demographics could be conducted to include a wider range of opinions.
    • For weightlessness: a portfolio

      Apuzzo, Alexandra (2021-12)
      Tell me how it feels to be light and have so much time. I know only heaviness. I know only not enough. Not enough time and too few words. I am being crushed. I am being That was what I found in my mother’s notebook after her suicide. I won’t call it a letter – it wasn’t addressed to anyone; it wasn’t signed. She didn’t even finish it. But still I ripped the page out and kept it. It’s in my desk drawer and before I go to bed, I read it; try to read between the lines, to understand. But I can’t even imagine her saying the words. Tell me how it feels to be light.
    • Friends, love, & tinder: an investigation of the effect of auditory social stimulation on sexual and romantic attraction toward potential mates

      Holler, Richard H (2017-07)
      Humans are social apes that adapted to social networks that were no larger than approximately 150 individuals (Dunbar, 1993). Today, the computer and internet provide humans the means to communicate with virtually anyone across the planet. To explore if using online social venues (e.g., tinder) versus physically attending social venues, such as a popular restaurant, facilitate sexual and romantic attraction toward others, participants were exposed to an auditory stimulus while evaluating 10 images of attractive target mates on 3 dependent measures: interest to have sex with target mates (sex-interest), interest to date target mates (date-interest), and sexual attractiveness of target mates. Of the 3 auditory stimuli--social stimulation (ambient sounds of a restaurant), controlled stimulation (sounds of flowing water), and no stimulation (silence)--sounds of flowing water, compared to silence, produced significantly higher date-interest ratings, t(60) = 2.00, p = .05, d = .51 and, marginally, significantly higher sex-interest ratings, t(57) = 2.00, p = .051, d = .52. Average spent hours per day using a computer significantly predicted date-interest and sex-interest among women and men, respectively. Additionally, the Asexual Identification Scale (AIS; Yule, Brotto, & Gorzalka, 2015) was applied to plot participants along the asexual spectrum. AIS scores significantly predicted (1) sex-interest, but only among men, and (2) date-interest, but only among women.