• Music technology and music therapy practice: a survey of current practice with recommendations for future research

      Rothenberg, Elena (2021-08)
      The purpose of this study was to learn what technology is currently being used by music therapists. The data was collected via a one-time online survey. The participants were 153 board-certified music therapists who use technology within clinical practice. Survey results were analyzed, revealing that the most common type of technology reported among respondents was Interactive Apps on iPads (n = 93). Survey results discuss technology use with music therapy methods. iPad (n = 93) and electrical instruments (n = 51) were the most commonly used technology among respondents. Respondents reported using GarageBand the most across all four music therapy methods with 15.28% of respondents using GarageBand for improvisation, 16.67% using it for recreative methods, 65.38% using GarageBand to compose, while 2.78% use it for receptive methods. The need for inclusion of technology in music therapy education as well as recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • Music therapy as a tool for recovery : a program proposal for Mountainside Addiction Treatment Center

      Sastow, Tamara (2020-05)
      I am proposing a music therapy program for Mountainside Addiction Treatment Center (Mountainside), at their main campus by the foothills of the Berkshire mountain range in Canaan, Connecticut. The purpose of this paper is to educate and impart knowledge of music therapy, including potential benefits, how it can be applied to addiction treatment, and why a music therapy program should be integrated into the continuous supportive care of clients at Mountainside. Addiction is a life-changing disease that can have a significant impact on all aspects of a person’s health, including their physical, social, and emotional well-being. Music therapy is an effective form of supportive care for affected individuals throughout the treatment process, and can improve overall wellness and quality of life. This paper reviews some of the common wants and needs of this population, and how music therapy serves as a means for support and a medium for change.
    • Music therapy at the children's hospital of the king's daughters : a music therapy program for the pediatric hospital in Norfolk, VA

      Bowie, Rebecca (2019-05)
      This proposal is for a full-time music therapist position at the Children's Hospital of the King's Daughters (CHKD) in Norfolk, Virginia. There is a wide range of physical/medical, psychosocial, and cognitive goals that need to be addressed for children in the hospital environment, to treat them most effectively and efficiently. Music therapy can achieve many of these goals in a significantly effective and long-lasting way. It is also a cost-effective way to achieve these goals. By establishing a positive rapport with the patient, family, and medical staff, the music therapist provides treatment aimed at the overall improvement and health of the children and their families. The full-time music therapist will work both individually and in group settings, utilizing a variety of techniques, instruments, and skills to address these goals. The addition of music therapy at this hospital will benefit the patients, families, staff, and overall hospital environment.
    • Music therapy for older adults living with physical and cognitive impairment : a systematic review

      Li, Bichen (2019-05)
      Music therapy is considered as an effective intervention for older adults. However, there are few studies that summarize and evaluate the effect of music therapy intervention on older adults living with physical or cognitive impairment. Physical impairments include Parkinson's disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cognitive impairments include dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and mild cognitive impairments. The purpose of this systematic review was to explore the role of music therapy for older adults living with the mentioned physical and cognitive impairments. This includes examining common music therapy goals and activities, comparing the most effective music therapy activities; and summarize the effects of music therapy interventions. This systematic review was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Academic Search Complete. After searching from these three databases, 7 studies out of 166 studies met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that music therapy intervention has positive effects on physical and cognitive functioning of older adults.
    • Music therapy in the medical setting : a music therapy program proposal for the Mercy Medical Hospital

      Wong, Andrew (2020-05)
      This music therapy program proposal has been designed for implementation at the Mercy Medical Hospital in Rockville Centre, NY. Music therapy is a unique healthcare profession that utilizes music to assist individuals from all age groups improve their physical, emotional, social, communication, and cognitive functioning. This proposal will define music therapy, and delineate the research of the effectiveness of music therapy on the physical and emotional needs of medical patients. A proposed weekly schedule and details of music therapy sessions with descriptions of music therapy methods and their variations including materials, goals, and benefits are included. The financial implications of the program are detailed, including salary, equipment and other program expenses. The connections of music therapy and the mission of the facility are presented, as well as context for implementation of this music therapy program.
    • Music therapy in the NICU and pediatrics: a program proposal for Stony Brook Children’s Hospital

      Bie, Alexandra (2019-05)
      I am proposing a music therapy program for the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and pediatric/adolescent medicine unit at the newly built children’s hospital, Stony Brook Children’s Hospital, which will soon be open to the public, located on the Stony Brook University Hospital campus. I have witnessed the impact of music therapy enhance the lives of the young patients and their families at Stony Brook University Hospital throughout my internship on the pediatric unit. Currently, there is one board-certified music therapist in the hospital who predominantly works in adult psychiatry. It would be beneficial to hire a music therapist or eventually, a team of music therapists, to work specifically in pediatrics and the NICU. Fortunately, during my internship, I was trained to work with hospitalized children through guidance of the child life specialists, as well as with the infants in the NICU. As it stands, in a 603 bed hospital it is impossible for one music therapist to provide care to all of the patients and their families who might benefit. With the addition of a pediatric hospital to the Stony Brook University Hospital campus, it is essential that a music therapist, or music therapists, are hired to work specifically with the pediatric population.
    • Music therapy in the NICU and PICU : a program proposal for WakeMed Children’s Hospital

      Early, Kirstin A. (2020-05)
      This proposal is for a music therapy program for the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at WakeMed Children’s Hospital, located at the WakeMed Raleigh Campus in Raleigh, North Carolina. The children’s hospital treats a variety of medical issues including critical illnesses, injuries, automobile accident injuries, life-threatening childhood diseases, and respiratory and heart conditions. Music therapy is an evidence-based therapy that can not only effectively address treatment goals, but can offer comfort, joy, and a means of self-expression for patients and their families. A full-time music therapist can work with patients in individual and/or group settings using various methods and techniques to meet each patient’s individual goals and needs. Establishing a music therapy program at WakeMed Children’s Hospital would be beneficial for the care of infants, children, families, and their caretakers.
    • Music therapy program for older adults in Boryeong-Si, South Korea

      Kim, Cholong (2018-05)
      The purpose of this thesis is to implement a music therapy program to the Geriatric Rehabilitation Hospital in Boryeong-Si (BGRH), South Korea. BGRH is a long-term health institution devoted entirely to the surrounding community. This music therapy program is designed to have a positive impact on older adults receiving treatment at BGRH. As the older adult population steadily increases in South Korea, a growing concern is whether there are appropriate plans that improve health or battle illnesses associated with older age. In Boryeong-Si, the older adults population over 65 years old has been increasing 1% every year (Kim, 2018). This proposal investigates the views of a holistic music therapy approach and how the music therapy influences older adults at BGRH. The music therapy program is designed to help diverse symptoms in aging related psychological disorders, neurologic disorders, and will also improve the quality of life for older adults in Boryeong-Si. Music therapy interventions will examine and address the aging symptoms especially related to depression, dementia, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease in older adults.
    • A music therapy program proposal for pediatric palliative care in hospice

      Fini, Alexa Marie (2022-05)
      The purpose of this proposal is to provide a framework for Hudson Valley Hospice to add music therapy as a treatment option for the children and adolescents they serve. Pediatric palliative care is a rapidly expanding field in American healthcare (Hildenbrand et al., 2021 ). The majority of pediatric palliative care programs in the United States do not meet practice standards set forth by The American Academy of Pediatrics. This means current pediatric palliative care programs are not providing patients and families with 24-hour availability and staffing that includes physicians, nurses, social workers, and chaplains (Rogers et al., 2021). Additionally, the lack of clinical units, funding, and the field's ever-changing nature have a negative impact on pediatric palliative patients' and their families' care needs.
    • Music therapy program proposal for rehabilitation unit in Hong Kong Adventist Hospital

      Yu, Guo (2019-08)
      The purpose of this program proposal is to implement a music therapy program on the rehabilitation unit of Hong Kong Adventist Hospital (HKAH). HKAH is a healthcare institution that offers attentive care for the local community, expatriates in Hong Kong, and patients who are temporarily living or working in Hong Kong (HKAH, 2019). This music therapy program is designed to positively affect people who have acquired neurological damage and are receiving care and treatment at the HKAH rehabilitation unit. This program proposal presents various music therapy methods, and how these methods may help the rehabilitation population at HKAH.
    • Music therapy service delivery trends in special education settings in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States

      Myers, Amy L. (2020-05)
      This survey research sought to identify music therapy service delivery trends in special education settings in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States. A total of 25 individuals who oversee the provision of special education programming and services in public school districts in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia were included in this study. The majority of participants indicated that music therapy services are not being provided in their respective school districts. Inadequate funding, limited access to music therapists and their services, and a lack of awareness of music therapy were identified as factors that impact the provision of music therapy services in special education settings within the Mid- Atlantic Region. The findings of this study point to an overall need for increased advocacy for music therapy services in special education settings at the client/family level, the community level, the school district administrative level, the state level, and the federal level. Further research in each state would provide a clearer picture of these trends and would be beneficial in guiding music therapists, district administrators, and clients/families who are seeking music therapy services.
    • Music therapy with Chinese elderly immigrant patients with dementia in the United States : recommendations for clinical practice

      Liu, Ke (2019-12)
      There are a large number of Chinese elderly immigrant patients (CEIP) living in the United States. It is increasingly likely that music therapists will have opportunities to work with members of the Chinese immigrant community. Thus, more research is needed to understand the experiences of elderly Chinese immigrant patients and investigate culturally appropriate ways to work with this population. Music therapy research with Chinese elderly immigrant patients should include an awareness of clinicians’ biases toward Chinese people and Chinese culture, knowledge about Chinese culture, and the use of Chinese music in therapy. With an attitude of openness, flexibility, sincerity, and a willingness to learn, American music therapists will be able to acquire the skills and experiences to be effective and helping patients from a wide variety of countries, cultures, backgrounds, and needs. It was my goal to explore the best ways to work with CEIP with dementia, based on my own understanding of Chinese culture and literature about Chinese elderly immigrants. I hope the information gained from my experiences can provide a different perspective for music therapists who working with CEIP with dementia or those associated with Chinese patients, and also lead to increase research efforts with this population.
    • Musical aptitude and emotional intelligence

      Gleason, Morgan E. (2014-12)
      Prior literature has demonstrated a strong link between musical ability and trait emotional intelligence (Juslin & Laukka, 2003; Juslin & Sloboda, 2001; Lima & Castro, 2011; Trimmer & Cuddy, 2008).The current study seeks to expand on this by including variability in quality of music production as a predictor variable and employing comprehensive measures of emotional intelligence. Past literature has operationally defined musical ability as either duration of musical training or self-reported musicianship (Bigand, Vieillard, Madurell, Marozeau & Dacquet, 2005; Resnicow & Salovey & Repp, 2004;Trimmer & Cuddy, 2008). Moreover, prior studies have measured emotional intelligence by assessing participants' ability to identify inflection in speech or valence of musical pieces (Lima & Castro, 2011; Juslin & Lukka, 2003; Juslin & Laukka, 2003; Juslin & Sloboda, 2001; Trimmer & Cuddy, 2008). This study seeks to expand on these findings by identifying a potential mediating effect of musical ability on the moderating effect of musical training on emotional intelligence. We propose that although musical ability enhances emotional intelligence, this relationship is a function of ability rather than the result of mere training. In order to examine how musical ability informs emotional intelligence. Participants will create original compositions that will later be appraised by knowledgeable musicians. We will utilize both text-based and an ability-based measures to asses trait emotional intelligence. Participants’ musical perception abilities and personality traits also be assessed. Primarily, we expect to find that musical ability, (i.e. the quality of music produced) will mediate the effect of training on emotional intelligence. We propose that musical ability will be a stronger predictor than duration of training on emotional intelligence. The study of music and emotion has been fraught with controversy. Scholars from differing paradigms disagree about the ultimate purpose of musical expression, and on its potential to influence the human emotional state. For instance, numerous studies challenge whether music can induce “genuine” or “every day” emotions (Noy, 1993; Scherer, 2003). Others maintain that music serves no obvious adaptive function in humans (Huron, 2001; Pinker, 1997) and that this “auditory cheesecake” arose accidentally as a byproduct of other processes that is “merely meant to tickle…our mental faculties” (Pinker, 1997, p. 534). Although this perspective seems extreme, postulating as to the bygone purpose of music is somewhat problematic. After all, evolutionary traits change over time (Reeve & Sherman, 1993), making it difficult to find convincing evidence as to the adaptive role music served. One common explanation points to “cross-modal similarities” between music and language and indicates they evolved from common origin (Brown, 2000). Although this explanation is controversial, there is evidence that musical representation could generate emotive expression because of similarities shared with vocal patterns found in speech (Thompson, Shallenberg & Husain, 2001). Given the underlying acoustic similarities between vocal and musical expression (Budd, 1985; Davies, 2001; Gabrielsson & Juslin, 2003; Salovey & Mayer, 1990; Juslin & Laukka, 2003) it seems justifiable to say that a key function of music is to communicate emotion (Juslin & Sloboda, 2001; Behne, 1997). It is clear from recent experimental work that music has an intense effect on arousal and mood (Blood & Zattore, 2001; Thompson, Shallenberg & Husain, 2001) thereby confirming that musical expression facilitates communication of feelings. For instance, Blood and Zattore (2001) examined the pleasure responses experienced by participants while listening to music, using an FMRI machine. The researchers concluded that simply listening to music activated award centers and regions of the brain implicated in the experience of deep emotional states. This research seeks to further examine the connection between emotions and musical ability.
    • Musical experience and the pursuit of music therapy: the influence of active music making

      Levitan, Safrah (2020-12)
      This qualitative study explores the relationship between one’s musical experience and the decision to become and remain a professional music therapist. This study includes interviews with six board certified music therapists ranging from 4-15 years of experience in the field. Three questions were asked during the interview process regarding the lived musical experience of these therapists: 1) Describe the role of active music making throughout your life; 2) What do you perceive as the relationship between music experience and choosing music therapy as a career?; and 3) What role does active music making play in your decision to maintain a career in music therapy? Once the interview process was complete, a thematic analysis was done to formulate main themes and codes within the interviews. These themes and codes were then supported by interview quotes as a form of evidence. After reviewing all findings, a reflection was done focusing on the key aspects of the interviews and personal thoughts regarding the results. These key aspects included the participants’ relationship to music, active music making experiences, competencies, primary education, educational privilege, collegiate education, and self-identity.
    • Navigating cultures: immigrant mothers’ parenting beliefs

      Mangione, Heather (2011-09-12)
      Parenting beliefs of immigrant mothers typically emerge from their culture of origin; each woman negotiates the new challenges that are presented in parenting their “American” children through her own cultural lens (Bornstein & Cote, 2004). A mixed-methods study of nine immigrant women living in New York State was conducted. The present research examined the parenting beliefs of immigrant mothers who arrived in the United States after the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. The “developmental niche” model (Super & Harkness, 1996) and Bronfenbrenner’s (1986) “ecological” model provided the theoretical basis for this study. Qualitative themes that emerged included the importance of social support, the formative experience of immigration, and hybridized discipline styles. Findings suggest that immigrant mothers do hold unique parenting beliefs as a marginalized group.
    • Need for cognition, need for affect and their relationship to hypnotic susceptibility

      Salerno, Michael (2011-12-27)
      Previous research on hypnosis has revealed that imaginative involvements, absorption, and fantasy proneness predicted hypnotic susceptibility. Attempts at examining personality correlates of hypnotic susceptibility have not only fallen short they have come to a halt. Because hypnosis is a tool that can aid and assist individuals in a myriad of areas, delineating the personality traits and characteristics associated with susceptibility will provide practicing hypnotists, clinicians, and psychologists with an even greater understanding of who is most receptive to it. One area that might shed light on this may be research examining how individuals differ in their susceptibility to persuasion. Because the marketing and advertising process attempts to focus an individual’s attention on a product, and then delivers a persuasive message; the persuasion process has been likened to hypnosis. Personality characteristics linked to persuasibility may also be linked to hypnotizability. Two characteristics related to persuasibility are need for cognition and need for affect. The present study examined if there is a relationship between need for cognition and or need for affect and being susceptible to hypnosis. Sixty-nine subjects were administered the need for cognition scale of Cacioppo, Petty, and Kao (1982) and the 26-item need for affect scale of Maio and Esses (2001) to assess these personality characteristics. Following the administration of these two scales, hypnotic susceptibility was measured using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS) (Shor & Orne, 1962). The results showed no significant correlations between need for cognition or a need for affect and being susceptible to hypnosis. Consistent with previous findings personality does not predict hypnotizability and susceptibility to hypnosis is likely to be an aptitude that some individuals possess more than others.
    • Never the same iceberg: theories of omission, misinterpretation, and dead metaphors in Hemingway's work

      Pennisi, Alex (2018-06)
      The intent of this thesis was inspired by the variety of interpretations of Ernest Hemingway’s fiction that have been influenced by words, metaphors, and symbols whose meanings have changed (and continue to change) over time. Writing within the language of their contemporary context and culture, all writers are vulnerable to future generations misinterpreting their writing; this fact speaks for itself in the footnotes of any critical edition of an author writing before the twentieth century. The twentieth century, though, is moving quickly towards a distant past. Almost 100 years after Hemingway began to publish his work, it is clear that the language and culture of the twenty-first century is undoubtedly different from the time for which Hemingway wrote.
    • No Influence of Articulatory Suppression on the Word and Pseudoword Superiority Effects

      Stillwell, Monica (2010-03-18)
      In this study, we explored the role of phonological recoding in word and pseudoword superiority effects, previously characterized as pure orthographic effects. Participants were asked to identify letters embedded in briefly presented words, pseudowords, and nonwords, with and without concurrent articulatory suppression. This manipulation had the purpose of occupying the participants’ phonological loop and interfering with the phonological recoding of stimuli in working memory. We predicted that the presence of articulatory suppression would lower accuracy across stimuli, and that this decrease would be more dramatic for pseudowords if participants relied on phonological recoding to perform the task. Word and pseudoword effects were present in both conditions; furthermore, articulatory suppression caused a similar decrease in accuracy for the three types of stimuli. Therefore, word and pseudoword superiority effects were not affected by the lack of phonological recoding. These results suggest that these effects mainly reflect orthographic processing.
    • “Nobody Sees Me Lying There With Depression” : an arts-based research project on a music therapy intern’s experience of major depressive disorder

      Peters, Thomas J. (2020-05)
      Through arts-based research, I studied my experience as a music therapy intern with major depressive disorder. I explored how a depressive episode impacted my work as an intern and how the episode affected my transition from intern to therapist. During the internship, I recorded improvisations to process the depressive episode. Two years after I completed the internship, I revisited these improvisations with prose poem responses. After finding themes and significant phrases, I composed a song entitled “Nobody Sees Me”. This arts-based project focuses on my unique experience, but the project has professional and academic implications. The project demonstrates a need for mental health services for graduate students, and my personal journey may provide support for music therapy interns and students with disorders of mental health.
    • Noshem Wearzen: a dream inspired poetry collection

      Hager, Robyn (2022-05)
      Noshem Wearzen is a made-up name for the places that we go to in our dreams. It is, literally, ‘nowhere’, as our dream landscapes are equally inspired by real life as they are projected to us in a fictionalized way, making them ‘nowhere’ in particular, but in an attempt to give a name to the places that we escape to in our dreams I’ve created Noshem Wearzen, a place that occupies as much of my dream world as it does my reality. The first poem of my collection is Noshem Wearzen and precedes the two parts, it functions as the beginning to a story that ends with each poem that proceeds it in the collection, which is emphasized by the lack of end punctuation in Noshem Wearzen while each other poem ends with a period.