• Understanding therapeutic relationship with a young adult with autistic spectrum disorder in improvisational music therapy

      Lee, Miyoung (2018-12)
      This qualitative single case study research described the growth and development of Robert (name changed for confidentiality), a young adult with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), through his participation in improvisational music therapy. This study focuses on his music therapy engagement from February 2014 to July 2014 during the author’s internship training. The purpose of this case study is to illustrate how the therapeutic relationship, specifically client/therapist interactions, can be enhanced through improvisational music therapy. As a music therapy intern (MTI), I provided 36 individual music therapy sessions during the course of six months. The treatment goal was to increase interpersonal interactions, primarily through instrumental improvisation. The improvised music is analyzed by graphic notation, originated by Bergstrøm-Nielsen (1993), and through traditional music notation. Both forms of analysis illustrated a growing musical interrelatedness between Robert and me, thus supporting the use of improvisational music therapy as an effective means of improving interpersonal interactions in persons with ASD.
    • Untangling the complexities of female sexuality: a mixed approach

      Carmen, Rachael A. (2014-01-28)
      Human sexuality is fascinating. Though it is such an integral part of our everyday lives, our understanding is lacking (to say the least)--especially when it comes to female sexuality. "Human" sexuality has been studied for nearly a hundred years, but the findings were usually in regard to males (as was most psychological research at the time). Because of this unbalance, this research attempts to answer questions solely surrounding female sexuality. In order to truly piece apart female sexuality, one hundred and forty five females at a small college in the Northeast were given three sexuality scales: (The Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale for Female Functioning (SSES) (Bailes et al., 1998), The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) (Rosen et al., 2000) and The Sexual Self-Schema Scale (SSSS) (Andersen & Cyranowski, 1994)). Additionally, to ascertain what variables play key roles in female sexuality, they were also given the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEI-Que) (Schutte et al., 1998), The High-K scale (Giosan, 2006), The Mating Intelligence Scale (slightly revised) (MI) (Geher & Kaufman, 2007), and The Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale (PSRS) (Schlotz, Yim, Zoccola, Jansen & Schulz, 2011). Statistical analyses show that Emotional Intelligence and Life History Strategy are strongly positively correlated with higher levels of sexuality.
    • The use of lullabies in hospice music therapy

      Lawrence, Samantha (2019)
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of lullabies as an intervention in hospice music therapy. A 15-question survey was electronically disseminated to board-certified music therapists (MT-BCs) with clinical experience working as music therapists in the hospice setting. Potential participants were located through the Certification Board for Music Therapists (CBMT) database. A total of 86 participants responded to the survey, and the data from 82 of the participants was analyzed. Participants indicated that they use all four methods of music therapy and many different types of music experiences as a lullaby intervention in hospice music therapy. Hospice music therapists use lullaby interventions as indicated by a variety of patient/family needs. The most common needs were those related to comfort/relaxation (73.17%), pain/discomfort (60.98%), and anxiety (57.32%). These correlate to the most common intended outcomes of lullaby intervention in hospice music therapy, which are increasing relaxation/comfort (76.83%), decreased stress and anxiety for patients and/or families (74.39%), and decreasing pain/pain perception (37.80%). Participants indicated in an open-ended question their opinions about how using lullabies differs from other hospice music therapy interventions. Themes of how these interventions differ include comfort and relaxation, family and familiarity, and meeting specific patient needs. Results of this survey indicate that music therapists are using lullaby interventions in the hospice setting to meet the needs of hospice patients and their families.
    • The use of songwriting with college students for self-expression and self-reflection

      Zhang, Jue (2019-05)
      This study is a phenomenological approach to explore college students’ experiences in songwriting. Four college students participated in a songwriting experience, and completed interviews at two points in the process to learn the essence of their experience in this research. The first interview occurred immediately after the songwriting experience and the second interview was arranged within three days after the first. Data was manually coded. Six major themes were found including enjoyable, frustration, sense of achievement, insight, stress, and relief. Three themes of the songwriting products were sleep deprivation, financial hardship, and intimate relationships. Relatable results and questions emerged are discussed.
    • The use of songwriting with patients in cancer care : case studies

      Lin, Saiping (2019-05)
      Cancer is a life-threatening illness that has the potential to impact a patient’s life in a myriad of ways. The positive effects of music therapy have been acknowledged by its role and impact during the treatment within comprehensive cancer centers in the United States (Richardson, Babiak-Vazquez, & Frenkel, 2017). Existing studies support the efficacy of music therapy treatment in cancer care, focusing primarily on the following goals: to reduce stress, anxiety, and perception of pain (Magill, 2001). According to the Cochrane review, music interventions that conducted by a well-trained music therapist might have benefits for cancer patients on helping them with anxiety, pain, fatigue and other needs (Bradt, Dileo, Magill & Teague, 2016). Further research indicates that an additional focus on the patient’s spiritual journey and expression of his or her process is significant, and vital to the overall therapeutic process (Castelli, Castelnuovo, & Torta, 2015). The clinical application of songwriting has been shown to not only support a patient’s emotional and spiritual wellbeing, but also encourage an increased sense of self, self-esteem and decision-making (Baker & Wigram, 2005). The present study examines the implementation of songwriting with two patients with cancer in an outpatient medical facility. The analysis details each patient’s experience of songwriting while also taking into account the patients’ personalities, education levels, cultural backgrounds, and familial histories. Furthermore, an exploration of the author’s perspective and clinical experience as it pertains to this population is included.
    • Using emotional intelligence and musical training to predict emotion-detection in music: a cross-cultural study

      Jewell, Olivia (2018-05)
      Recently, research in music and emotions has become very popular, and has indicated that individuals can detect emotions in various pieces of music across cultural borders. Additionally, research has explored emotional intelligence and musical training with respect to this skill. However, no previous study has examined if emotional intelligence or musical training is more predictive of one’s ability to perceive an emotion in a piece of music across cultures. The current study seeks to explore this question, by providing participants with musical clips to listen to, and then choose the emotion that they feel fits it the best. The musical clips come from a subset of 36 clips that were used in a pilot study to determine whether individuals can discern an intended emotion in the piece of music. Additionally, participants filled out measures of musical training and emotional intelligence. It was hypothesized that participants who scored higher on emotional intelligence would score higher on measures of emotion-detection, across cultures. A second hypothesis stated that emotional intelligence would be more predictive of emotion-detection than previous musical training or experience. The hypotheses were partially supported, with emotional intelligence being a significant negative predictor of emotion-detection. Cultural variation was only a significant predictor of emotion-detection for our measure of target agreement, but not for our measure of consensus agreement. Overall, the current study sheds light on emotional intelligence, musical training, and music interpretation across cultures.
    • Using the IPSQ-Sort to Examine Identity Style of Mandarin speaking Adolescents

      Yang, Hai-yun (2011-08-16)
      Berzonsky (1992) described three identity processing styles (informational, normative, and diffuse/avoidant) which people use to manage identity challenges. Different people can utilize different styles to deal with identity crisis, but tend to favor one over the others. In this study, I translated a measure of identity processing style, the Identity Processing Style Q-sort (IPSQ-sort; Pittman, Kerpelman, Lamke, & Sollie, 2009) from English to Mandarin. A back translation technique was used to translate the items; this also included a review by the original author of the IPSQ-sort. Then, I evaluated the validity of the Mandarin version with college students from several universities in Taiwan. Keywords:
    • Variability in mating strategies: do individual differences in dispositional traits predict sexual preferences?

      Peterson, Ashley (2012-02-27)
      Prior research by evolutionary psychologists has examined dispositional predictors, such as personality, sociosexuality, life history, and attachment style, in relation to mating, yet only one study has examined how these traits predict an individual‘s sexual preferences (i.e., Peterson, Geher, & Kaufman, 2011). Thus, the current study, extending the research of Peterson, Geher, and Kaufman (2011), examined previous studied dispositional predictors, including the Big Five, sociosexuality, life history, and mating intelligence, and three additional ones, attachment, sex drive, and disgust sensitivity. A sample of 638 participants completed a battery of measures of each of these traits as well as providing information about their sexual preferences. The traits predicted variability in sexual preferences – with the attachment dimensions, avoidance and anxiety, and sex drive being most predictive. In addition, sex differences emerged (e.g., males reported enjoying most of the sex acts more than females). Discussion focuses on (a) comparing the results of the current study with Peterson, Geher, and Kaufman (2011), (b) sex differences in preferences for the sex acts, and (c) attachment, sex drive, and disgust sensitivity as predictors of sexual preferences.
    • “We All Get Found Sometimes”: an arts-based heuristic study on a queer music therapist’s expressive music journaling

      Benson, Travis (2020-11)
      This arts-based, heuristic research documents my process as a queer and genderqueer (they/them) music therapist of creating a song cycle based on the themes gathered through lyric analysis from personal, emotional improvisational songs posted on Patreon.com between July 2018 and September 2019. The 35 songs are sorted by season, and were written based upon the major themes prevalent within each season. The result is a 5-song cycle connecting past to present, excerpts from different journals kept during the process, and the data collected from the lyric analysis. This author claims improvisational songwriting through expressive music journaling (EMJ) to get in touch with one’s deep/subconscious feelings is an effective way to: process trauma, grief, and mental illness; that it is able to bridge gaps of time; and that it will help to regard personal material one might not want to dissect without a creative outlet.
    • "What if I had never been depressed?": effect of counterfactual thinking on stigma for individuals who have experienced depression

      Tozser, Timea (2018-05)
      Depression is identified as one of the most common mental illnesses in the United States (NIMH, 2014). To understand such prevalence, many researchers have focused on the cognitive patterns associated with depression, suggesting that depressed individuals focus their attention on experiences of disappointment, worthlessness, and rejection (Gotlib & Joormann, 2010). This may include counterfactual thinking patterns that center upon detrimental “what ifs” that impede meaning-making, a process known to benefit individuals and reduce stigma. Accordingly, the purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between depression, counterfactual thinking, and stigma. Using a mixed methods design, participants were randomly assigned to consider ways in which their life might have been better or worse if they had never had depression. They also completed a series of questionnaires and open-ended questions. The results indicated that individuals who were randomly assigned and prompted to think either about negative and positive counterfactuals perceived higher levels of stigma than those in the control group. Additionally, individuals who wrote about ways their life would be better without depression reported greater meaning making than those who wrote about ways their life could have been worse. Lastly, systematic differences in emergent themes of meaning-making were identified between groups. The current research sheds light on depression narratives and how individuals create meaning about depression.
    • When the music therapist experiences a personal crisis

      Palermo, David (2018-05)
      The purpose of this phenomenological investigation is to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the experiences of five board-certified music therapists who underwent a personal crisis during a time when they were practicing music therapy. Data was collected through open-ended semi-structured interviews that took place over the telephone. Using Colaizzi's (1978) descriptive phenomenological method to analyze the interviews, three themes emerged: Onset of Personal Crisis, Coping, and Clinical Impact. Implications for this study include an increased awareness of the universality of the experience to prepare music therapists to better use their coping strategies.
    • Why do you run? Comparing identified and intrinsic motivation in runners

      Cousineau, Kassandra A (2017-05)
      Considering only half of the United States population engages in the recommended amount of exercise (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014), and the dangerous implications of a sedentary lifestyle (Ekelund et al., 2015), it becomes imperative to investigate the motivations behind sport, exercise, and physical activity. Due to the mixed findings regarding different types of motivation in Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Ryan & Deci, 1985), the present study attempted to show that identified regulations would predict and account for more variance in behavior adherence, intensity of exercise, and life satisfaction than would intrinsic regulations. An online survey was used to collect data from individuals who had participated in a 5K race, 10K race, half-marathon, or marathon. Correlation and regression analyses supported the above hypothesis. These results indicate SDT, as it is currently conceptualized, may not be as applicable to the domain of sport and exercise behavior as previously thought.
    • “Why is that Lady Veil’d?” : policing femininity and silencing delinquency in Shakespeare’s Titus Andronicus

      Lopez, Stephanie A. (2019-12)
      This paper will consider the original context of Shakespeare’s Titus Andronicus, issues pertinent to the play, including laws around revenge, consent, and marital rights, and two adaptations of Titus Andronicus, those of Edward Ravenscroft and Peter Brook, with the ultimate goal of answering Saturninus’s question. Further, this project will illuminate the effects of state power on the delinquent civilian, specifically the female civilian who operates under significant social and political pressures outside of the male civilian’s perception.
    • Women and magic in medieval literature

      Leigh, Jessica (2019-12)
      One of the defining features of medieval literature is its relationship with a particular tradition of magic. Arthurian chivalric romance stands among some of the most well-known and enduring medieval literary pieces, appearing as a staple of Renaissance medievalism, Victorian medievalism, the work of pre-Raphaelites, and in modern pop culture, as in programs like Merlin. The tropes of Arthurian chivalric romance remain major identifiers of the Middle Ages. Even other major medieval texts still largely known and commonly studied in schools and universities today incorporate elements of the Arthurian tradition, as in The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer, or the wider chivalric tradition, as in the lais of Marie de France. The fictional worlds encompassed by medieval literature contain many legendary creatures, prophesied events, and magical items which give color and memorable character to these many tales
    • Women on hormonal contraception: a behavioral biopsychosocial perspective

      Newmark, Rebecca L. (2013-06-28)
      Normally cycling females experience natural cyclic shifts in their physical appearance and in various psychological traits (Haselton & Gildersleeve, 2011; Alvergne & Lummaa, 2009). When women use hormonal contraception (HC), these natural cyclical changes are no longer present (Welling et al., 2012; Miller, Tybur, & Jordan, 2007). Many physical differences between hormonal contraception users and non-users have been examined (Shulman, 2011). However, far fewer psychological and behavioral traits that are likely associated with hormonal contraceptive use have been studied. My goal was to examine relevant dispositional and behavioral traits that differ in hormonal contraceptive users and non-users. The variables examined include life history strategy, sociosexuality, intrasexual competition, social support and risk-taking behavior. One’s life history strategy is indicative of one’s mating pattern among other attitudes and behavior relevant to reproductive success. Sociosexuality is an individual’s tendency to engage in promiscuous behavior. Intrasexual competition is the competition among members of the same sex over mates and status. I included these variables based on the broad prediction that a lack of ovulation leads women to spend a higher proportion of time in a state of long-term mating (with the idea that these women do not experience the ovulatory state so wellnoted for leading to various short-term mating tactics). Thus, women on HC were predicted to show markers of a relatively slow life history and a relatively restricted sociosexuality, coupled with low levels of both intrasexual competition and risky behavior. HC users reported to engage in between-group competition risk-taking more heavily compared to non-users in their ovulatory phase. HC users reported a more restricted sociosexuality in terms of the desire facet compared to non-users. HC users reported to receive higher levels of social support compared to normally cycling women. Lastly, HC users reported to be more intrasexually competitive compared to normally cycling women in their ovulatory phase.
    • Word : a post-postmodern redemption of the meaning and the word

      Menon, Ashwathi (2019-08)
      In this thesis, I wish to draw a theoretical frame-work that establishes this visceral characteristic of Post-Postmodern literature. In the literature that has come to be defined as Post-Postmodernism (more so contemporary literature), there is a sense of reclaiming the meaning of the modern word, much like embedded meaning in the adamic word. This contemporary literature is shaping a language that fills in what Althusser calls the arbitrary link between the word and the meaning. Consciously or unconsciously, there has been an attempt to unfold the word in its own meaning and to form the word through the meaning, therefore diminishing any scope of ambiguity or disconnect. I wish to map this transition of the word from being logocentric in Derridean terms to being more visceral and material post the Postmodern age. To form the basis of this argument, I have chosen two contemporary novels: Ian McEwan’s Atonement, focusing more on Ruth Ozeki’s A Tale for the Time Being.
    • Working with your enemy : out-group cooperation's effect on reducing bias

      Betancourt, Kian (2019-12)
      Prior research has shown that in-group identification does not necessarily lead to out-group derogation or bias, and certain conditions are necessary to have one result in the other. One such instance is that of a shared perceived conflict or threat, whereby we reconceptualize our prior thinking of in/out-group dynamics according to what is needed in a conflict (e.g., prior out-group now becomes an in-group if forced to cooperate against a threat). The current study used a video game as a means to measure in/out group dynamics in cooperative and competitive gameplay, in order to examine potential effects of group dynamics on general helping attitudes, out-group bias, and perceived out-group altruism.