• A Quantitative Study of Nonstructural Carbodyrates in Eastern Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, and the effects of hemlock woolly adelgid, adelgis tsugae, and elongate hemlock scale, florinia externa ferris, infestation

      Schwartzberg, Lora (2010-07-28)
      Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), starch and sugars, in eastern hemlock infested and not infested with hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) and elongate hemlock scale (EHS) were analyzed. The use of microwave dried and Wiley milled tissue samples is a superior method for determining NSC content than processing fresh samples of eastern hemlock (roughly 76% higher results than fresh samples). However, the microwave dried and Wiley milled samples should not be stored at room temperature for later enzymatic processing. Spatial patterns studied showed no statistically significant differences in NSC of twigs based on cardinal direction and location in the tree canopy, but there were statistically significantly differences among individual trees within the sample group. Twigs from Tsuga chinensis, a HWA resistant species, had a different NSC content from T. canadensis, with statistically significantly lower sugar and starch contents, when compared after budbreak. The starch in the needles contributes the highest percentage towards the total NSC, and the starch in the twigs contributes the least. The starch had more variation (year of growth or infestation) than sugar, signifying starch may break down for translocation more frequently than previously thought, serving a multitude of functions besides nutrient storage. Quantitatively, HWA infestation alters the NSC content of eastern hemlock, in certain tissues of particular ages and at specific times in a season. The greatest statistically significant differences (all higher) in sugars and starch content caused by HWA feeding are found in the previous year’s growth, for sugars in both twigs and IV needles, and starch in twigs only. However, NSC was affected more by the time (season) of collection and between the years of growth (new growth versus the previous year’s growth) than by HWA infestation. A preliminary test for detecting the presence of a bacteria or virus was undertaken by inserting ground HWA into insect-free seedlings of T. canadensis. After one year, the sample group of inoculated with ground HWA showed no difference in health than another inoculated with deionized water. The NSC of the previous year’s growth needles from EHS infested branches with new growth are not significantly different than without new growth. On the previous year’s growth, EHS infested needles differ from HWA infested needles, with EHS infested needles having statistically significant higher free sugars and lower starch. The EHS infested needles (presumable fed upon by a sugar feeder) had statistically significantly higher sugars, just as the HWA infested twigs (presumable fed upon by a starch feeder) had statistically significantly higher starch. My data suggests that overall, the changes in NSC content caused by HWA feeding alone does not seem sufficient to be responsible for the decline and mortality of eastern hemlock.
    • Raise your voice : experiences of silent students in the classroom

      Moss, Alessandra F. (2020-05)
      Class participation may be an important part of students’ learning process, but many students remain silent in college classrooms. This study was a qualitative inductive inquiry exploring the classroom experiences of students who rarely participate in class. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were analyzed using coding methods adapted from grounded theory to gain insight into students’ opinions about class participation, their class participation habits, and beliefs about knowledge in general. Primary themes that emerged were wanting to avoid being wrong and experiencing anxiety, nervousness, or related physical symptoms as reasons not to participate. Students also articulated mostly engaging in low stakes participation, when the risk of being wrong was minimal, primarily when they felt prepared to answer correctly. A variety of beliefs about knowledge were articulated, including, knowledge comes from external authority, and knowledge comes from scientific research, evidence, replication, and consistency. No strong connections were found between beliefs about knowledge and class participation habits. Practical implications for educators and future directions are discussed.
    • Raspberry pi embedded operating system and runtime

      Perry, James J. (2016-05)
      This thesis explores the creation of a small footprint, high-performance Embedded Operating System (EOS) for the Raspberry Pi (RPi). Using a customization approach, the image is configures to include only required functions and omits nonessential functions. The result preserves available memory and storage for use during runtime of an embedded solution. As part of this process, the thesis leverages the resulting runtime environment to provide complex functions (i.e. inter process messaging and GPIO support) that run atomically (noninterruptible).
    • Reading the suprasensual in Leo Tolstoy's Anna Karenina: a thesis in eight parts

      Short, Nicole (2022-08)
      Throughout the text of Anna Karenina, there is a means of experience that is suprasensual, repeated moments in the text that seemed to me to deviate from Tolstoy’s apparently slavish devotion to writing objective, observable reality, departing from what can be represented concretely via the five senses. I wrote a small paper arguing that Tolstoy’s novel represented a reality that was shaped and created by human emotion, in a modernist way, and as such, the strength of Anna’s and Levin’s emotion could explain the supernatural bits of reality created around them. This thesis was sound and generally well argued, but in the years that followed the completion of that paper, I couldn’t shake my curiosity about the peasant dream; there was much more to be said, much more to incorporate and to grapple with in terms of that peasant dream, of Kitty and Levin’s wordless communication, of Anna and Levin’s ability to sense sans senses.
    • Recall disruption produced by noise-vocoded speech: a study of the irrelevant sound effect

      Dorsi, Josh (2013-11-11)
      The Irrelevant Sound Effect (ISE) is the finding that serial recall performance is impaired under complex auditory backgrounds such as speech as compared to white noise or silence (Colle & Welsh, 1976). Much of the current research investigates the role of changing-state complexity of the background stimuli in ISE (e.g., Jones & Macken, 1993). This study investigated whether speech-specific qualities of the irrelevant background have an effect on the ISE. This was done using noise-vocoded speech, an acoustic transformation that removes many of the acoustic properties of speech while preserving the speech intensity profile. Experiment 1 compared serial recall accuracy resulting from white noise and noise-vocoded speech backgrounds and found that noisevocoded speech is more disruptive. Noise-vocoded speech preserves the intensity profile of nature speech with a number of amplitude channels; each channel matches the average intensity for the corresponding channel in natural speech. Experiment 2 systematically varied the resolution of noise-vocoded speech by adjusting the number of these channels. These results show that ISE varies based on the number of channels in noise-vocoded speech, but this change in disruption is not consistent across channel conditions. Results demonstrate that changing state complexity alone is not a sufficient explanation of ISE.
    • The relationship between achievement goals and the academic success of first-generation college students

      Perry, Andrew Holmes (2018-06)
      Recent research has established that first-generation college students, or those students without a parent with a four-year college degree, tend to underperform academically compared to continuing-generation college students, or those with at least one parent with a four-year college degree. The current study was undertaken to attempt to explain this discrepancy, known as the social class achievement gap, through the use of achievement goal theory. A survey of 351 undergraduates was conducted with students reporting their generational status and their adoption of three achievement goals. Their first-semester GPA was later acquired. It was expected that generational status would predict achievement goal adoption, that achievement goal adoption would predict academic performance, and that goal adoption would mediate the relationship between generational status and academic performance. Results did not support these hypotheses. Potential explanations for the null effects and implications of these findings for the social class achievement gap literature are discussed.
    • Resistance in music therapy

      Williams, Kimberly (2018-05)
      This study explores music therapists’ experiences of resistance in therapy. Resistance has been defined as the direct or indirect oppositional behavior of a client due to possible reluctance to change (Newman, 2012). Though resistance has a long history being described in psychoanalytic literature, little is known about its role in music therapy outside of music psychotherapy. This study asked the following research questions: How do music therapists experience resistance in music therapy? In addition, this paper explored how music therapists utilize resistance to help people in music therapy. Eight board-certified music therapists (MT-BC) with various backgrounds of experience were interviewed to gain an understanding of clinicians experiences with resistance and how it manifests in music therapy. Interviews were transcribed and coded using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Data analysis revealed nine specific themes which were categorized under three general sections - (1) Managing Resistance included three themes: building rapport, acceptance/encouragement, and consistency - (2) The Role of Music included three themes: music for expression, music for connection, and music to match and - (3) Clinicians’ Reactions included three themes: personal thoughts, questioning ability, and perspective. Implications of the study, including the benefits and limitations of resistance for clinical practice are discussed.
    • The role of culture, attachment style, and parenting style in predicting estrangements

      Patel, Jenny (2022-05)
      Social estrangements have negative effects on people's emotion and social lives (Geher et al 2019). The current research is designed to shed light on this general issue to help us better understand the predictors of estrangements. Participants of at least 18 years in age were surveyed in both the United States and in India. A Qualtrics survey was used to collect data from participants. It measured their attachment styles, perception of their parents' parenting styles, cultural orientation, and estrangement history. To obtain the sample, recruitment methods included advertising the Qualtrics survey link on social media, SUNY New Paltz Psychology Subject Pool, and MTurk. A total of 434 (India = 119, US = 315) participants took part (M = 25.82, SD= 8.073). Results are in line with the hypotheses. Although culture is not significantly con-elated with estrangements in this study, there are cultural differences in the number of estrangements one has. Estrangements are negatively con-elated with Authoritative Parenting style, positively correlated with Authoritarian Parenting style, positively correlated with Ambivalent Attachment style, and negatively correlated with Secure Attachment style. Based on these results, the current research concludes that culture, parenting styles, and attachment styles are predictors of estrangements. Implications of this research and future directions are discussed.
    • The role of personal music therapy for music therapists

      Wanamaker, Cara (2019-08)
      The purpose of this paper is to examine whether or not music therapists engage in music therapy as personal therapy. A 32-question survey was electronically distributed to board-certified music therapists (MT-BC) who were working full-time, part-time, or per diem in the United States. Potential study participants were located through the Certification Board for Music Therapists (CBMT) database and contacted by the researcher. Of 177 participants, 55 (31.08%) have utilized music therapy as personal therapy. Music therapists have engaged in music therapy to explore personal issues, receive support, and strengthen professional competencies. For the 122 participants (68.92%) who have never engaged in music therapy as personal therapy, time, finances, engagement in other forms of therapy, and dual relationships within the music therapy profession were leading contributors that deterred music therapists from engaging in personal music therapy. Though a handful of participants believe music therapy is not beneficial for everyone, 95.15% of participants recommended that music therapists receive some sort of therapy. Results of this survey indicate that only a small percentage of music therapists are engaging in music therapy as personal therapy.
    • Self-Promotion and Gender in the Work Place

      Waterous, Kathleen (2010-03-18)
      Gender role attitudes are blamed for problems women have self-promoting in the workplace. This study examines the differences in the perceptions between men and women on self-promotion. It was expected that men would find it easier and more comfortable than women. Forty-five participants, twenty-three women and twenty-two men were interviewed in a survey that contained close-ended and open-ended items. The survey was designed to assess themes surrounding what would prompt a person to use self-promotion and their relative comfort in doing so. Findings of the study did not support the expectation that men would find it easier and more comfortable. For the majority of the survey, women reported being able to self-promote as easily as men. When asked what they thought self-promotion was, women and men differed in their definitions. Men tended to use a direct style highlighting and showcasing what they were currently doing to obtain benefits while women tended to perceive self-promotion with an inward slant. The women felt that self-promotion was bettering themselves and gaining more confidence. The results overall were not consistent with gender role expectancies for women and men, yet the qualitative results indicate some interesting avenues for future investigations.
    • Significant music events in the lives of music therapy graduate students and new professionals

      Courter, Alyssa R.; Ryan, Kristin (2018-12)
      This is a phenomenological study of the significant music events (SMEs) in the lives of music therapy graduate students and new professionals. Four participants were chosen using purposive sampling, and interviewed about their experiences in music that have been significant to them in their lives. Data were analyzed using qualitative hand coding and thematic analysis as outlined by Rubin (1995) and Saldaña (2013). The researchers conducted a self-inquiry prior to data collection, in addition to conducting ongoing self-inquiry through journaling and analytic memos. Codes were grouped into categories within each interview, and then categories were compared across interviews to develop major overarching themes. The four final major themes found were connection, elements of the music, identity, and engagement with multiple levels of being. Issues related to small sample size, researcher-participant relationship, and the role of two researchers are discussed.
    • Social facilitators of and barriers to community college transfer student success

      Fennimore, Lauren (2019-05)
      Students who transfer to four-year institutions from community colleges often encounter difficulty within their classes post-transfer and tend to graduate at lower rates than their peers who began at four-year institutions as freshman (Bailey, Jenkins, & Leinbach, 2005; Jenkins & Fink, 2016). Reasons for these lowered rates of success have been explored, but have often focused on academic reasons while neglecting any possible social causes. The current review aimed to explore what is known about the impact of social factors, such as belongingness, on community college transfer students' rates of persistence and academic success at four-year institutions. The literature was searched in a systematic way using a three-part search strategy, through which 21 articles were deemed eligible to be included and further evaluated. Several social factors emerged, including sense of belonging, the stereotype of a community college transfer student, and additional considerations for student success as well as social support from family, peers, faculty, and advisors. Most students reported the social factors identified to play a role in their success at the four-year institution. The findings from each theme are presented and future directions for research and programs to be used to address those factors mentioned are suggested.
    • Sound body, sound mind: a music therapy program proposal for Monte Nido Eating Disorder Treatment Center

      Wallace, Jenna (2021-05)
      The following is a proposal for the addition of a music therapy program for the partial hospitalization program at Monte Nido Eating Disorder Center in Manhattan, New York. Eating disorders can have a devastating impact on a person’s mental, physical, and emotional health. This proposal explains the benefits of implementing a music therapy program for clients recovering from eating disorders. The addition of a music therapy program can allow for new opportunities for clients to express their needs, form an identity beyond their eating disorder, relieve symptoms associated with their eating disorders, and explore their emotions in a creative outlet. This proposal outlines the clinical needs of clients with eating disorders, what services would be provided, treatment methodologies, budgetary concerns, documentation, and projected outcomes. The objective of this proposal is to explore and present the benefits music therapy can provide for clients with eating disorders. The inclusion of a music therapy program will provide further support of Monte Nido’s commitment to quality of care and attention to the benefits of an interdisciplinary team.
    • Sounds of strength towards recovery: a program proposal for inpatient psychiatric care

      Bouissou, Gabrielle (2018-05)
      "Sounds of Strength Towards Recovery would allow for an additional step towards comprehensive psychiatric care. As cited previously, the literature points towards the efficacy of the music therapy modality as part of treatment for psychiatric inpatients. Besides standard documentation through developing assessments and documenting individual and group sessions, music therapy would be part of the team dialogue about treatment goals for patients. A holistic approach to care recognizes the patient beyond the diagnosis. Music therapy, specifically engagement in services offered through Sounds of Strength Towards Recovery, can contribute to painting the entire picture of who a patient is. Thorough documentation of progress in individual and group music therapy sessions will allow for tracking of individual outcomes." -- pages 34-35
    • “The Source of Our Power”: female heroes and restorative collaboration in contemporary television

      Pepe, Sarah (2017-05)
      Back in the 1940's Wonder Woman stood alone as a symbol of female strength, but now, in the 21st century, our female heroes reflect the reality that women need each other's love and support--as well as that of men--in order to fight back against the forces which seek to oppress us. Strikingly, three out of four of the shows in this study contain at least one instance in which heroes share space in the same literal body in order to perform feats of strength and courage: Garnet is two souls occupying a single body; all the sensates have the ability to share thoughts silently and pilot one another's bodies; and in season 4 of Buffy, the Scoobies perform a spell which imbues Buffy herself with the strengths of all of her friends so they might collectively defeat Adam, that season's "big bad." Notably, Jessica Jones lacks this kind of example, but its themes of abuse and bodily and mental invasion preclude the possibility of this type of intimate space-sharing feeling safe.
    • Spritiuality as a coping mechanism for African-American college students facing bereavement

      Lewis, Nigel (2007-01-18)
      Research indicates that many African Americans rely on spirituality more than psychotherapy to deal with traumatic life experiences such as bereavement. This review explores the psychotherapeutic benefits of spirituality as a coping resource in the African American community. Justification for the use of spiritual-psychotherapy as a treatment methodology for bereaved African American college students is presented. Finally, ethical considerations for using spirituality when counseling with bereaved African American college students are posed.
    • Statistical verification techniques for stochastic dynamic systems

      Massoud, Mohammad (2015-12)
      Electronic chip design, aircraft stability, finance, economy and even our social life can be affected by random events. Noise is a random process that occurs due to unwanted signal interactions in electronic circuits and environmental phenomena such as thunder, manufacturing defects or thermal increment. Noise affects the performance of our design and will cause unpredictable results on the output of the system. Consequently, we need to model noise and analyze the system at its presence. Verifying the performance of a dynamic system in the presence of noise requires a highly complicated mathematical skills. There are different verification techniques that rely on impractically expensive techniques. Flight dynamics characterizes the response of an aircraft vehicle to its control inputs, gravitational forces, and perturbations and has to adhere to strict design and safety requirements. In this thesis, we are interested in modeling and verifying the stability of aircrafts such as F4 in presence of noise. In order to study the random behavior of noise, we propose an approach based on modeling the designs using stochastic differential equations (SDE) in the time domain. Furthermore, we propose a modeling and estimation methodology that allows us to capture the perturbation in the form of Stochastic Differential Equations for the statistical monitoring of the stability property. Finally, pattern matching and Monte Carlo based verification methods are used for qualitative estimation of the simulation traces.
    • Strong Roots music therapy program: a music therapy program proposal for Family Services, Inc.

      Brewer, Alexandra L. (2021-05)
      The Strong Roots Music Therapy Program will focus on providing exemplary group music therapy services to the Poughkeepsie City School District students that will address their individualized needs and interests. The music therapy groups will be designed to provide the students with opportunities to creatively express themselves and form bonds between their peers and their community. In addition to music therapy interventions, the Strong Roots Music Therapy Program will also provide students, staff, and family members with opportunities to become involved in musical experiences and performances for the community. This paper will discuss a proposal for a music therapy program at Family Services, Inc. in Poughkeepsie, NY.
    • Success will be the best revenge : revenge as motivation for goal pursuit

      Ciuffetelli, Ryan (2019-05)
      In much of the published literature, revenge and goal achievement are studied as disparate fields. The present study attempts to unify these two fields by investigating whether motivation to get revenge can spur goal achievement. University students (N = 130) were randomly assigned, in an online-survey format, to play an economic game with a fair or unfair partner. Previous study showed playing with an unfair partner, unlike playing with a fair partner, can lead to revenge motivation. Uniquely, rather than using real currency like most studies with economic games, valueless “virtual units” were used. Next, participants were offered the chance to compete against their economic game partner in completing anagrams, some of which were impossible. Then, revenge motivation, goal complex, and task enjoyment measures were collected. As expected, participants that played with an unfair partner were more likely to harbor feelings of revenge than those who played with a fair partner. However, counter to expectations, motivation to get revenge did not significantly predict perseverance on impossible anagrams. While these findings are unable to establish the hypothesized link between revenge motivation and goal achievement, they do show that virtual currencies can be used in economic games in some circumstances, opening up new avenues for future research.
    • The supernatural, the demonic, and witchcraft in early modern English plays : Macbeth, The Witch, The Witch of Edmonton, and Doctor Faustus

      Schojbert, Haley (2020-12)
      The Tragedy of Macbeth (1606) by William Shakespeare, The Witch (1616) by Thomas Middleton, The Witch of Edmonton (1621) written by William Rowley, Thomas Dekker, and John Ford, and Doctor Faustus (1589-1592) by Christopher Marlowe all contain different stage representations of the witch and the demonic. In this thesis, I aim to understand the cultural and social structures that enabled witchcraft accusations, not as a coordinated effort on behalf of the Church to kill women, but rather a progression of ideologies and religious beliefs regarding magic and how to maintain social hegemony. I aspire to challenge our modern tendency to explain witchcraft accusations as a conspiratorial result of patriarchal institutions attacking the bodies of women, and to frame these accusations as multi-faceted, organically growing phenomena that ensured small village communities adhered to a social order. While it is tempting to view representations of the witch through the lens of secular feminist resistance against patriarchy, it is important to reconstruct our readings of these works as being part of a theocratic society and as existing within a network of complex religious beliefs because these plays were originally seen by the credulous eyes of the early modern public.