• Judgements of cross-sex infidelity responses as a component of mating intelligence

      Johnson, John D. (2007-04-26)
      Mating Intelligence (MI; (Geher, 2005) is operationally defined as the ability to correctly guess the mating relevant thoughts of mates or potential mates. This study focuses on one specific aspect of MI, known as infidelity mating intelligence. Infidelity mating intelligence or IMI is defined as the ability to make accurate predictions regarding what members of the opposite sex will judge as most distressing when faced with a variety of infidelity situations. Four-hundred-eighty-one participants (152 males and 329 females) participated in this research. Participants were asked to judge what types of infidelity they themselves felt would be more distressing in an intimate relationship. Participants were also asked to act as other-raters (make predictions about what types of infidelity they thought the opposite gender would identify as being more distressing in intimate relationships). All participants were also tested on several other mating intelligence (MI) variables as well as on several criterion variables. Infidelity mating intelligence (IMI) was significantly positively correlated with cognitive and emotional intelligence for females and cognitive intelligence for males. It was also found that males tended to report being more distressed by a mate’s sexual infidelity and females tended to report being more distressed over a mate’s emotional infidelity. Additionally, some interesting post hoc findings were found. Males and females differed in their overall responses to infidelity in systematic ways. Males tended to overestimate the degree to which females would choose emotional infidelity as more distressing based on Chi Square analysis. This is a stereotypical response of males according to research. Males assume that females will be more stressed by emotional aspects of infidelity to a greater extent than females typically are. Females tended to also overestimate the degree to which males would choose emotional infidelity as more distressing based on Chi Square analysis. In other words, females tended to show social projection when judging responses of men, meaning that females think that males would think more like females do when making judgments regarding infidelity. Implications for research in this area are discussed.
    • Lesbian and Bisexual Identity in Multiple Ecological Contexts

      Belmonte, Kimberly (2011-09-12)
      Although sexual minority individuals are embedded in a series of complex systems—legal, political, cultural, and institutional—little is known about how these diverse contexts affect sexual identity and well-being. Using Bronfenbrenner‘s Ecological Systems Model (1979) as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this study was to better understand how proximal (e.g.,,interpersonal relationships) and distal (e.g.,, policies) environments influence the development of homosexual and bisexual women living in the United States. In this mixed methods study, 367 lesbian and 495 bisexual women completed self-report questionnaires that measured: 1) feelings about sexual orientation; 2) degree of openness; 3) quality of life; and 4) biculturalism. Analyses revealed that lesbian women fared better than bisexual women on all measures. A thematic analysis of open-ended questions identified emergent themes that centered on experiences of inclusion (e.g.,, acceptance) and exclusion (e.g., legalized homophobia). The discussion focuses on similarities and differences within and between groups.
    • Look @ me 2.0: self-sexualization in Facebook photographs, self-objectification, and body image

      Ruckel, Lindsay M. (2013-02-04)
      Growing attention has been paid to examining people’s self-presentation on Social Networking Sites (SNSs). To date, one study has explored the extent to which women present themselves in a sexualized way in their profile photographs on SNSs. SNSs provide a unique opportunity for self-sexualization, or the presentation of one’s body in a sexually objectifying way for others’ evaluation. The current study tested the relationship between women’s self-objectification and their self-sexualization in their Facebook profile photographs. This work also investigated how self-sexualization relates to body image satisfaction, internalization of the “thin ideal”, and how contingent self-worth is on appearance. Facebook profile photographs of 100 women, ranging from 18-49 years old were coded for self-sexualization. Results suggested that women who reported higher levels of self-objectification and who identified more strongly with the appearance-contingency of self-worth were more likely to self-sexualize in their Facebook profile photographs. However, no relationship was found between self-sexualization and internalization of the “thin ideal” or body image satisfaction. Potential implications and directions for future research are explored.
    • Low power partial product reduction stage for booth multiplier

      Jawharji, Mahmoud (2017-05)
      In this thesis, we explore different avenues to reduce the power consumption of a 16x16 Multiplier. Our approach focuses on an interconnection pattern for the partial product reduction stage of the multiplier, which is divided into three stages. Each stage uses, half adder, full adder and 4:2 compressor modules in its design. The outputs from each stage connect to the inputs of the next stage. The interconnection pattern is based on an effective input capacitance, a parameter defined for each input lead of a logic device. Based on our strategy, the output with the highest switching activity at stage N is connected to the input with the lowest effective capacitance at stage N+1. This approach will result in minimizing the overall power dissipation of the entire partial product reduction stage for the 16x16 Multiplier. The design was carried out using 50nm CMOS technology using Electric VLSI tools, and simulations were carried out using LTspice. Our design was verified by simulation, and was found to consume 1.8mW of power. This is more than 10% less compared to the ones reported in literature.
    • MapReduce based convolutional neural networks

      Leung, Jackie (2018-08)
      Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have gained global recognition in advancing the field of artificial intelligence and have had great successes in a wide array of applications including computer vision, speech and natural language processing. However, due to the rise of big data and increased complexity of tasks, the efficiency of training CNNs have been severely impacted. To achieve state-of-art results, CNNs require tens to hundreds of millions of parameters that need to be fine-tuned, resulting in extensive training time and high computational cost. To overcome these obstacles, this thesis takes advantage of distributed frameworks and cloud computing to develop a parallel CNN algorithm. Close examination of the implementation of MapReduce based CNNs as well as how the proposed algorithm accelerates learning are discussed and demonstrated through experiments. Results reveal high accuracy in classification and improvements in speedup, scaleup and sizeup compared to the standard algorithm.
    • Marriage & scandal : Sherlock Holmes’s treatment of women in the Doyle Canon

      Strahan, Jeremy (2019-12)
      In both present-day media and criticism, the character of Irene Adler looms over any other female figures within the Doyle canon, continuing into modern adaptations. However, the original stories, particularly the short story case files, contain a cast of female characters serving a wide array of roles as clients, assistants, witnesses, accomplices, and even vigilantes. While diverse in scope, the case files highlight the drama of middle and upper-class marriage, struggles centered around the reality of Victorian-era values on love, marriage, and masculinity; the stories’ critique focuses on the abuse of these values for personal gain by male figures and the need for Sherlock Holmes to remedy the situation.
    • Mass shooter bias : public perception of crime facilitates counter-stereotypic outcomes

      Valencia, Kelsey (2020-05)
      Extensive research depicts a stereotypic association of aggression and criminal activity with African Americans, such as participants perceiving ambiguous behaviors as more threatening and aggressive when committed by Black targets and identifying crime-relevant objects faster when primed with Black targets (Eberhardt, Purdie, Goff, & Davies, 2004; Sinclair & Kunda, 1999). Within the past decade, there has been an increase in the number of mass shootings in America. With the rise in this violent crime, which is often perpetrated by White males, there is potentially a new association between White targets and aggression in the context of a mass shooting scenario which runs counter to the previously established stereotype linking aggression to Black perpetrators. Therefore, a study was conducted to identify whether this association between White targets and mass shootings exists and what other attributes are associated with the stereotype of mass shooters. Participants completed an online survey that asked them to rate the likelihood that motivational characteristics and personality traits were related to the criminal they read about. Subjects also rated the likelihood that males from four different racial/ethnic groups committed the individual or mass shooting they read about. Results found that White males were rated most likely to be the mass shooter and to be motivated by mental illness, hate, and social alienation. Contrary to the hypothesis, White males were also rated as being the most likely to have committed the single shooting.
    • Mating Intelligence, Machiavellianism, and Self-Monitoring as Predictors of the Recognition of and Participation in Behaviors Associated with Mental Fitness Indicators

      Diffenderfer, Jason (2007-10-02)
      Miller (2000) and Buss (2004) suggest that the human mind has evolved its complex qualities to make beneficial mating decisions for the individual and, more generally, to attract and retain mates. According to Miller (2000), mental fitness indicators are the outward displays of the complexity of a person’s brain. Mental fitness indicators are expressed in the form of artistic, musical, communication, and altruistic behaviors. The present study examined mating intelligence, which is the ability of people to make adaptive mating choices (Geher, Murphy & Miller, 2007), Machiavellianism, and selfmonitoring as possible predictors of an individual’s ability to recognize potential fitness indicators that are valued by potential mates and his or her participation in behaviors associated with mental fitness indicators. It was hypothesized that mating intelligence, Machiavellianism and self-monitoring would be positively related to an individual’s recognition and engagement in behaviors associated with mental fitness indicators. The results suggest that mating intelligence is related to an individual’s ability to recognize the artistic, musical, communication, and altruistic behaviors that are desired by potential mates. Future studies should be conducted to examine the complex relationships between mental fitness indicators and personality constructs.
    • Meet me in the woods: the evolution of the “Devil in the Woods” story and the growth of the devil as a sympathetic character

      Toohey, Alyssa C. (2019-12)
      My intentions for this study could be misunderstood, as I play the Devil's advocate, by definition, in many moments. I wish to explore the misused and under-represented Devil as a trope in a long standing and quickly changing tradition as a literary character.
    • Melange fabrics of the northern Appalachians

      Caine, Jonathan Saul (1991-05)
      Melange and phacoidal or scaly cleavage have been observed in both ancient and modern day accretionary tectonic environments throughout the world. This unique structural fabric reflects common structural elements from microscopic to macroscopic scales of observation and from one region to another. Structures include: distinct individual polyhedral phacoids, phacoidal shear-aparts, rootless dismembered bedlets of silt, isolated rootless near isoclinal fold noses, seams of preferentially oriented phyllosilicates that generally parallel the foliation, abundant pyrite that ranges in form from large globular masses to small euhedral framboids, and calcite present as foliation-parallel veins and as intergranular precipitates. The characteristic phacoid shape is defined by an anastomosing network of regularly intersecting curviplanar slip surfaces whose average orientation defines a macroscopic and microscopic foliation. In three dimensions these intersections form individual phacoidal forms. The relationship of these lensoid shapes to their internal geometry and the overall stress environment in which they form is the least understood aspect of this fabric. By comparing structural data from Taconic melange in western Newfoundland, Canada and eastern New York State insight into the nature of the fabric has been gained. Three primary analytical techniques were used to obtain data for this study: microstructural analysis of thin-sections, analysis of individual phacoid specimens, and manual dissection of large hand samples. Because of the friable nature of phacoidally cleaved material, a method of dissection was developed to measure structural data such as phacoidal surface orientations and associated slickenline orientations. Data collected from these techniques was analyzed using standard stereographic methods using the computer program Orient. In addition, a stress analysis of the foliation and lineation data was done. The results of these analyses suggest that the lensoid shape of individual phacoids is significant at all scales, similar structures are observed from one location to another, and from ancient to modern day tectonic environments. In addition, the presence of phacoidal cleavage in shales and shaly sediments can be used, along with other geologic parameters, as a genetic indicator of the accretionary environment. The distinct phacoidal shape ranges from highly euhedral polyhedrons with triclinic symmetry to subhedral faceted forms that are best described as elongated oblate ellipsoids. These shapes are interpreted to reflect the internal arrangement of seams of preferentially oriented phyllosilicate grains that have apparently undergone rotation, intergranular particulate flow, and possibly recrystallization in an environment of high shear stress, flattening, and progressive deformation. In addition, conjugate microfaulting along phacoidal surfaces that generally parallel the seams acts in concert with the above mechanisms to accommodate the deformation in the accretionary prism environment. The presence of abundant precipitates of pyrite and calcite are interpreted to reflect dewatering processes that are syntectonic to the development of the fabric in the accretionary environment. The results of the stress analysis has demonstrated that the fabric axes, as defined by individual phacoid axes which are generally symmetrical to the axes of the fabric as a whole, are symmetrical to the principal stress axes. Comparison of the geometric, and petrographic data with the stress analysis data confirms this relationship and places the maximum principal stress at a high angle to the average orientation of the dominant foliation. This further indicates that the fabric is the result of shortening symmetrical to the fabric. The state of strain in phacoidally cleaved shales remains ambiguous because of a lack of strain markers and because there is no prefabric frame of reference with which to evaluate it.
    • Models of offender rehabilitation : a comparison of the risk, need, responsivity model and the good lives model

      George, Brian (2016-05)
      Within five years of release from prison, three quarters (76.6%) of offenders across 30 state correctional systems are re-arrested, while total state costs for corrections in the U.S. exceed $48 billion. The bleak outlook for over 6.8 million offenders and the burden on their communities makes the continued improvement of offender rehabilitation theory imperative. Improvements in theory can drive improvement in rehabilitation programs in both community and institutional corrections. The risk, need, responsivity model (RNR) of criminal rehabilitation has become the dominant evidence-based framework for professionals in the U.S., Canada, and the U.K. However, critics argue that the model’s focus on reducing the likelihood of offending results in many RNR-based programs lacking an orientation that seeks to fully reintegrate offenders into communities as well-adjusted, contributing members of those communities. In contrast, the recent development of the good lives model (GLM) utilizes positive psychology principles to produce interventions based on character strengths, making the achievement of a meaningful, happy, and socially adjusted life its primary objective. Though GLM has been taken by some as an alternative to RNR, the two models are not mutually exclusive: the literature suggests that those areas where RNR lacks specificity can be clarified and enriched by the GLM model. Further, with a paucity of empirical literature to support the claims of GLM, it is argued that the Values in Action (VIA) model of character strengths and character strengths interventions should be utilized to inform continued research in the field. Such a synergy could lead to the development of programs that include evidence-based interventions to reduce re-offending, while at the same time increasing offenders’ chances of re-integrating into communities and leading meaningful lives. Finally, the social setting in which individual rehabilitation occurs is explored, and the implications for theories of offender rehabilitation are discussed.
    • Moderating effects of situational and interpersonal variables on perceived overqualification and job crafting relationships

      Rokitowski, Leigh (2012-09-20)
      The present study addresses an aspect of perceived overqualification, or the belief of being employed in a position for which one possesses excess education, work experience or knowledge, skills and abilities relative to job requirements, that has yet to be fully examined in organizational research. While more is known about attitudinal responses and exit intentions, less empirical testing has evaluated outcomes stemming from decisions to stay, or the inability to leave overqualification situations. Thus, the current research examined a proposed negative relationship between perceived overqualification and engagement in job crafting, which can be viewed as adaptive actions initiated by employees in order to promote personal meaningfulness in their work. Four crafting types have been identified in past literature (increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, increasing challenging job demands and decreasing hindering job demands), but little is known about what actually prompts crafting. Although a negative direct relationship was expected between perceptions of overqualification and some types of job crafting, the present study also hypothesized a buffering effect of perceptions of situational growth opportunity and interpersonal characteristics. Results indicated that perceived overqualification negatively predicted engagement in expanding types of job crafting. Situational growth expectations moderated the relation between perceived overqualification and expanding types of job crafting. Core self-evaluations did not moderate perceived overqualification–job crafting relationships, and growth need strength exhibited a positive moderating effect on the previously nonexistent relationship between perceived overqualification and restricting types of job crafting. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • Modernist sensibilities in the poetry of Elizabeth Madox Roberts

      Paolini, Christopher A. (2018-12)
      "It is a shame that we do not have more poetry from Miss Roberts (although much of her prose does maintain a distinct “poetic” air). It is a shame that her vision of a Daniel Boone epic in verse will go forever unrealized. But in the two substantial volumes that we do have (and even what exists outside of the bounds of these bindings), we find a unique and enduring character, a modest spirit that manifests with an intensity packed dense with the light of illumination. It is one that reintegrates an intimacy of place-knowledge into man's deracinated modernity, one that regards the patterns of living and life-affirming labor resistant to the “progressive” ideal and the model of values this lifestyle both props itself up upon and engenders as a talismanic catalyst of reformation and rectification, one that finds in the tiniest things intimations of the greatest truths, in the simplest fact the most complex mysteries, in the mind of experience the ability to recognize and even reclaim, if only for a moment, the nascent purity of innocence. It reflects a mind with the instincts of the most sensitive and devout Regionalist and the cultivated sensibility of an abiding Modernist. It might be a stretch to consider Miss Roberts to be “the Pound of the Pigeon River country,” but a sustained investigation and meditation on the distinctly Modernist dimensions of her poetry has been long overdue." -- page 182
    • Morality as coordinated punishment: the social cognition of punitive inclinations in protest movements

      Mackiel, Alex (2021-05)
      In the evolutionary sciences, morality has often been researched and understood as a collection of solutions to problems of cooperation. For instance, sharing rewards fairly and equitably among a group is a solution to the problem of how to best divide resources that have been collectively earned. However, relatively little attention has been given to how punitive moral psychology is structured around solving problems of coordination and the epistemological challenges involved in determining, judging, condemning, and punishing wrongdoers in society. The current study assesses how people’s desire to punish moral wrongdoers (i.e., punitive inclinations), is influenced by their belief that others share or do not share their moral judgment (moral convergence) and the number of moral offenders (an individual All Lives Matter protester vs. a group of All Lives Matter protesters). In this case, the moral wrongdoer stimulus was a scenario of an offensive and semi-violent All Lives Matter protest that was presented to participants. The central hypotheses are that leading people to believe that most others share their moral judgment of the protest scenario will significantly increase their desire to punish the protesters and that the number of protesters would have no effect on punitive inclinations. However, the results did not support these hypotheses, and alternatively show a significant interaction effect between moral convergence and size of the protest. Additional analyses show that moral convergence is a moderator of the relationship between moral judgment and punitive inclinations, that moral judgment is predictive of punitive inclinations, and that support for Black Lives Matter over All Lives Matter is associated with greater levels of moral judgment and punitive inclinations toward the offensive All Lives Matter protest scenario.
    • Morrison's archeological dig : Beloved and the toxic stereotypes surrounding black motherhood

      Winters, Erika (2020-05)
      The first aspect that this thesis will cover is the background of Beloved. This will include the historical restoration of black history, especially the figure of Margaret Garner, a mother who escaped from the plantation she was enslaved on, and who murdered her one child to save them from the grips of Slavery. I will further this discussion by using foundational studies in critical race theory to explain Morrison’s motivations for writing the novel. After this explanation of the history and theoretical conversation that Morrison engages with, I will explore Beloved’s maternal figures: Nan, the woman who raised Sethe in the absence of her own mother working in the fields on the plantation, and Baby Suggs, another surrogate mother to Sethe. I will examine Baby’s healing qualities and the powerful love she projects on to her community, along with her strong bond with Sethe. I will then analyze the maternal gothic space of the novel through the domestic sphere of 124 that is haunted by the baby ghost, and represents an expansive look at the female gothic that includes the black experience. After the black gothic domestic sphere is analyzed, the thesis will conclude with Sethe, who is loosely based on Margaret Garner.
    • Music is limitless : a community music therapy project proposal

      Aronowitz, Sheri (2019-05)
      Proposed is the launching of a pilot community music therapy (CoMT) project. The intent is that the program be grant funded in whole or in part, and utilized as an adjunctive therapy for adults who receive services from the nonprofit organization Cerebral Palsy of Westchester (CPW). The project includes a comprehensive three-step process of active music making. It will begin at the David G. Osterer Center in Rye Brook, NY with group music therapy sessions focused on trust building; continue with the addition of community musicians to support and enhance the project; and conclude with a public performance.
    • Music technology and music therapy practice: a survey of current practice with recommendations for future research

      Rothenberg, Elena (2021-08)
      The purpose of this study was to learn what technology is currently being used by music therapists. The data was collected via a one-time online survey. The participants were 153 board-certified music therapists who use technology within clinical practice. Survey results were analyzed, revealing that the most common type of technology reported among respondents was Interactive Apps on iPads (n = 93). Survey results discuss technology use with music therapy methods. iPad (n = 93) and electrical instruments (n = 51) were the most commonly used technology among respondents. Respondents reported using GarageBand the most across all four music therapy methods with 15.28% of respondents using GarageBand for improvisation, 16.67% using it for recreative methods, 65.38% using GarageBand to compose, while 2.78% use it for receptive methods. The need for inclusion of technology in music therapy education as well as recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • Music therapy as a tool for recovery : a program proposal for Mountainside Addiction Treatment Center

      Sastow, Tamara (2020-05)
      I am proposing a music therapy program for Mountainside Addiction Treatment Center (Mountainside), at their main campus by the foothills of the Berkshire mountain range in Canaan, Connecticut. The purpose of this paper is to educate and impart knowledge of music therapy, including potential benefits, how it can be applied to addiction treatment, and why a music therapy program should be integrated into the continuous supportive care of clients at Mountainside. Addiction is a life-changing disease that can have a significant impact on all aspects of a person’s health, including their physical, social, and emotional well-being. Music therapy is an effective form of supportive care for affected individuals throughout the treatment process, and can improve overall wellness and quality of life. This paper reviews some of the common wants and needs of this population, and how music therapy serves as a means for support and a medium for change.