• Navigating Cultures: Immigrant Mothers’ Parenting Beliefs

      Mangione, Heather (2011-09-12)
      Parenting beliefs of immigrant mothers typically emerge from their culture of origin; each woman negotiates the new challenges that are presented in parenting their “American” children through her own cultural lens (Bornstein & Cote, 2004). A mixed-methods study of nine immigrant women living in New York State was conducted. The present research examined the parenting beliefs of immigrant mothers who arrived in the United States after the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. The “developmental niche” model (Super & Harkness, 1996) and Bronfenbrenner’s (1986) “ecological” model provided the theoretical basis for this study. Qualitative themes that emerged included the importance of social support, the formative experience of immigration, and hybridized discipline styles. Findings suggest that immigrant mothers do hold unique parenting beliefs as a marginalized group.
    • Need for cognition, need for affect and their relationship to hypnotic susceptibility

      Salerno, Michael (2012-02-27)
      Previous research on hypnosis has revealed that imaginative involvements, absorption, and fantasy proneness predicted hypnotic susceptibility. Attempts at examining personality correlates of hypnotic susceptibility have not only fallen short they have come to a halt. Because hypnosis is a tool that can aid and assist individuals in a myriad of areas, delineating the personality traits and characteristics associated with susceptibility will provide practicing hypnotists, clinicians, and psychologists with an even greater understanding of who is most receptive to it. One area that might shed light on this may be research examining how individuals differ in their susceptibility to persuasion. Because the marketing and advertising process attempts to focus an individual’s attention on a product, and then delivers a persuasive message; the persuasion process has been likened to hypnosis. Personality characteristics linked to persuasibility may also be linked to hypnotizability. Two characteristics related to persuasibility are need for cognition and need for affect. The present study examined if there is a relationship between need for cognition and or need for affect and being susceptible to hypnosis. Sixty-nine subjects were administered the need for cognition scale of Cacioppo, Petty, and Kao (1982) and the 26-item need for affect scale of Maio and Esses (2001) to assess these personality characteristics. Following the administration of these two scales, hypnotic susceptibility was measured using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS) (Shor & Orne, 1962). The results showed no significant correlations between need for cognition or a need for affect and being susceptible to hypnosis. Consistent with previous findings personality does not predict hypnotizability and susceptibility to hypnosis is likely to be an aptitude that some individuals possess more than others.
    • Never the same iceberg: theories of omission, misinterpretation, and dead metaphors in Hemingway's work

      Pennisi, Alex (2018-06)
      The intent of this thesis was inspired by the variety of interpretations of Ernest Hemingway’s fiction that have been influenced by words, metaphors, and symbols whose meanings have changed (and continue to change) over time. Writing within the language of their contemporary context and culture, all writers are vulnerable to future generations misinterpreting their writing; this fact speaks for itself in the footnotes of any critical edition of an author writing before the twentieth century. The twentieth century, though, is moving quickly towards a distant past. Almost 100 years after Hemingway began to publish his work, it is clear that the language and culture of the twenty-first century is undoubtedly different from the time for which Hemingway wrote.
    • No Influence of Articulatory Suppression on the Word and Pseudoword Superiority Effects

      Stillwell, Monica (2010-03-18)
      In this study, we explored the role of phonological recoding in word and pseudoword superiority effects, previously characterized as pure orthographic effects. Participants were asked to identify letters embedded in briefly presented words, pseudowords, and nonwords, with and without concurrent articulatory suppression. This manipulation had the purpose of occupying the participants’ phonological loop and interfering with the phonological recoding of stimuli in working memory. We predicted that the presence of articulatory suppression would lower accuracy across stimuli, and that this decrease would be more dramatic for pseudowords if participants relied on phonological recoding to perform the task. Word and pseudoword effects were present in both conditions; furthermore, articulatory suppression caused a similar decrease in accuracy for the three types of stimuli. Therefore, word and pseudoword superiority effects were not affected by the lack of phonological recoding. These results suggest that these effects mainly reflect orthographic processing.
    • “Nobody Sees Me Lying There With Depression” : an arts-based research project on a music therapy intern’s experience of major depressive disorder

      Peters, Thomas J. (2020-05)
      Through arts-based research, I studied my experience as a music therapy intern with major depressive disorder. I explored how a depressive episode impacted my work as an intern and how the episode affected my transition from intern to therapist. During the internship, I recorded improvisations to process the depressive episode. Two years after I completed the internship, I revisited these improvisations with prose poem responses. After finding themes and significant phrases, I composed a song entitled “Nobody Sees Me”. This arts-based project focuses on my unique experience, but the project has professional and academic implications. The project demonstrates a need for mental health services for graduate students, and my personal journey may provide support for music therapy interns and students with disorders of mental health.
    • Partner insurance : women may have backup romantic partners as a mating strategy

      Wedberg, Nicole A. (2016-05)
      The science behind reproductive success is arguably the most prominent area of study within evolutionary psychology. Humans utilize a variety of mating strategies as a result of strategic pluralism (Gangestad & Simpson, 2000) which explains that both men and women have evolved with a plethora of conditional mating strategies that may be more or less beneficial depending on the context and circumstance. Recent research points to the existence of "back-burner relationships" (Dibble & Drouin, 2014) as a means to compare and consider potential alternatives in the way of romantic relationships. The current study refers to this phenomenon as partner insurance, and focuses on heterosexual women in committed relationships. A new scale called the Plan B Proclivity scale (PBP) was designed for the current study to measure the degree to which women consider their closest platonic male friend a romantic "backup plan." Results suggest that 20% of women report having some level of partner insurance, and various variables predict this including being young in age, having low relationship satisfaction with a current partner, having an unrestricted sociosexual orientation, and having a personality composed of relatively high narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy (i.e. the Dark Triad). Implications for these findings are discussed.
    • Patriarchy poisons religion: an in-depth analysis of religion and systems of power in Who Fears Death and the Parables duology

      Dawkins, Claire (2021-05)
      In their groundbreaking feminist dystopian novels, Nnedi Okorafor and Octavia Butler redefine what it means to be religious. Okorafor’s novel, Who Fears Death and Butler’s novels, Parable of the Sower and Parable of the Talents use the dystopian genre to expose how patriarchy and Christianity have benefited one another for a millennium. Patriarchy is built into the framework of Christianity, but it becomes only more powerful as language gets muddled and confused. When this happens, men are able to abuse and subjugate women under the pretense that it is religious, when it is not. But Butler and Okorafor do not leave us with this dire image. Instead, their protagonists, Lauren and Onyesonwu take harrowing journeys to overthrow the corrupt Christian religions in their respective texts with a new non-patriarchal religion. Unlike many feminist science fiction authors of recent, Butler and Okorafor are presenting the corruption that lives in Christianity, and as an alternative they offer a new religion.
    • Patterns of past and present body esteem: do they matter?

      Fish, Jennaleigh (2013-06-25)
      The present study examined the relationship between patterns of perceptions of body image/esteem (past and present) and sexual behavior in young women during emerging adulthood. One hundred and forty-eight participants completed an online survey which measured body image perception and aspects of sexual behavior. Using past body perceptions (retrospective) and current body perceptions, participants were placed into four groups—those who were consistently positive in their body esteem, those who were consistently negative in their body esteem, and those who perceived a change in body esteem. These groups were then used as independent variables to compare women across sexual desire, sexual confidence, and body image perceptions. Change in perceptions of body esteem had significant effects on all of the study variables except sexual desire. Several patterns emerged from the results of this study. Among the most prevalent included: Women who were consistently positive in their body esteem had higher levels of body area satisfaction, appearance satisfaction, sexual desire, and sexual confidence; having had a positive body image perception at some point in the past seems to benefit women’s body esteem in emerging adulthood; and women who had a consistently negative body image perception report lower body area satisfaction, sexual desire, and sexual confidence. The results indicate that perceived body esteem, both past and current, is related to higher levels of body satisfaction, more positive appearance evaluations, and lower self weight classification, all of which have not been explored in previous research. Therefore, those who have more positive body esteem and have always had positive body esteem are more also more likely to have a positive body image in emerging adulthood.
    • People-pleasing animals: mediating factors in attachment style difference between dog people and cat people

      Link, Jennifer (2021-05)
      Pets are more ubiquitous now than ever; with more and more couples opting to adopt dogs instead of having children, there’s never been a better time to attempt to discern the ways that people view these animals and what makes some people more likely to adopt one animal over another. Though past research has aimed to examine the ways that dog and cat people differ in terms of personality, little research has attempted to assess the role of attachment in the preference that individuals have towards one animal or another. The present research aimed to assess the ways that attribution of theory of mind and attachment style impact the preference that individuals have for cats or dogs. Findings suggest that, on average, participants attributed more theory of mind to dogs than to cats overall. Study 2 also indicates that pet preference, as well as attachment style, appear to partly influence the amount of theory of mind an individual attributes to dogs in particular. The results of this research may begin to unravel the ways that individuals attribute different traits to their pets based on species, and hopefully will contribute to the broader literature on the way that personality and individual differences factor into the preferences that individuals have for different animals as pets.
    • Perceptions of People Who Use Non-Heterosexist Language by People of Different Sexual Orientations

      Reisner, Michael (2008-04-02)
      One hundred fifty participants who self-identified as heterosexual and 152 participants who self-identified as queer were asked to read a vignette containing a character who used either heterosexist or non-heterosexist language. With regards to the latter vignette, the researcher hypothesized that queer participants would assume that the character using non-heterosexist language 1) was more supportive of queer rights; 2) had increased exposure to queer people; 3) was more likely to be queer; 4) was more open to new ideas in general; and 5) was more likely to be someone with whom they could be friends. Heterosexual participants were not expected to make the same assumptions about the character in the vignette. Results showed that both heterosexual and queer participants made similar assumptions about the character in the vignette who used non-heterosexist language; however, in most cases queer participants made significantly stronger assumptions than heterosexual participants.
    • A personal construct psychology perspective on sexual identity

      Morano, Laurie Ann (2008-05-13)
      This paper examines four of the most widely known homosexual identity development models, as well as some of the literature that explores sexual identity as a fluid process. The suggestion is made that sexual identity can be created and recreated based on current individual feelings and experiences rather than by forcing identity to fit into already existing socially constructed categories. Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) is introduced as a theory that can be used to transform sexual identities over a lifetime. A Sexual Identity Cycle is presented using several PCP transitional construing concepts.
    • Personal therapy for a graduate student in the analytical music therapy model : a heuristic inquiry

      Wenger, Daniel (2020-05)
      This heuristic inquiry explores my experience as a graduate student undergoing personal music therapy in the Analytical Music Therapy model. After reviewing 27 recordings of my sessions, I used self-dialogue to select five session recordings based on personal significance and examples of growth. The verbal processing of these sessions was transcribed and the musical improvisations were given detailed descriptions. I then re-listened to the sessions and noted significant experiences and patterns directly onto the transcripts and descriptions. After immersing myself in the transcripts and descriptions, I took notes regarding the relationships between session experiences and shifts in my daily awareness. These notes helped me discover areas that were developed through my process. They were defined as the following themes: connection, body awareness, musical awareness, intrapersonal awareness, and professional development. These themes provided a deeper understanding of the expansive experience of AMT, the influence of a student-client perspective on therapy, and the potential for professional development through AMT experiences. An arts-informed reflection provides a holistic understanding of my unique transformation through analytical music therapy.
    • Pervasive developmental disorders: a golden section study

      Davison, Mitzie (2010-03-18)
      Objectives. Pervasive developmental disability theories are combined with golden section research in an effort to understand how people organize and process interpersonal/social information. In order to comprehend theories that explain the social impairments in those diagnosed with a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), this study employed the golden section hypothesis, which predicts that people organize their interpersonal judgments in a ratio approximately 62% positive and 38% negative. Method. The research was done individually, orally and with visual aids by the researcher with 10 participants with a pervasive developmental disability and 10 undergraduate college participants who did not have any disability. Participants were asked to rate 9 cartoon characters (Garfield, Bugs Bunny, Mickey Mouse, Spongebob Squarepants, Snoopy, Elmo, Tasmanian Devil, Scooby Doo, Fred Flintstone) and one self-category using 12 different bi-polar dimensions (generous-stingy, pleasantunpleasant, true-false, fair-unfair, active-passive, energetic-lethargic, sharp-dull, excitable-calm, strong-weak, bold-timid, hard-soft, rugged-delicate). These dimensions had well-established positive and negative poles. Results. Both pervasive developmentally disabled and normal participants had average positive ratings of the cartoon characters that were not statistically significant from the golden ratio 0.618. Both of these populations rated themselves in a manner consistent with Lefebvre et al (1986), who predicted that people .71 mean positive self-ratings. Conclusion. The results indicate that both PDD and non- PDD participants utilize the golden section ratio. The study supports the robustness of this ratio in a clinical population that has not been previously studied. Due to a small sample size, it is necessary to interpret these results with caution. It would be beneficial for further research to replicate this study with more participants.
    • The politics of touch

      Kurtz, Teresa (2020-08)
      Through this thesis, I aim to deconstruct and reconstruct what it means to reach out and touch another by analyzing the role of physical touch in literature with a New Historicist approach. In other words, I am reading into the signification of touch within different literary texts while taking into account the text's geographical, historical, and sociological conditions. In a different time, place, and sociocultural climate, the same signifier--such as touch--will necessarily have different significations. Therefore, touch in all of its forms must be read within its individual literary context.
    • Posthumanism and compassion in Jeff VanderMeer’s Southern Reach trilogy: a vegetarian, ecofeminist approach

      Peterson, Audrey (2016-05)
      "Both the genre of VanderMeer’s trilogy and the theme of the posthuman operate in a chiasmic relationship to convey a clear teaching that evokes a powerful message about humanity, posthumanity, and the future of the planet. I argue that the Southern Reach trilogy illustrates the duality of the term posthumanism: Characters exceed what it means to be human in a biological sense, and in an ethical sense, certain characters become posthuman in that they accept a mode of thinking that does not invariably place the human at the center. My argument outlines two very different ways of using the term posthuman, yet also illustrates the commonalities between each of my applications, thus creating a means of applying the posthuman lens as a tool for approaching literary texts."
    • A preliminary study of the effects of a novice hacker's learning process on a computer hardware and base operating system component performance

      Mikijanic, Christine (2020-05)
      One of the major problems in computer security today is the mitigation of damage caused by malware. Common approaches for gathering information about this threat have been to investigate and utilize the structure of a malware attack for prevention and reduction of damage, or analysis of the effect of malware originally found in the wild on target computer systems. This thesis provides a means of determining whether or not sufficient information exists to examine the possibility of finding or identifying an inexperienced hacker inside of a computer system. Analysis of pseudo-ransomware inside a virtual machine was performed, with investigation into the performance of the system’s hardware and base operating system components. It was discovered that CPU load was the core of indicators that displayed the presence of possible ransomware, as it consistently displayed longer process completion times and signs of strain under intensified usage. Furthermore, this factor could be paired with statistics for other areas of the system in order to provide more detail about the attack itself.
    • Preschoolers' attachment to grandparent caregivers

      Filangeri-Parashar, Jessica (2008-03-28)
      Currently, there are over 2.4 million children in the United States living in the custodial care of their grandparents. Grandparents as caregivers and the problems their grandchildren face have received little attention in developmental research. The purpose of this paper is to address the possibility that secure attachment relationships with grandparents can serve as a protective factor against the risks of disrupted attachments with parents. In order to address this question, a framework is proposed that combines central elements of two differing perspectives on young children’s relationships, traditional attachment theory, and a social network model. An example of how this model can be used to investigate important developmental questions is outlined.
    • Professional identity development in music therapy: a phenomenological inquiry

      McIntyre, Page (2018-05)
      The following research study is a phenomenological inquiry exploring how music therapists develop their professional identities. Three board-certified music therapists were interviewed and asked to describe what has influenced and shaped their professional identity development. Data was analyzed according to the procedures of interpretive phenomenological analysis. The data revealed four emergent themes that music therapists’ described as playing a role in developing their professional identity. The themes are significant experiences, identities in music, intrapersonal skills, and journey of growth. Related literature is reviewed and implications for future research is discussed. The researcher hopes that this study will benefit music therapists by giving them insight into how they can develop and strengthen their own professional identity.
    • Program proposal: outdoor music therapy

      Goldberg, Daniel (2021-05)
      The program I am proposing involves taking music psychotherapy outdoors along a hiking trail. Musical experiences are widely believed to be vehicles for emotions and experiences. Hiking adventures can serve a similar purpose, as they are literal journeys with ups and downs, challenges, and rewards. These can be related to internal journeys with the same facets. These journeys afford the client and therapist time to talk, solve problems together, and experience silence together. The still and secluded environment that one can find deep in the woods can greatly enhance the musical experience and provide freedom and safety in self-expression. Alternatively, taking time to make music in the woods gives the client a chance to focus on the details of their environment, process the emotions and interactions that occur throughout the journey, and be present in the moment.
    • Proposal for neonatal intensive care unit music therapy program at Brookdale University Hospital Medical Center

      Chilton, Madeline C. (2020-05)
      The following is a proposal for the implementation of a music therapy program in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at Brookdale University Hospital. This proposal provides the rationale for instituting a NICU music therapy program and details the content of the program including services provided, treatment methodology, documentation, required resources, projected outcomes, and evaluation. Recommendations are provided for the qualifications, responsibilities, and integration of a full-time music therapist into the NICU team. The aim of this proposal is to demonstrate the multitude of benefits that a music therapy program will offer the NICU at Brookdale, and provide a feasible plan for its initiation. The inclusion of music therapy services in the treatment modalities offered by the Brookdale NICU will demonstrate a commitment to innovative, family-centered care, and to the mission and core values of the One Brooklyn Health hospital system.